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Full text of "A new elucidation of the principles of speech and elocution; a full theoretical development, with numerous practical exercises, for the correction of imperfect, or the relief of impeded utterance, and for the general improvement of the reading and speaking; the whole forming a complete directory for articulation, and expressive, oral delivery"

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.J p. 






























The following Work was undertaken almost from necessity. In hb professional 
practice, the Author daily felt the want of collected material to exemplify 
principles, and to furnish pupils with the means of private exercise upon them. 
When a defective articulation was to be corrected, a dialectic vowel-habit 
anglicised, a cold and inexpressive) a monotonous or an extravagant deliveiy, to 
be naturalized, it was by no means enough to point out the nature of the 
error, and exemplify the mode of utterance to be substituted : habit was to be 
overcome, and a new habit was to be cultivated to supplant the old. Per- 
manent improvement could only be effected by continuous practice, for which 
sufficient material could not be obtained without more labour than pupils can 
generally bestow. Written ei^er^ises were necessarily brief, and too much was 
left to private industry in collecting the means of improvement. Principles, 
orally imparted, were, of necessity, too briefly explained in the very short 
course to which Elocutionary inatmction is generally limited ; and the student's 
memory could not be expected to retain them fully and with practicable cor- 
rectness. It became^ therefore, necessary that a text-book of Principles and 
Exerdses should be in his hand. 

In the preparation of this Work, the Author has endeavoured to write — ^not 
merely for the use of pupils, to whom a defective description in the book may 
be orally supplemented in the class-room, but — ^for those to whom such addi- 
tional instructiim is not, and can not be^ available. How far he has succeeded 
in this, remains to be proved. He has studied to preserve the utmost simpli- 
city of arrangement, and to avoid overloading principles by unnecessary rules. 
He has not followed in the steps of any preceding writer, either as to his 
Theory^ or his plan of developing it ; but he has observed Nature for himself, 
and recorded his observations afier his own fashion. The science of Elocu- 
tion seemed to him to want an A B G^ and he has endeavoured to supply the 

Directions as to the mode of using the Book are not necessary in this place, 
as these may be fully gathered from the body of the Work ; but a few general 
observations on this subject may not be superfluous. 

The theories of Respiration, of Voice, of Yowel Formation^ and of Inflexion, 
should first be studied ; and the Exercises appended to each should be prac- 
tically mastered. Any defect of Vowel Quality, or of Articulation must next 
be perfected by special exercises on the defective elements. Then, the theory 
of Articulation should be read^ and the exercises on Articulation, Quantity, 
Accent, Rhythm, and Verbal Groupings, should be practised with the careful 


Quantity, - ...... page 6 1 

Of Vowels — three primary degrees, - - - - 6 1 

Of Articulations — (ive primary degrees, ... 62 

Table of Elementary Quantities, .... 63 

The Elements of Syllables, ..... 64 

Table of Initial Articulate Combinations, ^ - - 66 

Table of Terminational Syllabic Combinations of Breath Articulations, 67 

« u « « Voice *' 68 

« « »* « Mixed " 69 

Quantitative Influence of Unaccented on Accented Syllables, - 70 

Vowel Combinations. -....- 73 



Section First. — Vowels, 78 

First Vowel— -Obseryations and Exercises, (including Directions for 

the correction of dialectic and other peculiarities,) 79 

Second ** <* ** " " <* ** 83 

Third " «• u « « m t( gg 

Fourth « " <* " *« «' « 89 

Fifth ** " t* a *i u ({ 95 

Sixth « " ♦• « <« " « 98 

Serenth " <* " « « " " 100 

Diphthong 7-1, " " " *' *' " 102 

(( 7'\Sf " " « " •< " 104 

Eighth Vowel, " «' « « *< *« 106 

Ninth «* " " '* ** '* « 109 

Tenth <« « ** « " *' " 113 

Diphthong lO-l, «' " " «* '« " 118 

Eleventh Vowel, « « « « '« « 119 

Twelfth « " " " ** " " 121 

Thirteenth «* " " ** " " " 125 

The Aspirate— H, " *« « ** *' " 127 

Sbotion Second Articulations, - - - - 130 

P — Observations and Exercises, (including Directions for the 

removal of Defects and Impediments of Articulation,) 132 

« 136 

" 138 

" 142 

« 143 


<* 149 



















































































« 161 

« 16.1 



D, — Obsenrations and Exercises, (including Directions for the 

removal of Defects and Impediments of Articulation,) page 176 

N, <* " <* <* « " 178 

Sh, *« « '« '« " « 183 

Zh, " *« *< " *« " 186 

Y <( <( <( *< « *< Xg7 

K, " «^ « " " «' 188 

G, " « '' " " " 192 

Ng, '« « ^' ** <' " 194 
Articulativb Exercises. 

Passages containing Double Articulations, - - • 1 96 

« '< Difficult Combinations, - - - 197 

*' " Alliterations and Difficult Sequences, . 197 

** << Miscellaneous Difficulties, . - . goo 


The Powers of the Letters, ..... 203 

Illustrations of the fluctuating ralue of English letters, - 204 

Table of the Sounds of the Vowel Marks, ... 205 

'< « Silent Vowel Marks, - - - - 208 

** '' the Marks of the Vowel Sounds, ... 2O8 

*' ^ the Sounds of the Articulation Marks, - - 209 

« « Silent Articulation Marks, - - - *- 211 

'* *' the Marks of the Articulations, - . - 211 

Notation of the Elements of Speech, .... 212 

Phonotypes and Phonographs, - - - - 213 

Reyiew of Mr Pitman's Phonographic Alphabet as a means of 

accurate notation, • - - - . 214 

Principles of a New Phonographic Scheme, . . 217 

Alphabet of Articulation Marks, . - . 218 

Articulate Combinations, - - . . 219 

Alphabet of Vowel Marks, - ' - . . 220 

Stenographic principle of Verbal Arrangement, - - 221 

Examples of Full, and of Steno-phonographic Notation, 221 


Accent, — -.-.-._ 222 

Accentual Change on Words of the same Orthography, - 223 

Examples of Secondarily Accented Words, - - . 224 

Table of Accents, ...... 227 

Emphatic Accentuation, - . . . . 228 

Rhythm, -.-.--., 229 

Ist Stage of Rhythmical Grouping, with Examples, . 231 

2d *< " ** «... 232 

3d « *< *' « - - 234 

4th <* « " " - - - 236 

5th *« " " « . . 238 

6th « " « "... 239 

7th " '* « *' - - 241 



8th Stage of Rhythmical Grouping, with Examples, 

9th ** «« '« « 

loth « " « " 

11th <* « *< *< 

12th *» " " << 

Emphasis— -Effect of on Grouping, . . - 
Emphatic Disjunctions, 

page 244 


Inflexion, --..--- 257 

Oyer-estimate of by Modern Elocutionary Writers, - - 259 

Mechanism of the Simple Inflexions, • - - 261 

Notation « « *< « .... 262 

Illustrations of the Mechanism of the Inflexions as applied to 

Words of various Accentual Construction, - - 264 

Extent of the Inflexions, ..... 266 

Compound Inflexions, Circumflexes or Waves, - 269 

Application of the Inflexions, - - -- - - 271 

Review of Sentential Rules of Elocutionists, - 272 

First Part of a Compact Sentence, - - - - 273 

The Penultimate Member, ... - 274 

Negative Sentences, - - - - - 275 

Concessive Sentences, . ^ . - 276 

The First Part of an Antithesis, - - - 276 

Questions commencing with a Verb, - - - 276 

Repetition or Echo, - ... - 277 

lioose Sentences, ..... 278 

Questions asked by Pronouns or Adverbs, • - 278 

Final Pause or Period, ... - 280 
Parenthesis, - - - - - -281 

Elliptical Member, - - - .-- 281 

Verb Questions of Two Parts connected by or, - - 282 

Series, 282 

Numeral Inflexions, . - - - - 283 

Exercises for the AcquiRSMBNT op Vocal Flbxibtltty, - 2S5 

Modulation, ...---- 287 

Modulative Notation, .... - 288 

Modulative and Emphatic Parsing, .... 289 

Modulation and Inflexion of Principal and Subordinate Clauses, 290 
Marked Illustrations. 

Hamlet's Soliloquy on Death, - - - 291 

The Power of Habit, 292 

Close of a Good Life, .... 292 

Miscellaneous Short Passages, .... 293 

Force, Time, and Expression, .... 296 

Notation of their leading varieties, - - - - 296 

Recapitulative Table of the Marks Employed in the Notation of 

Inflexion, Modulation, Force, Time, and Expression, - 299 
Illustrative Passages Marked for Practice, - 300—311 





Speech consists of variously modified emissions of breath. 

The first modifying agent is the glottis; in passing through 
which, the breath acquires a rustling, vibratory, or sonorous 
quality, in proportion to the degree of vocalizing approximation of 
the edges of the glottis. 

When the glottis and the mouth are perfectly open, the breath 
may be expelled, even forcibly, without audibility. When the 
glottal aperture is somewhat contracted, the passage of the breath 
is rendered faintly audible : this is the condition of the glottis 
in whispering a vowel, or in the softer utterance of the letter H. 
The glottis may be placed almost in the vocalizing position, and 
that husky voice is produced which is the natural expression of 
fear and of the dark passions ; and when the edges of the glottis are 
braced to the clearly vocalizing point, the breath acquires that 
beautiful sonorous quality which we call voice. 

The breath, glottally modified in either of these ways, may be 
further modified in its passage through the mouth, by the varied 
shape and arrangement of the plastic organs of articulation, the 
soft palate, the tongue, and the lips. 

The varying shape of the mouth, with an uninterrupted central 
channel for the issue of the breath, gives vowel quality to the 
Inreath, whispered or vocalized; and the close approximation, 
partial, or complete contact of its organs, gives arUculative effect 
to the same voiceless or sonorous current of breath. 

In the common analysis of speech, its elements have been divid- 
ed into two grand classes, called Vowels and Consonants, The 



former class is said to contain those elemental sounds which are 
capable of being uttered alone ; and the latter, those which are 
incapable of being pronounced without the aid of a vowel. This 
is incorrect ; for, not only the vowels, but all the "consonants," 
may be perfectly sounded alone. The terms Vowel and Consonant, 
therefore, thus understood, do not draw a clear line of distinction 
between the two natural classes of elements, intended to be 
designated ; and either some other nomenclature must be adopted, 
or a definition of these terms received, which may effect the 
object of the classification. 

To remedy the inconvenience of definitions not generally ap- 
plicable, numerous subdivisions have been made, and terms have 
been multiplied ; and, as might be expected from so fundamental 
an error, writers are not agreed as to which class certain 
seemingly equivocal letters should belong. Y and W have been 
by some writers declared to be consonants ; by others, vowels ; 
by others, semi-consonants ; by others, both vowels and conson- 
ants. We shall be careful to make our definitions of the difierent 
classes into which we divide the elements as little liable to 
exception as possible. It will be of importance if we can establish 
a classifi(5ation which may be generally admitted. 

Dr Rush, in his " PhUosophy of the Human Voice," has pro- 
posed a mode of classification into " tonics," (vowels,) "sub- 
tonics," (articulations with voice,) and "atonies," (voiceless 
articulations.) But this does not show the grand leading and 
most important division of the elements, intended to be ex- 
pressed by the terms, Vowel and Consonant. It does not recognise 
the difference between a position and an cictiony which this acute 
author seems strangely to undervalue. 

We have shown that the ordinary definition of the term Vowel, 
would render that name equally applicable to all the elements of 
'Speech ; and that the term Consonant, as generally defined, is 
inapplicable to any one of them. 

Writers have subdivided consonants into mutes, semi-mutes, 
'emi-vowels, demi-semi-votoels, liquids, sharp letters, fiat letters, 
soft, hard, Ac* ; but to most of the terms there has been no clear 
meaning attached, and in their application there has been no little 
inconsistency. The names jUxt and sharp, hard and soft, d^c. have 
been applied by different persons to opposite classes of letters ; 
and, — so little have they been made to convey any idea to the 


mind, — we have heard the two former terms explained bj a public 
lecturer to be *' just like sharps and flats in music/' to which, 
except in name, thej have not a shadow of relation. 

The most obvious difference among the elements of speech 
obtains between those sounds which pass freely through the open 
mouth, and those which are forced through hissing slits, or stopped 
by organic conjun,Gtion. The former may as well be called 
vowels as by any other name ; only let the term be correctly 
defined, and the mere name is of little consequence. Those 
utterances, then, which pass freely from the glottis through a 
certain open conformation of the vocal canal, — ^unaffected by any 
sound originating within the mouth, and independent on any 
appulsive action of the mouth, — let us call Vowels. All other 
elements of speech will be found to coincide in this, that their 
audible effect is either wholly produced, or very greatly influenced 
by the mouth ; and that an appulsive action of some part of the 
mouth is necessary to their formation. Let us call them by a 
term already in use, — Articulations.* 

The Articulations are, on obvious principles, divisible into 
subordinate classes. Some of them owe their audibility solely to 
the mouth, to the action of the breath against the organs of 
articulation. As these have no voice, they may be appropriately 
called Breath articulations. All others will fall under the category 
of Voice articulations. 

The nature of the articulative actions gives reason for sub- 
divisions of each of these classes. Those actions which alto- 
gether stop the flow of breath or voice may be called obstructive, 
or shut ; and those which do not, may be appropriately called 
continuous; the latter being subdivided into close and open. 

Thus, the letters B, D, G, are shut voice articulations, and P, 
T, K, shut breath articulations. F, Wh, Th, S, Sh, are conti- 
nuous breath articulations, and V, W, Th, Z, Zh, R, Y, L, M, 
N, NG, are continuous voice articulations. Of these last, the 
first 7 letters are close, and the remainder open. The reason for 
making a distinction among the continuous voice articulations is, 

* The word articulation has been sometimes applied to vowels, as well as 
consonants, but its limitation to the latter class of elements is not only conve- 
nient, but connect. The vowels are the materiel of speech, and the articulations 
are the joints or hinges by whose motion the vowels proceed from the mouth, 
and take their shape and duration. 


that L, M, N, NG, are as purely vocal as any vowel ; the streain 
of voice having a free channel, and suffering but little compression 
and consequent deterioration in its passage. Indeed, but for the 
distinct organic act%<m necessary to each of these letters, they 
might be ranked among the vowels. 

Our alphabet gives us 26 letters ; — 5 vowel, and 21 articulation 
marks. Our language contains 13 nowel formations, and 24 
varieties of articulation, besides the mark of aspiration H. A 
perfect alphabet of English sounds would therefore contain not 
less than 38 distinguishable simple characters. But, on a 
principle which wiU be found explained in a subsequent chapter* 
this number might be obtained from little more than 12 radically 
distinct characters, — the remainder being produced from these 
by uniform changes, to represent their uniformity of difference. 

Not only is our alphabet deficient in the number of its charac- 
ters ; it is also redundant, and is burdened with letters which do 
not represent simple elements, but combinations. The inadequacy 
of the vowel marks to represent our vowel sounds is most manifest. 
We have no regular and consistent way of writing any one vowel. 
Single letters represent diphthongs, and the utmost confusion of 
diphthongal characters prevails in our ways of writing simple 
vowel sounds. The alphabet gives us no characters by which to 
represent six of our articulations — namely, Sh, Th(in), Th(is), 
Zh, Wh, NG; and we are thus forced to the anomaly of 
using digraphs to represent simple sounds, while there are 
simple characters in the alphabet which represent double sounds : 
it gives us three letters for one articulation, namely, G, K, Q, 
(besides which we compound a fourth, Ch :) the letter C stands for 
both K and S : and the letters J and X, each represent a combi- 
nation of two actions ; the former letter being equivalent to d zh, 
and the latter, — doing quadruple duty, — ^representing k s, and also 
their vocal forms, g z. 

The great inconvenience of this faulty alphabet has been long 
felt ; and however easy it might be to propose a remedy, it would 
not be so easy to get the most advantageous plan adopted. We 
must content ourselves, in the meantime, with clearing away the 
difficulties that have arisen from the want of a correct and generally 
recognised principiation of our speech, and leave the reformation 
of our orthography to be worked by a more thorough acquaintance 
with its defects. But we fear that until some authoritative effort 


be made, bj appointed dictators, as iu the Academies of France 
and Spain, any general improvement in the representation of 
our sounds will not be effected. We shall, however, have aided 
the work if we succeed in classifying those sounds according to 
their natural order ; and if our attempt to describe, popularly and 
untechnically, the formations of the elements of speech, happily 
prove successful, we shall have done something towards giving uni- 
formity to our national utterance. 

Before entering on an exposition of the vowel theory, it may be 
useful to premise some observations on voice — the materiel of 
the vowels. 


The organ of Voice is placed beyond the reach of observation in 
the living subject, and, consequently, has seldom been seen in 
operation. Circumstances have, however, enabled some eminent 
observers to see enough of its modes of action to ascertain analogies 
between it and certain classes of musical instruments. It com- 
bines the qualities of wind and stringed instruments, — sound 
being produced by means of a current of air ; and alterations of 
pitch being effected by elongation and contraction, with com- 
parative slackness or tension of the vocalizing surfaces. All other 
instruments of sound, however perfect in their kind, fall infinitely 
short of the compact perfection of this wonderful apparatus; 
which, within such a tiny space as mocks the art of man, unites 
the various registers, and the swell, and thunder of the organ, — 
monarch of the choir, — with the plaintive flexibility and minute 
play of tone of the violin or Eolian harp. 

We shall endeavour to elucidate some important vocal prin- 
ciples, by reference to a simple little instrument, whose sonorous 
vibrations are, in many respects, analogous to those of the human 
lottis. This is the reed of the bagpipe drone. An experimental 
sonifler of this kind may be constructed from a common quiU in 
the following manner. 

Remove from a new quill the feathered end, and the dry and 
tough matter within and at the other end of the quill, so as to 
leave only the brittle portion. Seal up one end of this tube with 
wax, and cut a tongue in the side of it, beginning the slit near to 
the wax, thus : 


Intert tht tealtdmdy the vkole vtbrtUing length of the tongue , within the mouth. 

With this instrament, the following principles may now be 

If the slit, and consequently the tongue, be short, the sound 
will be shrill and strained ; and, if the tongue be gradually 
lengthened, the pitch of its note will become deeper and more 
mellow with every increase.* So, the glottis, in producing high 
tones, is contracted ; and in producing grave sounds, is elongated. 
This may be sufficiently made matter of sensation, by gradually 
running up the voice from its deepest to its highest notes ; and, 
more especially, by running down its compass, from the shrill 
falsetto to the lowest possible tones. There will be, in these 
experiments, a distinct consciousness of the gradual contraction 
and gradual enlargement of the glottal aperture. 

If the tongue of the reed or quill project too much, so as to 
create too open an aperture, the air will pass below the tongue 
without setting it in vibration ; and, consequently, no sound will 
be heard except that of the rushing of the air, more or less 
audible, according to the degree of openness of the aperture, and 
the force of the breath. This state of the reed is analogous to 
that of the glottis, in whispering. Every gradation of sound, 


from the softest breathing to the strongest sonorousness, may be 
produced either with the reed or by the glottis. 

If the tongue of the reed lie quite close to the sides of the 
aperture, so as completely to cover it, no sound or breath will 
issue ; and if, while the efifort of breath is continued, the tongue 
should suddenly take the vibrating position, the sound will burst 
out with abrupt energy, proportioned to the force of the silent 
effort preceding it. This condition and action of the reed, are 
analogous to those of the glottis in many cases of stammering. 

To keep the reed in a position for vibrating, an aperture must 
be maintained ; and, to produce voice, the lips of the glottis must 
be in close approximation, without being absolutely in contact. 
Too much openness of the glottis, renders the tone breathy, 
husky, impurely vocal ; and too little openness, gives a strained, 
shrill, and inflexible character to the voice. It is important to 

* The vibrating length of the tongiie may be altered hj means of a piece of 
thread, — as shown in the cut. 


all persons who labour under difficulties in speech, or in the 
management of their voices, to be perfectly familiar with the 
nature of the process by which voice is formed ; to make them- 
selves so by experiment ; to test the mechanism of analogous 
sounds ; and aim at the improvement of their own vocal powers, 
by applying the principles which they find to govern the analogous 
processes they examine. 

It will be observed, on experimenting with the reed or quill, 
that the sound does not begin by a gradual process from the 
rustling effect of breath to pure sonorousness, but with a quick 
explosiveness ; as if the tongue, on first feeling the pressure of 
the stream of air, did, for a moment, shut up the aperture, before 
its vibrations commenced ; or, rather, we should say, as if its 
first vibration occluded the aperture for an instant. So, in the 
production of glottal sound, there must be an energetic, explosive 
opening of the voice, by a momentary holding in of the breath 
before the vocal emission. This is a great beauty in vocalizing ; 
and a source of as much ease and power, as of grace. However 
soft and feeble the tone of voice, it should exhibit the same prin- 
ciple of opening fulness. Even in whispering, the action of the 
glottis must be the same. When the voice is otherwise commenced, 
so much breath is wasted before vocality is obtained, that a good 
clear voice can hardly be produced by the powerless expiration. 

This principle of vocalizing is prescribed by scientific singing- 
masters, as an exercise to purify and strengthen the vocal tones. 
Mons. Garcia, of Paris, in his lesson-books, dwells on the 
importance of this *^coup de la gloUe," But, to speakers, it is 
fEir more important than to singers. Yet, to what lesson-book in 
speech can the student turn to be directed in this matter? 

The following modes of practice will soon enable any person to 
master this principle in speech. 

Inhale a full breath, and retain it for some seconds; then, with 
all possible force and abruptness, eject the vowel sounds, with 
open mouth, from the throat; avoiding, however, in the most 
forcible effort, any bending, or other action of the head or body. 
The following mark may be used to denote this ea^losion of tiie 
voice (>). 

>>>>>> >>•>> 
E, A, Eh, Ah, I, Ow, Aw, Oi, 0. Oo. 

When this has been sufficiently practised, let the student enounce, 
in the same way, but with abated force, as many repetitions of 


each yowel as he can effect with one expiration ; taking care, that 
after each sound, the chest is held up, or the next vowel will pro- 
bably lose the explosive quality, The same mark, reduced, will 
represent this vocal action (>>>). 

>>> >>> >>> >>> >>> 

E, Ah, I, Aw, 0, &c. 

After a little practice, facility and neatness in this formation of 
voice will be obtained ; and the principle may be applied to all 


Imperfectly formed voice requires a much greater expenditure 
of breath than pure clear tone. If the preceding theory have not 
made the reason of this obvious, the prolongation of vowels will 
prove the truth of the observation. The less clear the sound, the 
greater is the waste of breath ; the more sonorous the voice, the 
more easy is its production, and the less exhausting its continuous 
exercise. This principle is of sufficient importance to demand 
at least a testing practice from the student. 

Expand the chest, so as fully to charge the lungs with air, and, 
after for a moment holding in the breath, sound the monophthong 

E, Eh, Ah, Aw, Oo, 
prolonging each, while the sound can be steadily maintained. 
We have marked this process by a straight line, thus ( — .) 
When the voice wavers, becomes feeble, and requires an efort of 
expiration to produce vibration, stop, and begin again. After 
practice, and the acquirement of art in managing the chest, &c. 
so as to maintain a steady, equable pressure on the lungs, the 
Ty)wels should be continued purely for the space of from twenty- 
five to thirty seconds. 

Another very useful exercise, and one by which the action of 
the glottis will* be distinctly felt, consists in again and again 
shutting off and recommencing the sound. We may be understood, 
when we say, that this is merely the preceding exercise, with the 
vowels clipped up in little pieces, instead of running out in one 
unbroken length. It may be thus represented (- - -). The 
voice must be perfectly stopped at every break, and each breath 
should last, at least, as long in this as in the preceding exercise. 

e, eh, ah, aw, oo. 


When it can be done with neatness, this principle of finishing 
sound should be applied to all final vowels. 

When the voice is feeble, or the lungs apparently weak, the 
above four modes of practice will be of much benefit. To assist 
in the development of the chest and voice in children, the de- 
lighted urchins might be safely encouraged to such noisy bawling, 
at convenient time and place. A strong middle tone is the best 
for ordinary practice, but^ to strengthen particular tones, the 
voice should range from low to high, and high to low, — running 
over its compass on one inflexion. When the ordinary pitch of 
the voice is too high, the vowels may be practised from high to 
low, beginning softly, and increasing in strength of sound as the 
voice descends. To strengthen the higher tones, wliich is seldom 
an object of necessity or study among speakers, the voice may 
increase in energy as it ascends. In this way, the compass of 
the voice may be much extended, and a degree of mellowness 
and flexibility, seldom acquired without art, will be attained. 

Specific exercises on inflexions of the voice will be found in 
subsequent chapters. 

We have hitherto considered only the formation of voice. 
There are peculiarities of tone, arising from the way in which the 
voice is directed, — ^from the position of the soft palate, teeth, lips, &c. 
The soft palate, C velum pendulum palati) is a curtain depending 
from the back of the mouth, with a small tongue-like prolonga- 
tion, called the uvula. It performs many important functions in 
vocal modulation and articulation. It acts as a valve to cover 
the nasal apertures, and prevent the issue of breath or voice by 
them ; or, to open them for the free or partial passage of the 
vocal current. The contact of this organ with the back of the 
tongue is the formation of the English element NG, in which the 
voice passes freely and entirely through the nostrils ; its approx- 
imation to the tongue divides the vocal current into an oral and 
a nasal stream, and thus gives the peculiar character to the 
French elements en, m, ony un, and causes the 

" nasal twang, 
Heard at conventicle, where worthy men, 
Bfiisled by custom, strain celestial themes 
Through the pressed nostril, spectacle bestrid." 

The soft palate is in the same way approximated to the tongue 



for the English articulations M and N ; in forming which, the 
voice escapes by the nose only, but reverberates in the mouth ; 
where it is shut in, by the lips for the former, and by the 
tongue and palate for the latter element. The action of the 
soft palate demands the attention of all who would speak with 
purity of voice, and propriety of articulation. ' 

Let the student place himself before a glass, — his back to the 
light, — and, opening his mouth, inhale breath strongly, but noise- 
lessly. If he do not, in this process, elevate the soft palate, and 
depress the tongue, so as to form a visible arch of nearly an inch 
in height and breadth, he will be the better of practice for that 
purpose. A little patient exercise will give him the requisite 
power. He must strive to retain the velum at the elevation he 
obtains, as long as possible, dwelling on the open vowels ah and 
aw, without allowing it to fall. He will distinctly see the position 
of this organ in sounding these vowels, and he may be able, by 
sensation and partial observation, to maintain it in the same 
position in sounding the closer vowels, e, eh, oh, oo, &c. By this 
sort of exercise, a nasal tone of voice will be purified, and that 
most disagreeable blemish of speech removed. 

A GUTTURAL tono of voico arises, in a great measure, from the 
too close approximation of the tongue and velum, by which the 
uvula is laid in the way of the vocal current ; frequently from 
enlarged glands, (tonsils ;) and from contraction of the arch of 
the fauces, from whatever cause arising. The nature of the 
peculiarity indicates the means of cure. The more the arch can 
be expanded, the less guttural vibration can there be. So far as 
faulty habit is the cause of the guttural tone, it will be susceptible 
of easy correction, by observation of the formation of the open 
vowels, and the practice of similar means to those recommended 
for the nasal tone. 

The quality of the voice is affected by the position of the teeth. 
All the vowels may be sounded with the teeth closed, and they 
may all be sounded with the teeth considerably separated ; but 
the tone of voice is very different in these cases. When the teeth 
are close, the vocal current strikes against them, and becomes 
deadened, mujffled, and deprived of both purity and power. In the 
close vowels, e and oo especially, it is frequently still farther 
deteriorated in quality by a degree of vibration in the teeth. 

The teeth should never be closed in speech, but, on the con- 


trarj, should be kept as open as possible, to allow the Toice to 
oome freely out from the seat of its formation. 

The LIPS, too, influence the tone of the voice. The best 
remedial advice for any peculiarity arising from a faulty disposi- 
tion of the lips, is, n^ver to use these organs in speech where their 
action is not indispensable. The most common faults, are pro- 
jection, and pursing of the lips ; keeping them in contact at the 
corners ; and making the oral aperture incline unequally to one 
side. By these ungraceful and deforming habits, the quality of 
the voice is variously affected. The lips should take the form of 
the range of the teeth, — ^but without constraint, — and move with 
the teeth, in a vertical direction only. Any great deviation from 
this rule, is inelegant, and injurious to the tone. 

Weakness of voice, we have thus seen, is owing to a faulty 
formation of voice, — to insufficient glottal vibration ; and pecu* 
liarities of tone arise generally from modifications of the channel 
through which the vocal current flows. Many of these are 
perfectly controllable by art : well directed practice never fails to 
produce a very considerable effect. Exercise, conducted on 
natural principles, will be found to be the best specific for the 
improvement of the voice, the strengthening of the lungs, and 
the regulation of all vocal action. 

Before entering upon the Theory of Vowel Formation, we shall 
give — as fundamentally connected with the production of voice — 
some directions for the management of 


The importance of knowing how to regulate the breathing with 
ease and efficiency, in public speaking, cannot be over-estimated. 
Many a zealous speaker has cut short his career of usefulness, by 
injurious action of the chest in respiration ; and complaints are 
most numerous — especially among clergymen — of uneaseinss in 
speaking, great exhaustion after vocal effort, pain in the chesty 
expectoration of blood, and other symptoms of serious pulmonary 
affections, which manifest the prevalence of fatal ignorance 
on this most important subject. 

Here is one serious practical evil arising from the neglect of 
preparatory training in speech, as a part of the necessary education 


of clergymen. They are set to the peiformauce of their arduous 
public duties, with the mere instinct of speech ; and, in conse- 
quence, many sink under the self-inflicted injuries of zealous but 
misdirected effort. We see young men — consumptive looking, 
and with their chests almost collapsed — who work themselves 
into vehemence in the pulpit, by dint of sheer bodily labour. For 
want of a principle of emphatic expiration, which might have 
been, and should have been, acquired by them before the delivery 
of their first sermon, they are compelled to throw a bodily motion 
into every accent, so that, to avoid monotony and drawl, they 
muat be constantly in action — tossing and swaying the body — 
rising and falling on the heels — nodding the head — swinging and 
jerking the arms — kneading the cushion — or hammering on the 
pulpit frame. Some, with little taste, or tact, fall into a regular 
set or rotation of actions, which they perform as uniformly as 
automata ; and others, gratifying their sense of the necessity 
for variety, yield to every impulse, and indulge in the most out 
of place extravagance ; under which they steam, and drip, and 
froth ; while the cataract of strained, ranting sound which is 
poured forth, exhausts the powers of nature, and the o'erwrought 
speaker, panting and breathless, sinks into a state of complete 

■ The ordinary amount of air inspired for vital wants, is quite 
insufficient for t?oca{ purposes. The lungs must, therefore, before 
speech is commenced, and during speech, be made to contain a 
far greater than ordinary supply of air. For breath, let it be re- 
membered, is the materiel of speech. 

To make the speaker's respiration healthful, the act of inspir- 
ation must be full and deep. No efifort of sitction is required to 
effect this : the chest has but to be freely expanded, and the air 
will rush into the lungs, and distend them to the full extent of the 
cavity created within the thorax. The chest must then he held up ; 
and the glottal valve must prevent wasteful emission before speech 
is commenced : and, during the whole flow of speech, the chest 
should fall as little as possible. The upward pressure of the 
diaphragm, bearing on the lungs, will expel the breath sufficiently, 
without the laborious action of the bony structure of the chest. 

There needs no muscular straining or effort, to elevate, or keep 
raised, the framework of the chest : the wave of breath inspired, 


should buoy it up, and frequent replenishiiigs should keep it, as 
it were, afloat, on the surface of the body of air in the lungs. 

The breathing must be conducted inavdihly: an inspiration, 
to be full, must he silent Noisy inspirations are necessarily in- 
complete, as their sound arises from constriction of the glottal 
aperture, which, of course, lessens the volume of the current 
of air that can enter. But even were such breathing as eflfectual 
as the noiseless flowing-in of a wave of air, the hideous eflfect of 
it would be enough to keep every speaker of taste from so 
outraging the feelings of his auditors. This sort of strangulatory 
inspiration is most common on the stage, among the melo- 
dramatic heroes, whose element and forte are " coloured fire" 
and " desperate combats." 

The common Scotch bagpipe gives an excellent and most 
convincing illustration of the comparative efficacy of a partial, 
and of a complete inflation of the lungs. See the piper, when 
the bag is only half filled, tuning the long drones ! how his arm 
jerks on the wind-bag ! — and hear the harsh and uneven notes 
that come jolting out from the pressure I Then see him, when 
the sheep-skin is firmly swelled beneath his arm I — how gently 
his elbow works upon it ! while the clear notes ring out with ear- 
splitting emphasis. Let the public speaker learn hence, an 
important lesson. He but plays upon an instrument — one, too, 
like the bagpipe in construction. Let him learn to use it ration- 
ally ; in consciousness, at least, of the mechanical principles of 
his apparatus. For, as the instrument of speech is more perfect 
than anything the hand of man has fashioned, it surely must,, 
when properly handled, be " easier to be played on than a pipe I" 

Many exercises for prolonging the expiration will be found in 
difiPerent parts of this volume. 

A very useful exercise for strengthening the respiration wq 
may note here. It is Beading in a strong, loud Whisper. This 
will be found very laborious at first, but it will give good practice, 
and will strongly manifest whatever fault of breathing there 
may be to be overcome. 

The following outward index of correct respiration will serve 
to keep the student right in his practice. 

A full inspiration elevates and expands the chest, and, by tlie 
descent of the diaphragm, slightly protrudes tlie abdomen ; and 
a correct cocal expiration manifests itself, first, in the flattening 


of the abdomen, and then in its very gradually falling inward, in 
prolonged expiration : — the chest making no action downwards, but 
merely subsiding a little, as the bulk of the lungs diminishes. 

In cases of pulmonary weakness, the very opposite of this 
mode of expiration is generally found to be habitual. Remove the 
error of respiration, and the lungs will recover their strength. 

Stammerers almost always have their respiration, thus, the 
reverse of natural The regulation of the breathing is to them 
the most important, and, generally, the most difficult part of the 
process of cure. 


The glottis produces voice ; the shape of the mouth gives vowel 
character to the voice. Variations of musical pitch, of acuteness 
and gravity in the sounds, are caused, in part at least, by variations 
in the glottis; but all vowel varieties are caused by changes in 
the shape of the vocal passage. If this theory is correct, the 
reed vibration* ought to be capable of being modified into the 
different vowel sounds. It is. The mere action of the hand 
enclosing the open end of the reed or quill modifies the sound 
sufficiently to prove the effect of similar modification on the 
glottal sounds. Close the hand around the quill, so as to leave 
a very contracted aperture for the passage of the sound, and 
then expand the fingers, and the vowels oo and ah will be 
produoed. Reiterate the actions rapidly, and the hand will 
give out no bad imitation of a cat's wawling — w-ah-oo—^w-ah-oo 
— w-ah-oo. The apparatus of the mouth is wonderfully cal- 
culated to effect the most minute and delicate changes with 
definiteness and precision. Nature must, in this case, ever 
be infinitely superior to the most plastic power of art. Yet art 
has accomplished the mechanism of the vowels in various ways, 
and has even effected intelligible imitations of all the elements of 
speech. De Kempelen constructed a speaking machine ; and, 
recently, Mr Faber's highly ingenious speaking automaton was 
exhibited in this country. Mr Willis, another philosophical 
inquirer into the mysteries of this subject, found that the vowel 
sounds might be imitated by drawing out a long straight tube 

* Page 14. 


from the vibrating reed. " In this experiment he arrived at a 
curious result : with a tube of a certain length the series of vowels 

Contineutal Sounds. 


1-8 7 IS 18 « 

i, e, a, o, u, 

was obtained by gradually drawing it out ; and if the length was 
increased to a certain point, a farther gradual increase produced 
the same sequence in an inverted order, u— o — a c i ; a still 
farther increase produced a return to the first scale, and so on/' 

Our own experiments on the mouth corroborate this as the natu- 
ral order of these vowels ; but we have been led to carry out the 
principle of vowel sequence much farther. We have been enabled 
to construct a scheme which includes, in regular progression, all 
the vowels in our language, besides several others, — character- 
istic of dialects, and of the French and other languages ; and to 
which any other peculiar formations might be added, so as to 
form a complete scale of natural or possible vowel sounds. 

If the second of Mr Willis's series, [e=a(le)] we reasoned, can be 
obtained by mere elongation of the sound conductor, beyond its 
dimensions for the production of the first [i=ee(l)], the change from 
ft to 6 will probably be gradual ; and, if so, the interval between the 
two sounds must yield some intermediate varieties of vowel 
quality. It should be possible, we thought, to pass from sound to 
sound by such slow progression, as to exhibit vowels in the same 
softly blending relation that is so beautifully seen in colours, 
where melting shades almost imperceptibly lead the eye from one 
to another of the prismatic series. And this is possible. 

The following simple but conclusive experiment was one of 
our early landmarks in the discovery of vowel principles ; and it 
may serve to give the student a clearer idea than lengthened 
theorizing could, of the mechanism of vowels, and of the vowel 
unity of the voice as emitted from the glottis. 

Prolong with open mouth the vowel ah, and, while doing so, 
gradually cover the mouth with the hand. At every stage of 
this process, the ear will recognise a change of vowel quality ; 
the sound will in progression become 

U(rn), A(ll), 0(re), 0(we), Oo(ze), 
by the mere contraction of the external aperture, while the 

* Tlie numbers refer to our English Vowel Sthenic, pjige 31. 


internal chauuel of the moutli remains uniformlj and equally 

There are two great agents in vowel modification, the lips and 
the tongue. The lips, bj their approximation, externally contract 
the oral aperture ; and the tongue, bj its elevation towards the 
palate, internally diminishes the oral channel. The effect of the 
labial approximation is, what we have seen to result from covering 
the mouth with the hand, viz. modification of the vowel quality 
from ah to oo. The effect of the lingtial approximation is, 
similarly to modify the sound from ah to ee. 

The arrangement of the lips, then, produces one set of vowels, 
and that of the tongue, another ; though, perhaps, few of them owe 
their formation to either organ independently of the other. The 
labial vowels require an expanded internal channel ; to maintain 
which the tongue is slightly depressed at the root, as the labial 
aperture contracts ; and the lingual vowels require a clear and 
broad external aperture ; to maintain which the lips are gradually 
elongated as the tongue rises within the arch of the palate. 

From the mutual independence of these vowel modifiers — the 
lips and tongue, — it will be obvious that their vowel positions may 
be assumed simultaneously, or variously combined. This is an 
important and, hitherto,— so far as we are aware, — an unnoticed 
fact, to the discovery of which we were led in our experimental 
endeavours to find the exact formation of the vowel in sir, her, &c. 
and of a peculiar, close sound, which some Irish pupils gave for 
the vowel oo. When the principle of separate and simultaneous 
labial and lingual vowel formation revealed itself, these and all 
other tested sounds found at once their proper place in the triple 
vowel scale. 

Equal combinations of labial and lingual forms produce a set 
of vowels to which we shall give the name of lahio-lingual vowels. 
In this class will be recognised a few familiar sounds charac- 
teristically distinct from those of the two other classes : but, with 
the exception of the sound in sir, her, &c, the labio-lingual class 
contains no genuine English vowel. 


The first and last of Mr Willis's series, are the close labial and 
lingual vowels ee(l) and oo(ze.) The approximation of the organs 
in forming these vowels is so close, that any further contraction 
of the vocal aperture creates a vihratory efect upon the tongue or 


lips, and so converts the vowel ee into the articulation Y, and the 
vowel 00 into the articulation W. 

The simultaneous formation of ee and oo produces the peculiar 
Irish sound above mentioned, which is heard in some of the Irish 
dialetts, instead of oo, 

EE, then, is the \st lingual vowel ; oo the Ist labial vowel; and 

the Irish sound, combining the qualities of ee and oo, the 1st labio- 
lingual vowel. 


The tongue a little depressed from its elevated position at ee(l,) 
gives a vowel intermediate in form and effect to eeQ.,) and a(le). 
This is the sound of i as in ill, is, it, &c, which is therefore the 2nd 
lingual vowel. 

The lips slightly separated from their close position at oo(^ze,) 
produce a sound intermediate to oo(ze) and oQd), which is heard 
in some English dialects instead of o(ld) ; as when a Lancashire- 
man says, " Put some coal" (almost, but not quite, cool) " on the 
fire." This, then, is the 2nd labial vowel. 

These two formations combined, produce an appreciably differ- 
ent sound from the first labio-lingual vowel — intermediate to ii, and 
the next vowel u(ne.) This is the 2nd labio-lingual vowel. 


A farther slight enlargement of the oral apertures, by the depres- 
sion of the tongue, and separation of the lips, produces, by the for- 
mer action a(le,) the 3rd lingual, and by the latter o(ld,) the Srd 
labial vowel. 

The union of these formations gives the French sound of u, as 
in une, but, lu, &c., which is therefore the Zrd labio-lingual vowel. 

It is to be remarked of the two correspondent sounds a(le) and 
o(ld), as a curious peculiarity, that in English usage they are 
both diphthongally terminated with the close vowel of their res- 
pective classes, — a with e, and o with oo. The omission of this 
final element of these beautiful vowels is a marked provincialism. 


A farther slight opening of the vowel apertures from the Srd 
Ungual position, produces a sound heard in Scotland instead of 
the 2nd lingual, in such words as ill, in, sit, &c. ; and, from the 
labial formation, produces the monophthongal sound of o as heard 
in English before r, in such words as ore, four, soar, &c. 



The I^bio-lingual vowel resulting from the combination of these 
forms, occurs as a provincial and rustic peculiarity in England, 
instead of the more open vowel correctly heard in such words as 
sir, her, Ac. 


An increased depression of the tongue gives the formation of 
the sound heard in e(^re, J ell, end, &c., the 5th lingual vowel : and 
a correspondent increase of the labial aperture from o(re) gives 
the vowel heard in all, saw, on, &c., — the 6th labial formation. 

From the combination of these positions results the vowel re- 
presented by eu in French, and by oe and b, in German. 


The next English degree of openness produces, in the lingual 
series, the sound heard in an, at, &c. ; and in the labial series, a 
correspondent enlargement, produces the vowel uh as it is pronoun- 
ced in Scotland, in such words as up, urge, &c. 

The combination of these positions gives the peculiar English 
sound heard in sir, her, earn, <0c. 

We before observed, that few of the vowels owe their formation to 
labial or lingual position alone ; there is for every vowel a neces- 
sary arrangement of the whole mouth : but the preceding sounds 
are formed by so evident a proportion of the one over the other, 
that their being called respectively labial or lingual vowels, will 
be perfectly intelligible. The sounds which follow, however, are 
dependent chiefly on the internal arrangement of the mouth, and 
do not so obviously fall under the same classification. The lips 
are well spread and open, and the tongue well depressed, so that 
the changes of organic arrangement are less manifest ; but the 
vowels are all in regular progression, from close labial and close 
lingual forms, and do, therefore, truly belong to one or other of 
these classes. Positions intermediate to any two, likewise, may 
stiU be formed, though, from the necessarily slight differences 
between their effects, ears untrained to very accurate observation, 
may think them, in their separate utterance, " distinctions without 
difference." On such minute distinctions, however, often depends 
the very important difference between a cultivated speaker and 
an uneducated or a provincial one. 



The next more open vowels than a(n), the 6th lingual, and w(p) 
Scotch, the 6th labial, are two sounds exactly intermediate to 
these vowels, and the most open sound ak The former is heard 
is such words as ask, past, bath, &c. ; and the latter is the regular 
sound heard in the English utterance of such words as the exam- 
ples of the preceding sound, ttp, urge, &c. Let a Scotch and an 
English mouth pronounce any words of this kind, and the differ- 
ence will be readily recognised by any ear. 

The corresponding labio-lingual position gives a shade of sound 
which occurs as one of the many modes of pronouncing the 
vowel in str, her, fir, girl, earth, &c. These words, in district 
and individual peculiarities, exhibit every possible variety of 
labio-lingual sound, from the close seur of the rustic Yorkshire- 
man, to the open sah of the untaught cockney. 


In the open vowel ah^ — called the Italian a, — both classes of 
vowels unite. The lips are fully spread, the tongue lies flat, and 
the whole mouth is in even neutrality between the two modes 
of vowel formation. 

The subjoined diagram may help to make this altogether new 
subject more intelligible to the reader. Let those who feel inter- 
ested in this department of knowledge test our classification by 
their Gwn experiments, and we believe that its correctness will 
not be disputed. If this be so, what an assistance to the student 
in acquiring, and to the teacher in imparting foreign pronunciations 
must it prove. Even those common French sounds, u and eu, are 
so awkwardly attempted by our countrymen, in the absence of 
a knowledge of their formation, that they are seldom perfectly 
acquired, even in a four or five years' course of instruction in 
French. Yet, with a knowledge of the mechanism of such sounds^ 
who could be four hours in mastering them ? 



General Vowel Scheme. 
lingual. labw-lingual, 

Iriah wicty ot 















— o 



ProT. E ngliah 

4 as insir- 




7 a(ek) 



5 eu- 


o(re) 4 

JEag liri> 

6 er,ir- 


7 er, 

ty of 


foot ch 

u (rge) 6 

u (rge) 7 


This table contams, we believe, all the vowels that occur in 
modem European languages, besides several dialectic varieties. 
But the plasticity of the organs which modify voice is so great, 
that there may be many other shades of sound heard in other 
languages. The number of possible vowels can, we conceive, be 
as little estimated as the number of possible shades of colour. 

Any new vowel may be added to this scheme, so as to render 
it complete for any, or for every language ; and thus, a simple 
system of notation might be constructed, by which all the vowel 
sounds of any people might be represented intelligibly to readers 
of whatever country or tongue. A table of all recognised vowels 
and articulations, on some such natural principle of arrangement 
as this, would be one step towards the realization of that indefinite 
philological speculation, — a universal language. 

To find the place of any vowel not included in our scheme, put 
the mouth in the position for the closest vowels, (e, oo, and the 
intermediate sound respectively,) and, from each of these points, 
very slowly enlarge the oral aperture to the most open position, 
ah; — of course continuing the voice the whole time. In one or 


other of the three gradations of sound so produced, the ear should 
be able to recognise the vowel sought for, and so ascertain its 
exact formation. Bj this mode of vowel progression, too, the 
accuracy of the three sequences in our scheme may be satisfac- 
torily tested. 

We have given the formation of twenty-two vowels : —of these 
thirteen are genuine English sounds. The mechanism and ap- 
plication of the latter we shall examine minutely ; and, under 
each vowel, we shall arrange a set of exercises, the practice of 
which may be both interesting and useful. — (Dictionary of 
English sounds, section first J 

The characteristics, long, short, open, shut, slender, hroad, Ac, 
have been applied to the vowels so unsystematically as to confuse 
very much the notions generally entertained with respect to vowel 
qualities. Long and short should be applied only to vowels 
which are essentially the same in formation, and which differ in 
nothing but duration. But we find these terms used with refer- 
ence to sounds which are so different in their structure that no 
change of duration can assimilate them. Thus, e in them is 
called the short sound of the '4ong slender'' a in tame; a in man 
is reckoned the short sound of the a m father; i in him is called 
the short sound of the diphthong i in find; and o in not, and u in 
h\U, ^jre called respectively the short sounds of o and u,* the long 
sounds being heard in such words as owe and you. Of the sound 
of i, as in him, Mr Walker has said, *' This sound is the sound of 
e, the last letter of the diphthong that forms the long i ; and it is 
not a little surprising that Dr Johnson should say that the short 
t WA9 a sound wholly different from the long one." 

The lexicographer had, however, in this case, discriminated 
better than the orthoepist ; for the '* short i " is a distinctly 
different formation from either element of the *' long one." Mr 
Walker considers that the words bid, lid, rid, and head, lead, read, 
differ only in the quantity of the vowel, — for i, he says, is but the 
short sound of e ; and this theory, taken up without examination 
by his followers, is still to be found published and republished, in 
violation of what the dishonoured ear would, if consulted, at once 

* In the extraordinary classification of vowels by Mr Pitman, the Author of 
the System of ^* Phonography," u in 7iut is asserted to be the short sound of o in 
note, Mr P. declares these sounds to be identical in quality^ and different 
only m quantity or duration ! 


show to be the truth. Consistently with this theory, Mr Walker 
calls the Scotch pronunciation, vee-sion, decee-sioUt d:c. for vision, 
decision, <tc., simply a lengthening of the English sound. Now, 
the tendency of all vowels is to open in prolongation ; but " short 
t " is more open than e, and would not therefore naturally be 
lengthened into e. On the contrary, if any person, guided by his 
ears, and not by preconceived classifications, strive to lengthen the 
generally short vowel i, as in vision, him, ill, &c, he will find that 
the tendency of the prolonged sound will be towards a(le) rather 
than eeQ), This may be well tested by singing the words to 
long notes. 

Long and short are qualities that cannot be predicated as 
essential characteristics of any simple vowel ; for every vowel may 
be indefinitely prolonged by those who have sufficient power over 
their vocal organs to retain them steadily in the vowel position. 
A person accustomed to the vowel in nun, short, as we generally 
have it in English, may essay in vain to prolong it with purity ; 
but a Welshman, who is accustomed to the sound as a long 
vowel, and as the alphabetic name of the letter y, will give it any 
degree of duration with ease. 

The terms long and short are, in this work, used only with 
reference to the same radical sound. 

It is to be observed, that the long forms of vowels have a more 
free and open aperture than the short ones. The modification of the 
mouth is the same, but on a larger scale. Thus the vowel in could 
and cooed, in pull and pool, in very and vary, in not and nought, are 
long and short degrees of the same vowels ; and the aperture of the 
prolonged sounds is more open than that of the short, while it is of 
the same shape, and gives essentially the same character to the voice. 

Open and shut are terms, too, very faultily applied to vowels, 
as no vowels are ever shut; and all vowels must be open, if these 
words have any reference to the oral aperture. Vowels are 
said to be shut, by Mr Walker, when they do not terminate 
syllables, and open, when they do ; but the division of words into 
syllables is too arbitrary for any such distinction. Long 
vowels are frequently " shut,'* and short ones " open ;" so there 
can be no utility in a classification so vague. Besides, the 
junction of an articulation does not affect the formation of the 
vowel : whether alone or in articulate combinations, the vowels 
are finished where they are produced— viz. in the glottis. Arti- 
culations subjoined affect the length of vowels ; but the term " shut," 



or any other, to signify this, would be useless, as all articulations 
do not affect the vowels alike. 

Broad and slender, also, are terms of no utility. They are 
applied to vowels utterly unlike in every characteristic of sound. 
A in fate, is called the slender sound, and a in fall, the broad 
sound of the same letter. A classification founded, like this, on 
letters, must lead to confusion, while letters are so indiscrimin- 
ately used in our orthography. We have the same letters repre- 
senting half a dozen different sounds, and the same sounds 
represented in more than a dozen different ways. 

Discarding all these names, then, we shall adopt a simple 
numerical notation and nomenclature for our vowels. In this 
way we hope to be the better able to fix the student's attention 
on sounds, irrespective of letters, and to direct with certainty to 
the practice and application of any vowel sound in connexion 
with whatever vowel letter or combination of letters. 

The following is a Table of the English vowels numbered from 
I to 13. Those which; when accented, are always long, are 
marked (") ; those which are always short, (") ; and those 
which are sometimes long and sometimes short, (" "). 

















6(U) e(re] 


6(1.) a(U) 




a(p) u(ni) 








There are, besides, three combinations of simple sounds con- 
tained in the above Table, forming the 

7-1, as in i(sle). | 7-13, as in ow(V), 
10-1, as in oi(V), 
This classification of English vowels may be thought, at first 
sight, too difficult for general adoption, but it is, in reality, greatly 
more simple than the ordinary modes of arrangement. True, 
we require a separate notation for thirteen sounds in English, — 

* The iHrecise formation of this vowel is given at page 26. All the other 
sonncls fall exactly into their proper places in this arrangement. 


and alphabetic learners, we may be told, hare, on the old plan, but 
five characters to commit to memory. But have we only Jive 
sounds ? While we possess nearly thrice the number of vowel 
sounds that we have of letters, it is folly to think of teaching the 
sounds by the letters. Each letter has to be studied as many 
sounds ; and a tedious enumeration of diphthongs and triphthongs, 
arbitrarily compounded to the eye, though generally simple to 
the ear, have to be committed to the memory, as symbolic of an 
immense plurality of sounds. By our plan, thirteen sounds must 
be ^sociated with thirteen invariable marks, and there the 
difficulty ends. We may retain our irregular orthography as long 
as we like, and trouble our youth little about it, if we only teach 
them to associate vowel sounds with a simple numerical notation. 

To show the minute accuracy with which Pronunciation may 
be noted and taught by means of this vowel scheme, the following 
marked passages are inserted. 

In order to use the notation with certainty, the student must 
first thoroughly master the simple key sounds, and associate 
them with the numbers, without any connexion with letters. He 
must next gain the power of vocally analyzing his utterances, so 
as to be able to produce singly the very same quality of vowel 
which he forms in the articulate combinations of words. 

Note. — The letter R, after any long vowel^ has invariably the sound of the 
Eighth Vowel, L and ^ at the end of a word are printed in italics^ to show 
that these letters then^ of themselves,, constitute syllables, A hyphen between 
two numbers indicates that the sounds are diphthongally blended. Variable 


Words. The article the is pronounced the before an articulation, and before 

1 7-1 

the first vowel ; and generally the before any other vowel. The pronouns my 

7-1 8 8 ^ 4-8 

and mine are pronounced my and mine when unemphatic. The verbs were 

1 8 8 

and been are pronounced were and been, when not emphatic. The v;ords 

4JB 4-8 4-8 4.8 l'^ 

there, (impersonal,) their, wherefore, and therefore, are contracted into 

* 8 8 8 8 

ther(e), then*, wherefore and therefore, when unemphatic. 

7.1 2 2 13 4412 2 48 4 192 13 4 

Vice is the cruel enemy which renders men destructive to men : 

S S 2 10 2 2 ? ^ & 2 7-1 2 1 10 

which racks the body with pain, and the mind with remorse ; 


2 12 IS 4 7-1 5 9 14 10 4 9 5 12 9 

which produces strife, faction, revenge, oppression, and sedition ; 

2 4 lO-I 12 71 4 2 2 2 3 9 10 5 14 

which embroils so-ci-et-y, Idndles the flames of war, and erects 

2 2 2 9 2 3 6 3 1 10 7-1 5 12 10 

inqmsitions ; which takes awaj peace from life, and hope from 

4 2 10 11 4 585 5482 

death ; which brought forth death at first, and has ever since 

12 2 2 10 2 4 10 2 7 3 13 5 2 10 

clothed it with all its terrors ; which arms Nature and the God 

9 3 13 64 9 5 64 225 3 224 

of Nature against us ; and against which it has been the business 

9 10 3 2 13 7-1 7-13 12 2 9 5 1 13 2 2 71 4-8 1 

of all ages to find out provisions and securities, by var-i- 

2 213 9 10 5 K 9 9 8 4 

institutions, laws, and forms of government. 



7-1 2 8 2 8 2 719 8 5 6 19 10 10 1 10 

By the term Liberty, 1 understand a freedom from all respon- 

222244 10 11522 8 13 5 129 2 12 

sibility, except what morality, virtue, and religion impose. 

52 1 12 2282 2 2 10 12 5 2 2 13 

That is the only liberty which is consonant with the true 

284 9 5 1 12 2282 5 48 25 12 

interests of man — the only liberty that renders his asso- 

.139 2 24 12 8 64 5 5 2 1 12 2282 

ci-ation with his fellows permanent and happy — the only liberty 

5 34 226 1 13 10 96 5 10 89 10 

that places him in a peaceful, honourable, and prosperous com- 

13 22 1 12 2282 5 3 2 29965 

munity — the only liberty that makes him the son of a land 

5 1 13 2522 2 4 5 294 96 

that he would inhabit till his death, and the subject of a 

3 5 1 13 14 2 2 10 825 2 9 

state that he would defend with his property and his blood. 

13 4 2 7-1 6 9 15 17-1 2 14 9 5 2 4 

To set the mind above the appet i tes is the end of abstinence ; 

29 9 278 10 8 13 1 10 68 13 9 2 

which one of the Fathers observes to be, not a virtue, but the 

7-13 9 9 6 8 13 7 1 10 4 8 2 13 13 10 3 

ground-work of a virtue. By for-bear-ing to do what may 

2 12 4219 1 35 7-13-8 2 13 2 9 13 

innocently be done, we may add hour-ly new vigour to 



4 10 IS 9 5 1 13 2 7-13-8 9 12 5 4 4 

resolution, and secure the power of resistance when plea- 
is lo 2 s 4 54 4-8 7 13 2 

sure or interest shall lend their charms to guilt. 

3 2 10 8 1 

Scaling yonder peak, 

7-1 10 5 1 12 1-8 2 7-13 

I saw an eag^e wheeling near its brow, 

11-8 162 2 10 454 2 

O'er the abyss : — his broad expanded wings 

3 7 5 12 9 4 9 10 14-8 

Lay calm and motionless upon the air, 

5 3 1 12 4 4-8 2 7.13 4-8 S 

As if he floated there with-out their aid, 

71 2 12 5 9 2 9 10 4 2 
By the sole act of his unlorded will, 

5 101 2 7-13 9 2222 

That bu oy ed him proudly up. Instinctively 

7-14 2 12 4 4 1 7-is 2 2 

I bent my bow ; yet kept he rounding still 

2 4-8 2 8 5 2 2 1 71 

His air-y circle, as in the delight 

9 4 13 2 15 S 11 

Of measuring the amp^e range beneath, 

5 7-lS 6 7-lS 5 10 1 1 4 10 

And round a-bout ; absorb'd, he heeded not 

2 4 5 4 2 71 IS 10 13 

The death that threaten'^ him. — I could not shoot, 

10 2 8 2 7-1 9 2 12 tf 7-1 

*Twas liberty! I turned my bow a-side, 
And let him soar away ! 

The Use op Flowers. 

10 71 5 5 18 2 11 

God might have bade the earth bring forth 

1 9 10 3 5 10 

Enough for great and small ; 

1 19 15 2 17 1 

The oak tree and the cedar tree, 

2 713 6 7-13-8 5 10 

Without a flower at all. 


17-1 5 S 1 9 1 9 

He might have made enough, enough, 

10 4 8 2 10 9 7-13-8 

For every want of ours, — 

10 9 13 2 4 2 2 S 101 

For luxury, medicine, and toil, 

5 4 5 3 12 713-8 

And yet haye made no flowers. 

1 :il.8 2 2 2 7-13 2 71 

The ore within the mountain mine, 

1 71-8 4 9 13 12 

Requir - eth none to grow ; 

10 9 2 1 2 12 9 713-8 

Nor doth it need the lotus flower 

13 3 2 2 8 12 

To make the river flow. 

2 713 7-1 2 6 9 5 3 

The clouds might give abundant rain, 

2 7-1 2 13 71 10 

The nightly dews might fall, 

5 2 8 5 1 .4 7-1 2 5 

And the herb that keepeth life in man, 

7-1 4 5 9 4 10 

Might yet have drunk them all. 

4 8 10 4-8 10 8 3 3 

Then wherefore, w?^ercfore were they made, 

10 7-1 2 3 12 7-1 

All dyed with rainbow light, — 

10 5 9 2 13 1 4 ^ 3 

All fashioned with supremest grace, 

9 2 2 3 5 7-1 

Upspringing day and night. 

22252 15 12 

Springing in vaUies green and low, 

5 10 2 7-13 2 71 

And on the mountains high, — 

5 2 2 7-14 2 8 4 

And in the silent wilderness, 

4 12 5 6 4 71 

Where no man passeth by. 


7.3-8 7-13 10 7-1 I 71.8 4 10 

Our outward life re-qu-i-res them not, 

4 8 10 ft S 8 

Then wherefore had they birth ? 

13 2 2 8 1 71 IS & ; 

To minister de-light to man, 

13 13 2 71 1 8 

To beauti-fy the earth ; 

13 2 8 12 13 10 5 

To whisper hope to comfort man, 

4 4-8 2 3 2 2 

Whene'er his faith is dim ; — 

10 13 12 4-8 4 10 2 7.13-8 

For who so car-eth for the flowers, 

2 4-8 9 118 10 2 

Will care much more for him. — Mart Howitt. 

The AspraATioN H. ' 

All the vowels are, of course, vocal : but it must be evident 
that the vowel positions may be assumed, to modify a voiceless 
current of breath. In this way is produced a common element 
of language — the aspiration H. H is simply a breathing of the 
vowels : the organs are adjusted to the vowel position before the 
breathing of U is emitted. Thus h in A^, hay, high, hoe, who, 
has a very different effect, — just as different as that of the vowels 
themselves in these words. H is to the vowels,^-exactly what P is 
to B, F to V, S to Z, Ac. — a breath variety of the same formations. 
How, then» it may be asked, can h be recognised in whispering ? 
The whispered vowel has, like the spoken one, an explosive com- 
mencement in the glottis-^ the H has not. Let this be tested in such 
words as is and his, eel and heel, art and heart, old and hold, &c. 
wmsPEBEB, and the difference between H and a whispered vowel 
will be manifest. 

All the elements of language, then, vowel as well as articulate, 
may be classed under the three heads, — Breath, Voice, and 
Nasal. H represents the breath forms of the vowels ; and their 
nasal varieties are the French elements, en, in, on, &c, — thus : 
Breath. Voice. Nasal. 

H All Vowels French Semi-nasal 

Breath Articulations... Voice Articulations... Nasal Articulations. 

VOWELS. ' 37 

Before entering on the theory of articulation, we must notice 
more fully these peculiar French sounds — to which we merely 
adyerted at page 17. 


This formation of vowel finds no place in correct English utter- 
ance, though common in French. The only nasal sounds in 
English are M, N, and NG, in which the voice issues entirely by 
the nose — though for the first two it passes into the mouth also, 
where it is obstructed by the positions of the lips and tongue. M 
and N are hoard in French, but the beautifully imitative bell- 
sound NG, does not occur in that language. Instead of this, how- 
ever, there is a series of semi-nasal sounds, represented by en, in, 
on, un, and by various other literal combinations. In forming 
them, the soft palate is depressed sufficiently to open the nasal 
passages, but not so much as, by contact with the tongue, to ob- 
struct the passage into the mouth. This is the diflference between 
the English ng, and these French elements which give so much 
difficulty to English learners of French. The English ng brings 
the tongue and soft palate in contact, and consequently prevents 
the issue of breath by the mouth. NG has always, therefore, a 
uniform sound ; it is incapable of any marked change of vowel 
quality. The French sounds, having an oral as well as a nasal 
passage, are capable of being affected by changes in the position 
of the mouth. There are four recognised varieties of them. 
French gramimarians evince a high antipathy to the imputation 
that their language contains a greater number of nasal sounds 
than the English. They grant the ungracefulness, generally, of 
such sounds, and exultingly point to the three marks of our nasals, 
while they have but two (m and n,) as a proof that the English 
language has in reality the unenviable superabundance. But the 
French has unquestionably six nasal sounds, four of which are 
vowels, that is, they are formed by a position, and not an action 
of the organs — and two only, articulations. There are, therefore, 
in French, not less than double the number of the English nasal 
elements. Yet, in truth, the English three occur as frequently in 
speech as the French six ; but from their liquid or transparent 
nature, they are so fluent and thin, as often to be little more than 
perceptible: they do not therefore strike the ear with half the 


NftiiHo of nasality that the long French elements do. When the 
Knglitth nasalti are before breath articulations, as in lamp, tent, 
prince, inch, ink, 4tc„ they are so abrupt as to be scarcely vocal ; 
and only when they are final, or before voice articulations, as in 
aiujer, amber, wander, &c,, are they correctly capable of prolon- 
gation. The numerous terminations in ion, ing, nt, nd, nk, nee, d^c. 
produce a very frequent recurrence of them, but it is in unac- 
cionted syllables, where their natural abruptness is shortened to 
the utmost. The French nasals, on the contrary, are never 
Hhort ; btitf in most instances, they are the longest sounds in 
th» language ; and they linger in the unhabituated ear with an 
i^ftiwX which makes the language seem to be almost altogether nasal. 
And there can be no doubt that the habit of forming sounds of 
thiH mixed and impure character must incline the Frenchman 
to give A partial nasality to many other vowels than those which 
are Ingitiniately nasal. 

With reforenco to the formation of tlie semi-nasal vowels, it is 
autUMing to hoo the way in which French grammarians account for 
i\mr itaKitl quality. In a woU known grammar of French Rhetoric, 
t)y an (eminent and talontod author, wo find the following descrip- 
tion of the •• organic formation of French nasal vowels." " The 
formation of the nasal sound appears to be generated chiefly from 
t!io noHtrils.*' — (all vocal sounds are generated in the glottis,) — "not 
that the sound is exhaled from them, as is erroneously supposed by 
many, but the air, ascending at first from the lungs to the nose, seems 
to acquire there a nasal power ; and, descending afterwards into the 
mouth, it produces, coming in contact with the atmosphere, that nasal 
sound which, although not very gracious, is sometimes manly and 
powerful.*' In giving directions for the formation of these sounds, 
the author adds, " Let the air, by an internal motion, be sent im- 
mediately from the throat into the nostrils," ♦ ♦ ♦ « it will then 
descend into the mouth, and come out with a nasal power." 

What a most extraordinary power of direction the French must 
possess, if they thus manage to make the obedient vocal stream 
flow into the open nostrils without passing through them ! But 
the thing is absurd. All the air in the nostrils will ** come in 
contact with the atmosphere " from the nose ; it most pass 
through, unless the nostrils be plugged up by snuff, or polypus, 
pinched with the fingers, or otherwise obstructed. And though 
tlie nostrils are obstructed, the voice may still get its '* nasal 


power '* in them ; for, as these elements have a partial chamiel 
in the mouth, they are not liable to be more affected by nasal 
obstruction than to have their sound slightly muffled. In this re- 
spect they are unlike the English elements M, N, and NG, which, 
haying no oral opening, must have a free nasal passage, or the 
obstructed voice will collect in the pharynx, and become ex- 
plosive ; so that M, N, and NG, will be converted into B, D, and 
G, with that muffled nasal murmur, with which every sufferer 
from ** cold in the head " is quite familiar. The French gram- 
marians indeed seem ashamed to confess their obligations to the 
nose, though they are clearly indebted to that organ for the 
modification of a large proportion of their sounds. 

To show the difference in gwan^ift/ between the English and French 
nasals, take any words in the two languages, having an equal 
number of them, and contrast their pronimciation. The English 
word transcendent contains as many nasal elements as the French 
transcendant, but they do not produce one fourth of the quantity 
of nasal sound ; and many French phrases may be found which do 
not contain a single pure vowel, as, for example, ** pendant long 
temp;" ** V enfant mangeant son pain J* ^ d/C, 

In English, the slightest nasal quality in a vowel is an impurity 
and a barbarism. 

We have been led into a longer notice of these French sounds 
tiian might have been expected or considered necessary in this 
work ; but it is because we have seen no just explanation of these 
peculiar sounds in French grammars, but, on the contrary, 
erroneous theories of their formation, and inadmissible com- 
parisons of them with the English nasals. We believe we have 
shown that the French language has double the number of nasal 
elements that occur in English ; that the quantity of nasal sound 
in French is far more than double that in English ; and that the 
French language is altogether deficient of that most expressive 
articulation, which is represented by the digraph NG, in English. 


All actions of the vocal organs which partially or wholly 
obstruct, or which compress the breath or voice, are called articu- 
lations. The necessary effect of such obstruction or compression, 
is a degree of explosiveness in the breath, when the conjoined or 


approximated organs are separated. Heuce arises an element of 
audibility, produced by, or within the mouth, which we have 
stated to be the distinguishing characteristic of this class of the 
elements of speech. 

When the current of breath (unvocalized) is altogether stopped 
by organic contact, as in P, T, K, the only audibility that the 
letter so formed can have, is the puff or explosion which follows 
the separation of the organs. This must, therefore, be clearly 
heard, or the letter is practically lost. In the mode of producing 
this little effect, lies one of the most important principles of 
speech, — ^a principle on the right application of which depends 
much of a speaker's distinctness, and all his ease. We shall here, 
therefore, endeavour to give an intelligible explanation of this 
principle, and we shall occasionally hereafter refer to it, that 
this new and important subject may have a due degree of 

Let the student pronounce a word ending with P, T, or K, — 
as lip, lit, lick, — and endeavour to make the final letter as long 
as possible : — ^he will find he only prolongs silence ; for, until the 
articulating organs are separated, there is no sound of voice or 
breath audible. The separation of the organs, after contact, is 
thus necessary for these letters ; and on this disjunction the com- 
pressed air within the mouth will make its escape. Now, here 
lies the point of importance. If only the breath in the mouth, and 
not that in the lungs be ejected, a distinct, sharp, quick per- 
cussion will be heard, which gives to these shut breath articulations 
all the audibility of which they are susceptible. A glottal action 
to check the issue of breath from the lungs, and a retained expansion 
of the chest, to prevent its undue pressure upon the lungs, must 
take place at the instant of separation of the articulating organs. 
The explosive effect of the letters will then be smartly produced, 
and with almost no expenditure of breath. 

The common error opposed to this may serve to make the 
principle more intelligible. It consists in allowing the chest 
to fall, and in continuing the flow of breath after the separation 
of the organs, as in the effort to make a prolonged H, thus : — 
lip^hr-, lit-hr-, lick-h-, &c. The letters are by this fault deprived 
of their essential percussive quality, and the resources of the 
strongest lungs are drained most exhaustingly ; and (in public 
speaking) to the great injury of pulmonary health. 


This very fault jmechanism of these letters, is almost always found 
in cases of stammering ; and, in a certain degree, it prevails among 
all speakers who complain of weak voices, or of exhaustion from 
vocal effort. 

It may be asked, by what means this explosive effect can 
be produced, if the expiratory muscles, acting on the chest and 
diaphragm, are not to cause the ejection of air from the lungs ? 
The Divine Contriver of the wondrous mechanisms which compose 
the human frame, has not left us unprovided with a safe and 
effectual means of energetic utterance, — so often in His providence 
rendered necessary, — but has furnished us with an explosive 
apparatus, — subsidiary to that of the chest, — by whose action 
man can thunder forth His awful threatenings, or give inviting 
earnestness to His gracious invitations ; without, in the perform- 
ance of these duties, endangering pulmonary health, or, in any 
way, rendering the work of public expostulation insalubrious or 
painful. Those speakers who complain of weak and powerless 
articulation, and of pain after protracted or forcible efforts, are 
sufferers only from ignorance. An organ of power lies dormant 
witliin them, the want of whose natural action is painfully and 
ineffectively supplied by unnatural and debilitating efforts of the 
organs of respiration. This explosive apparatus is the Pharynx, 
a distensible muscular cavity situated at the back of the mouth ; 
below which is the glottis, in front of it the mouth, and opening 
from it above, are the nares or nostrils. When the soft palate 
covers the upper pharyngeal openings, — the nares, — the effort 
of expiration sends the breath into the mouth, wliere, if it be 
obstructed in its passage, it will collect ; and it should distend 
the pharynx to a greater or less extent, according to the degree 
of oral contraction or obstruction, and the force of expiratory 
pressure. When the oral obstruction is complete, — as in forming 
P, T, K, B, D, G, — the ])harynx should so dilate with the 
momentary pressure of breath, that on the separation of the 
articulating organs, the natural contraction of the pharyngeal 
muscles should effect the percussive audibility of the letters. 

When the lips are in firm contact, as for P, a sufficient pressure 
of breath must cause distension either of the cheeks, the lips, or 
the pharynx. Here, then, is an outward index by which any 
person may direct his own practice for the acquirement of 
pharyngeal power. Give all possible stress to the effort of 



expiration while the lips are steadiltf closed, aiid if the cheeks and 
lipis be not allowed to inflate, the pharynx will distend, and may 
be felt difcitending by grasping the neck close to the chin. After 
CQUXiutiing the expiratory pressure for a few seconds, quicklj 
ieparate the lips, and allow the breath within the month to 
escape, but voiihaui being followed by ike least emission from the 
gkfUis, The same mode of practice may then be adopted with 
ihn actkmif T and K^ and with the correspondent vocal forms of 
tJjie«e articulations, as explained farther on. 

The want of pliaryngeal power manifests itself in various ways : 
by dit^utAou of the lips and cheeks for P, B, as aboye noticed ; 
by pff/trusion of the tongue, with incontinency of breath, for T, 
K, IP, () ; by la^iorious actions of the chest and diaphragm, to 
artntUf i}m explosive audibility of these letters ; by their frequent 
h$M^MhhiM*',nn from feebleness of action ; by scattering the saliva 
ffff H, V, and 'ither f;<intinuous elements ; and by general indis- 
tiw^iu^fvt iff articulation, and visible laxity of the lips and tongue. 
pVmn a fMrnyntmAy lumpish and lazy appearance to the mouth. 

T)m9 ':'/iitifiuouM tiHe of the chest instead of the pharynx, would 
Im^ pft'iiifiilly fatiguing in speech ; and its inordinate employment 
tu fiffi'MtUi iitU^rarice, tmsmn to be often productive of serious pul- 

It ii» diin<;ult Ut make thin Hubject sufficiently clear by a brief 
'ii9iM;rijHi4/n ; and it wouM l>e still more difficult perhaps to get 
U^i^ gAjia'rality <;f readern to study a lengthened explanation : but 
N^itij a littk^ tli4>ught, and a little experiment, what we have said 
wili ^nfHiA'Ai. An an inducement to those who feel interested in 
Uui Dul;je<;t, to heatoYf u|K>n it the necessary attention, we may add, 
Uiat ti*e praAitkul efl'ect of the closure of the glottis, buoyancy of 
tlie client, and pro|)er pharyngeal action of which we have spoken, is 
uiu'Ai HH to enable a \}Qrium to enounce with each expiration, eight or 
ten tinieii hm many syllables as he could without these measures. 
The difforence between the two modes of articulation is indeed 
preciHely analogous to tliat between the two obvious methods of 
extinguishing a iluine of gas — namely, blowing out the flame, and 
turning off the gas by the stop-cock. The former method would 
tell ex[>ensively upon tlie meter, and the analogous mode of 
flnishing articulations, acts most destructively upon the lungs. 

A common defect in the formation of P, T, K, consists in making 
these letters merely stops of the voice, without any audible effect 


in themselves. This arises generally from feebleness of action — 
from organic indolence. If it were confined to conversational 
carelessness, it would be less worthy of notice ; but it is too 
common even in public speaking, and it is then very manifestly 
a defect. Pronounce the syllables ap, at, ak, without the ex- 
plosive finish which we have stated to be essential to the 
correct formation of these letters, and it will be a very sharp and 
attentive ear which can recognise a difference between them. 
The public speaker must not trust to such a degree of eager 
watchfulness in his hearers to unriddle his ambiguities. His 
mouth must be so trained as to utter no '* uncertain sounds." 

The organs employed in forming the shut articulations P, T, K, 
are the lips, for the first, — the fore part of the tongue and front of 
the palate, for the second,— -and the back of the tongtie and palate, 
for the last. The mode of articulation is, complete and firm con- 
tact of the organs, with pressure of breath, followed by the rapid 
disjunction of the organs; — ^the disjunctive action being made 
€mdible by the percussive ejection of the breath that is com- 
pressed between the glottis and the articulating organs. This 
perfect contact, we designate the 

First Mode op Articulativb Action. 

P, T, K, are shut breath articulations. If while the organs 
are in contact for their formation, we make an exertion of voice, 
we shall convert them respectively into B, D, G ; which are there- 
fore shut Voice Articulations of the same mechanism as P, T, E. 
It is important to have the power of producing the shut voice in 
these elements fully and firmly. The sound cannot be prolonged 
indefinitely ; it can only be continued while the cavity of the 
pharynx— into which the vocal stream is forced — is capable of 
receiving more breath. The student may, by grasping his neck 
close to the chin, feel the effect of the pharyngeal distention 
which takes place in these elements. The explosive finish of the 
articulations must be heard the same as in P, T, K, 

Many persons are unable to produce voice in these shut articu- 
lations ; and consequently numerous words containing them are 
liable to be confounded with such as have the correspondent 
breath forms in the same combinations — as dart with tart, daunt 
with taunt, bill with pill, brawn with pravm, gold with cold, glass 
with class, &c. The Welsh always thus mispronounce English ; 
but a little elementary practice will supply the deficient power 


to any person who is conscious of the defect, and desirous of its 

In practising for the acquirement of vocal power in these 
letters, care must be taken that the soimd does not find yent 
through the nostrils.* The expansion of the pharynx and the 
explosive cessation of contact, will be sufficient to keep the stu- 
dent from this fault. 

P, T, K, are commonly called mutes, and B, D, G, semi-mutes ; 
the extraordinary name " demi-semi-YOwmiS," is given to them in 
Chambers's Elocution ; sometimes these terms are exchanged for 
sharp and flat, hard and soft, <€?c. ; but such names are unphiloso- 
phical and worthless, as they convey no just idea of the real 
difference between the elements. From the existence of such a 
nomenclature, it would seem as if a veil of most impenetrable 
mystery shrouded the vocal principles from observation — or else, 
as if those who have invented and applied the names had never 
troubled themselves to become observers at all. Such descriptions 
as the following do not certainly indicate a very great depth of 
observation. We quote from well known books of reference ; and 
counterparts may be seen under many authorships. 

" B is pronounced by pressing the whole length of the lips 
together, and forcing them open with a strong breath." 

•* P is formed by a slight contraction of the anterior part of the 

** D is a, dental articulation, having a kind of middle sound be- 
tween the t and th ; its sound being formed by a stronger impulse 
of the tongue to the upper part of the mouth than is necessary in 
the pronunciation of «." 

** T is numbered among the mutes or close articulations ; and 
it differs from D chiefly in its closeness, the strength with 
which the breath is emitted in pronouncing t, being all that dis- 
tinguishes them." 

** jfiT is usually denominated a guttural, but is more properly a 
palatal, being formed by pressing the root of the tongue against 
the upper part of the mouth, with a depression of the lower jaw, and 
opening of the teeth." 

* In Chambers's Elocution, the student is actually directed to commit this 
barbarism. We read as follows : " The same disposition of the organs (as for 
P, T, K,) with the sound directed to go forth partly through the nose, and 
partly through the mouth, form B, D, and the sound of G in game." 


'* Q has two sounds ; one called that of the hard G, because it 
is formed by a pressure, somewhat hard, of the fore part of the 
tongue against the upper gum. The other sound, called that of the 
soft G, resembles that of J. " Then, if we turn to J, to be informed 
what this indefinable sound of soft G=J is, we are told, — " J has 
invariably the same sound with that of ^ in giant." 

B and P are thus made to differ only in the quantity of lip 
compressed : D has a stronger impulse of the tongue than t, and 
is a middle sound between t and th ; while, we are told, t is dis- 
tinguished from d by nothing else than the strength with which 
the breath is emitted. No analogous connexion is hinted at with 
reference to k and g ; but, on the contrary, k is said to be formed 
by the root of the tongue acting upwards, and g by the fore part 
of the tongue acting forwards. In the latter case, the writer has 
evidently been thinking of the name of the letter (je®») though, 
strangely enough, this illustrates the "soft" sound of the letter. 
" Hard G" does not employ the fore part of the tongue, or the 
upper gum at all. 

To those who really want the information, such careless mis- 
direction must be most perplexing. No variation of the mode, or 
degree of labial contact, would ever convert pillow into Jillow, or 
Munder into plunder ; nor could any alteration of lingual pressure, 
or strength of expiration ever make tame become (2ame, or (drudge 
trudge. P and B, T and D, K and G, are pairs of articulations 
formed by exactly the same organic motions, the only difference 
being in the material which the actions modify ; whispered breath, 
in the one case, loocalized breath, in the other. 

Every possible action of the mouth may modify breath or voice, 
and thus, from each action may be produced two distinct elements 
of speech. The classification into Breath and Voice Articula- 
tions thus reduces the number of the elemental actions of speech 
to half its apparent amount. 

The above six letters, (three formations,) are all the English 
articulations which altogether obstruct the breath ; and indeed it 
may be questioned whether there can be any other obstructive 
articulation produced by the mouth. Minute differences in these 
formations* there may be in different languages, but we believe 

* In English usage we sometimes have the formation T-D, finished by the 
extrusion of the breath over the sides of the tongue, while the fore-part remains 
on the palate ; this occurs only before I in the same word, as in hndle^ sadrf/n*, 


2. 8. 


ip ape 


It ate 

eke ik ake 















there can be no organically distinct articulation of this class iu 
anj language. 

We subjoin a table of the six shut articulations, in combination 
with the thirteen English vowels, which we commend to the 
student's practice. He should take one syllable at a time, and 
reiterate it as often as he can with one breath, giving a strongly 
percussive finish to the articulation. The number he can ma- 
nage will afford a sure test of his power to regulate the breath, 
the chest, and the glottis. With a little practice, after he has 
acquired the knack of striking off the articulations without waste, 
he should be able to produce, with energy and ectse, from 60 to 
80 or 100 repetitions of the syllables with each expiration. 

Vowels 1. 2.8. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 

Sp ap asp arp iip (urp ( awp — 

( up ( op — 

St St ast art lit jurt ( awt ort 

I at I 6t 

Sk 9k ask ark Irk ^urk ( awk ork 

X^k I 6k 

ebe lb abe Sb &b — arb irb ^urb ( awb — 

I lib t 5b — 

ede id ade Sd &d — ard ird ^urd ( awd oard ode (ood 

( tid I 5d (55d 

eag ig aig ^g )ig — arg irg (urg V awg — oag oog 

\ ug ( 5g 

These three organic actions yield another set of elements 
by direction of the voice into the nostrils, while the mouth is shut 
up. From the labial formation P-B, is produced in this way, M ; 
from the anterior lingual formation T-D, is produced N ; and 
from the posterior lingual formation K-G, is produced NG. 

The actions of the mouth for M, N, and NG are precisely the 
same as for B, D, and G : and though the former gain but little 
audibility by the cessation of contact, yet they cannot, any more 
than the latter, be considered finished until the organs are sepa- 
rated. There is breath within the mouth, pressing against the 
conjoined organs, as well as a free current in the nostrils : and 
though the voice may be perfectly finished by merely closing the 
glottis, the Articulation would be imperfect, if the breath within 

medley, cattfe, motley, hntler, &c. We also permit the explosive effect of 
these letters to be heard in the nose, before n in the same word, as in bidden, 
midnight, mutton, fitness, &c. In separate word% however, tlie t and d 
before I and n must be regularly finished. 


the moath were not allowed to escape. There is thus a slight — 
but very slight — effect of breath heard on the organic separation, 
as in come, sun, tongue, &c. : it does not amount to an explosion, 
as in the other letters of this mechanism, because there is no 
sufficient obstruction to create ezplosiveness, — but it is an audible 
effect; and when a vowel follows the articulation, this slight ex- 
pression of breath gives a sharpness and closeness of connexion 
to the combination, which would be wanting, if the nasal sound 
were stopped in the glottis before the organic disjunction. This 
principle is important to distinctness, and it is especially so in 
cases of difficult articulation. 

In finishing these nasal elements, the soft palate must not be 
allowed to cover the nares before the articulating organs are 
separated ; for a momentary closure will produce the explosive 
effect of B, D, and G. A tendency to compress the breath in 
this way is especially felt in ng, in the formation of which the 
tongue and soft palate are in contact, and so already in the posi- 
tion for G, to which it is consequently more easily convertible than 
the other nasal letters are to their explosives. 

Many English mouths, particularly London ones, are so much 
in the habit of finishing ng with a g, that they seem, even after 
many attempts, utterly unable to make the nasal element singly. 
Singer, hanger, &c. they pronounce as perfect rhymes to finger, 
anger, &c. The opposite fault prevails in Scotland, where the 
latter words are pronounced so as to rhyme with the former. 
The error, in both its phases, is easily susceptible of correction. 

The student should assure himself by experiment, of his power 
to finish the nasal articulations by the audible, yet inexplosive, 
separation of the organs. A little exercise of this kind will correct 
any faulty habit he may have acquired in the formation of these 
important elements of speech. Let the following table be slowly 
and attentively practised. 

Vowels 1. 2. 3, 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.12. 13. 

eem im aim Sm &in * arm irm \ urm < awm orm ome oom 

( Qm ( 5m 

een In ain Sn Sn * am Trii ( urn \ awn orn one 66n 

( tin ( 5n 
• ing * * &ng * * * ting 8ng * * * 

* The final articulation docs not occur iu English, in combination with this 


These three nasal articulations are the only elements which em- 
ploy the nose in English. We have correctly no semi-nasal sounds 
as in French : and if there can be no other obstructive articulation 
than those we have enumerated, there cannot be any other purely 
nasal element in any language : for the breath must be in some 
way obstructed by the mouth, before it can be directed entirely 
into the nostrils. 

The English nasals are all voice articulations. It is, however, 
possible to form them with unvocalized breath, and bad speakers 
often do so : but our language does not recognise such sniffling 
among its sounds. In Gaelic, there seems to be, or to have been, 
an aspirate form of the nasal letters : mh is a common digraph 
in that language, but it is now generally sounded v, with this 
peculiarity, that it nasalizes the adjoining vowel. 

We have now seen from three articulations of the mouth, no 
fewer than nine distinct elements of speech produced. There are 
in English fifteen other articulate elements; these are the result 
of only nine actions ; six of which are used to modify both voice 
and breath, and three to modify voice only. 

The remaining articulations are all continuous ; they have oral 
apertures more or less free for the emission of the breath or voice. 
They may be divided into close and open continuous elements ; 
and, organically, into those formed by approximation, vibration, or 
partial contact of the articulating organs. 

The nasal "liquids" M, N, NG, and the oral "liquid" L, we 
call OPEN, because their channels of sound are so open that the 
breath does not produce upon the organs any vibratory or rustling 
effect, as it does in all the other continuous elements, which are 
therefore called close. 

Second Mode of Articulative Action. — Approximation. 

The nine articulations we have described, viz. P, B, M ; T, D, 
N ; K, G, NG ; are formed, as we have shown, by organic 
contact Similar dispositions of the mouth, but with the organs 
in close approximMion only, will furnish us with a series of 
elements of the continuous class. Thus, when the positions P, 
T, K, are loosely assumed, so that the breath is not altogether 
shut in, a set of articulative breathings will be produced ; the 
first of which resembles F, the second a whispered R, and the 
third the German or Scotch Ch. 

Neither of these is heard in English. Among individual 


peculiarities, the first is sometimes met with instead of F ; the 
second is found in Welsh and Gaelic, represented by Rh ; and 
the third is common in all the Scottish dialects, in the German, 
the Spanish, and many other languages. 

The breath may be vocalized with the organs in these positions, 
and another set of elements will be produced, of which the 
second will be recognised as the smooth br English R ; the first 
resembles V*, and is one mode in which that letter is sometimes 
faultily articulated ; and the third occurs, we believe, in the Russian, 
and in other strongly aspirated languages. It is also not un- 
frequently heard as a cacophonic substitution for R, — ^in which 
ciCse it may be considered as a smooth burr ; bearing the same re- 
lation to the uvular rattle, that the English R does to the rough 
rolling continental R. 

If the lips, from the first of these continuous positions, be slightly 
opened, so as to form a central aperture, rather more oval in 
shape, they will then be in the position from which Wh and W 
are struck off by an abrupt compressive action. The absence of 
this action removes the articulative quality, — compression and 
explosiveness of breath, — and reduces W to the vowel oo, and wh 
to a sort of semi- whistle. 

The tongue may be approximated to the palate at different 
points. If, from its position at R, it be advanced a little towards 
the upper gum, but still in approximation, and having a very con' 
traded central aperture for the passage of the breath, the hissing 
sound of S will be produced. The horizontal position of the 
tongue for this element requires the teeth to be very closely 
approximated, — but without touching: if the jaws are too 
much apart, the tongue cannot sufficiently contract the sibilant 
perture, and too much breath escapes ; while if the teeth are 
perfectly closed, the breath is forced to pass through their 
interstices, and thus acquires a lisping modification from the 

* The letter 6 in Spanish often has this inexplosive mode of articulation. The 
Spanish soft sound of B is commonly thought to be the same as our English V; 
but we mistake if its true formation is not this close mutual approximation 
of the lips. The effect of the articulation is sufficiently like that of V to be 
easily mistaken for it. 



This articulatiye action, giving sibilation to a stream of voice, 
produces Z. 

If, from the position S, the point of the tongue be drawn 
inwards, so as to remove the seat of articulation further back on 
the tongue and palate, and at the same time enlarge the aperture 
for the breath, the sound of Sh will be produced. The change 
trcim S to Sh is analogous to that already noticed, from the First 
Labial Continuous formation to the semi-whistle Wh ; for Sh, too, 
is a semi-whistling sound : a further enlargement of the aperture of 
either element produces a labial or lingual whistle. 

This articulation modifying voice produces the sound of the 
letter Z in azure, which, as the vocal form of 8h, may be con- 
veniently represented by Zh, This is the sound of the letter J in 

If the middle of the tongue be now approximated to the palate, 
at a point intermediate to Sh, and the Third Continuous formation 
(C%, Oer,), it will be in the position for the articulation of Y, as 
heard (without voice) in Aue, Aew, &c., and (with voice) in you, 
ftie, cue, pew, tuae, duke, &c. This is almost the position for the 
vowel e : — y, (vocal) prolonged, gives the sound of a contracted e, 
— the vowel being slightly depraved in quality by the audible 
rustling of the breath over the too closely approximated tongue. 

Another set of articulations, — ^if they are worthy of the name, — 
may be produced by so loosely approximating the organs that a 
sufficiently strong current of air will cause them to vibrate and 
flap against each other. 

When the back of the tongue and soft palate are thus loosely 
appro^^nated, the relaxed edges of the latter, and especially its 
narrow prolongation, the uvula, are easily thrown into vibration 
against the tongue, and the Northumbrian burr is produced. 
When the fore-part of the tongue, — similarly relaxed, — is laid 
along the edge of the palatal arch, a smart stroke of the 
breath will set it in vibration, and the rough R, as heard in 
Scotland, and in most of the continental languages, will result. 
This sort of articulation may be performed, too, by the lips. 


If thej lie loosely together, a stroug breath will produce upon 
them the barbarous effect of a vibration, or flapping, pre- 
ciselj analogous to that of the burr and rough R. This sound, 
fortunately, is not heard in any language with which we are 
acquainted. Probably its absence, while the two other — ^kindred 
sounds — are common, results from the greater difficulty of pro- 
ducing the labial vibration ; as the force of the breath is dissipated 
in the mouth before it reaches the lips. 

R is called the canine, or dog's letter ; but the name is strictly 
applicable only to the hurr^ which is precisely the same in 
mechanism as the snarl of a cur. There is not much dignity, 
however, in this mode of articulation by any organism, though 
the lengthened R (not the burr) may be expressive enough in 
some words, as in the " rude rolling of a rebel drum,*' 

The polishers of continental language might do well to imitate 
the English in their treatment of this cur-related sound, and, as 
Macbeth did physic, ** throw it to the dogs.'' 

Third Mode op Articulative Action. 

Another, and the last variety of articulative action, consists in 
partial contact of the organs, so that the breath finds no central 
passage, and consequently escapes by lateral apertures. 

There is no element formed in this way by the root of the 
tongue and soft palate : the nature of the organs does not admit 
of this mode of articulation. 

The fore-part of the tongue applied to the palate, with lateral 
apertures free, produces L. This articulation is always vocal in 
English, but, in Welsh, the breath form is a very common element 
— represented by II. The voice channels of the English L are 
so open that there is no vibratory effect created by the passage of 
the breath. The sound is as pure as that of any vowel,* and, but 
for the action necessary to complete the element, it would be 
classed among the vowels. Its fluency of combination with other 
articulations has given it (with n, w, ng,) the name of liquid, 

* All the vowel soands may be produced with the tongae on the palate, as 
in L. The lateral apertures can be sufficiently modified to form every shade of 
sound, from e to ah ; and, with the aid of the lips, from ah to oo ; and the 
intermediate varieties of vowel sound can also be very con-ectly imitated without 
removing the point of the tongue from the palate. There is even very little 
peculiarity in the vowels — singly produced — by this mechanism. 

.•. *•• »"■*''! 

T. wnh 

Y :nat 




: t the 

■I th. 

- *. • -tu ■ i^i*- Z^ 

r .. 


.>• <k< 


■s > -■'vv 

* . ■ V 

» ' \ 


■v rraor ««Tr '.'«ai Lave 
. .-i «a» :'<^ .'xaassBoiT ^nh 
A JsaiML '.wi '.oefT • wn 

lis ot 

•y '^^ X *V ■ s« 

. i«^ srfVr 

^.^ .^, *vv » .gwf» *i^i«^ 

■- V 

f- X' 

LV <w «• 



Brbath. Voice. Nasal. 
fP B fM.. 






4» . 

eg ^ 










K G 

'(Ph) (Bh)(8p«i.hB) 

Eh R (smooth). 

Ch(o«nii«i) Gh 



r S 


-^ Wh 







»^ a 


Hy Y 

f(KRh) GR(burr)., 

(Rh) R(rough), 

=lip vibration= 

=contracted L (o^iic) 

3 c 
Ah 8 























Note, — ^The three nasals, M, N, and Ng, though orally obstractive, mre in 
effect continuous^ and may be ranked with those elements that have 
partial contact. They are here placed on the same Une with the 
obstmctives, to show that their oral mechanism is the same. 

Of these thirty-seven articulations, twenty- four (twelve actions) 
are elements of English speech. One of these, however, (No. 12, 
voice) — ^the rough R — is used only for purposes of effect and 
imitative expression. 

We shall now range the English articulations in the order of 
their formation ; beginning with those that are formed farthest 
within the mouth, and proceeding outwards to the labial articu- 


English Articcxations. 
Breath. Voke. 

OnL Oral. 


H(ew) Y = 

• 7 

8h Zh 

i (rough)., 


.R (smooth). 



11 IS 13 

T D N 

8 Z 

Th(in) Th(en) = 

18 19 

F V = 

90 91 

Wh W. 

9S 94 

B M 

We have elsewhere shown (page 12) the defective waj in 
which these twentj-four articulations are represented bj our 
alphabet. The alphabet contains almost characters enough ; for 
it has 21 letters to represent this class of elements : but of these, 
two— namely, C and Q — are altogether redundant; and two more 
— namely, J and X — are marks of combinations, and not simple 
elements ; so that we have, in reality, only seventeen appropriate 
characters by which to write all our articulations. With what ir- 
regularity these letters are used in the notation of our language 
will be seen in a subsequent chapter. 

The following extract is marked to show the primary distinction 
between Breath and Voice Articulations. The articulations 
which have a glottal, as well as an oral audibility, are printed 
in italics. Those not so printed are breath articulations, — that 
is, they have an oral audibility alone. In reading this illustra- 
tion, the voice should be given as purely and distinctly as possible. 


Note. — R is not au articulation except when before a vowel ; and, if the pre- 
ceding vowel is long, the R has then both its vowel and articulative 
effect, as in vaRy, — in which case it is represented by a capital letter. The 
letter u, when sounded alphabetically, represents the articulation Y^ and 
the vowel oo,, — to denote which, it is printed in capital: after </, always, 
and, in a few cases, after other articulations, u has the power of w. 
The letters e and i, when before a vowel, have sometimes the power of 
Y,— instances are marked by capitals. The letter o in one represents 


wu, — to denote which, the o is made capital. 

Great Effects from Littlb Causes. 

Nothing created is ^reat or little, except comparatively, and in 
relation to its effects, and the tnetbod of its operation. The 
quantity of caforic in the whole world, if it te^ere expressed, and 
could he condensed by some Faraday or Thitorier on One scale of 
the most dedicate of balances, would not make it kick the beam so 
sensi&Zy a^ the thinnest &reath of air, if at all ; t^t ^t ^tent 
heat is so magnificent in power, that certain local distur6ance« of 
its equilibrium are productii?e of earthqt^akes and volcanoes : and 
Njswton used to 6oast, with that quiet pfea^ntry of illustration 
which was as characteristic of him as his sure induction, that, if 
he loere the master o/fire, he could pack the planet in a nut-she^Z. 
E^tricity, too, is said to be imponderadZe ; but the sudden re- 
storation 0/ the interrupted ^Zance 6etu;een such qtiantitie« 0/ 
the subtiZe fluid as are contained in opposing clouds,'^themsehe8 
so (fiminutii^e in comparison with the body of the earth, — is the 
cause of the thunder storm. 

The very direction in which a power i^ appfied, or in which a 
KToight is allowed to operate, is so immensely more si^ificant 
than the toeight itseZf, that Archimedes, after hainn^ showered 
impondera&fe arrows 0/ sunfire on the enemies 0/ Syracuse, and 
turned up t^ir vessels of U7ar, toanted &ut a point to p2ant his 
fe«er, in order to move the world mth his puny arm ! What is 
the KToight 0/ u^ter with which TTatt cSps thick iron, ^e paper, 
into shreds ; and sends his hu^e feviathans, thro&Mn^ in their ir- 
resistible struggle^ across the Atlantic, with all but the regularity 
of the freighted pZanets themselves ! Are not a fsw pounds of 


tveight transformed into tons, by the mere (disposition of them by 
Brakmah, on the principle 0/ the old hydrostatic paradox ? 
Paradox ! One bad thought the da,y of paradoxes t/^as over for 
ever now. Everything ^reat is a paradox at first ; ^cause our 
own ignorance makes it strange. 

Illustrations 0/ the manifestations ofgre&t forces by little bodies 
way &e dra,wn from the re^on of pure physics. Davy, fearh^ly 
following the principte o/etectricaZ induction by contact, cfiscovered 
that half-a-do^en sqt&are feet of the copper sheatMn^ of the British 
fleet are rendered etectro-ne^ative by a ^nc nsM driven through 
the centre 0/ the space, and are thereby protected from the 
corrosive action of the sea with its stores of oxygen, ch^nne, and 
ioc^ne, everywhere ready to be let loose upon metaZ2ic su&stances. 
iViay, Sir John Hersche2? finds tha,t the relation to efectricity of a 
mass of mercury is such, <Aat it may be reversed by the admixture 
of an almost infinitesimal proportion of a &ody, such as potassium, 
in an opposite electricaJ condition. So impressed is he with this 
clsLSB of o&servations as to o&serve, '' iTAat such minute proportions 
of extraneous matter should be found capa6fo of communicating 
sensi^^e mechanical motions and properties, o/a definite character, 
to the body they are mixed mth, is perhaps One of the most extra- 
orcfinary facts ^Aat has appeared in chemistry.*' 

Everything thsat has been said a&out materia? forms, into which 
the breath of life has not been inspired, must be affirmed, and 
more ur^entZy affirmed, of the living frame, idth its fearful, though 
harmonious complication. The physician and his forces have to 
desd with a quivering epitome 0/ sM the species 0/ suscepti&ifity 
in creation. One kind reacting on anotter, so as to produce a com- 
bination 0/ harmony so highly strung, ^Aat the prick 0/ a pin shaZZ 
^rate upon ov&ry fi6re, and a cooZin^ odour, in a hot atmosphere, 
impart refreshment and deZight to every nerve. According to the 
experiments o/2/euchs, if f^ ten thousand two hundredth part o/a 
^rain 0/ tartrate 0/ mercury be diffused through the su&stance o/a 
sweet pea, the ftEautifuZ^erm o/a ^racefuZ f Zoweuin^herft, which Zie« 


foUhd up within its horny pericarp, shM never come out anJ 6e 
expsLndedy ^Aough ^ou incto^e it in the softest mou^d, n,nd soKcit it 
by every art. before Anciroc^us will a Kon, mth a paltry thorn 
in his roysil palm, crouch in his rock-buiift paZaco, and hutn6?y 
crai^e deZiverance fi'Otn the insignificant prickte tAat has unstrung 
his fi&rous frame. J?ut man is a creature 0/ such exquisite and 
fnanifoM sensi&i^itj to the agency of even physical re-a^ents, thsX, 
when the compacted &a(^ance 0/ M the parts is distur&ed in any 
One way, and idiosyncrasy is produced, the feel o/velvet produces 
nausea in some ; a professor 0/ natural phifosophy faints under a 
spri^ 0/ ^Dender ; an Eaasmus cannot so much as taste fish 
t&i^^ut a fever ; a Cardinal Hauy de Cardonne stcoons at the 
smell of a rose ; a ScaZi^er faZ^s into convuifsions at the sight 0/ 
cresses ; and a Tycho ^rahe tremfttes in the awfuiJ presence 0/ a 
hare. — Dr Samuel Brown. 

Elementary Instruction in Speech. 

It really seems strange that speech, — a power so common and so 
invaluable, a thing " in every body's mouth," should not have been 
taught to us elementarily ; and, in looking back over the pages 
of this chapter, very strange it certainly appears, that there should 
be such a phenomenon in cultivated society, as a person incapable 
of sounding an S, an L, an R, or any of the simple elements 
correctly : yet we have even public teachers — in almost every 
department of knowledge — exhibiting in their utterance such 
shameful incapacities, in great variety, and vitiating by their high 
example the taste and habits of extensive listening circles ; so that 
it is really thought no disgrace to be a burrer, a lisper, a mumbler, 
a drawler — ^to twang words i' the nose, to scream, and roar, to 
foam, to squeak, to whine, to mouth, and otherwise so to abuse 
the glorious faculty of speech, that, with Shakspeare, we may say, 
it seems as if ** some of Nature's journeymen had made men, and 
not made them well,-^they imitate humanity so abominably." 

The reason of the general ignorance of speech, from which such 
a state of things results, is, we are told, just the very commonness 
of the faculty, which seems to render the subject below scientific 
inquiry. But is it therefore unworthy of being understood ? 
Why then were not scientific men satisfied with seeing and hearing 


nMHlt : Wf>iiittrlhi aieriuBDcaL itfaipGB2ifiii»«]C jdobu. 

avCimibdin^ gnaapieat le iereiiipefi, murii vmM laaii 31 Titrha 
niKal Imn^nOMv^ 30 lesm -mmdiwfnisnd isaatLzbrnsL :fiai« iii<i^oes>f 
X mhjpKt m little ^fxpiored. 'sad. io 'ipczi id jpeatxuiuv ia^> aK 

in 'ihe yrrUnatrj 3io#ie ^if ^■li'aiThmg ihiliirai oi ceatL :im <:EA:Qi- 
d«>i, .i«rf9mir:lj attezuimff jut leiBfTtm jrriuienip&T;. irs nillj 
laid in dw Icarosr « -wnj, ^ m ^Xi rndke ji» ^atzk 'nuf ^f 3» mzscfc 
^litvtiierj 2M ^0mmh]B. Wiac i» called •^^mMoi^ZB^ in^onirtBoiL s 
anC iorb.— ywir '^faiidziaL hare so reaHj eiemffirarr inscnuccaiB. m 
fpenfM. Tlutj ass zaxudv^ the alphalMCp. fiudi 3* ic x& : bat cbej ase 
IMC tsuigtit an alphabet 'if mmnds. T!iej are tangle is nusur che 
liict^n ; diac ui oi ^aj, :iiej ar« nang^c s asismnace vidt tke 
f^harai^tim^ a let af or/irdkr bj ▼fuck tftej mar in. ame becttme 
nffwIMed GO jfp^sak *\f die letasfSy but che j an noc tang&c tiboee 
iWBpfe dmtumcarj wuuuiB b^ wbieb cbe j mi^bt ac «ie« b« ^nahini 
M jyi^nibciie laantTt'. w diac t±« ebfid bai» not dw anst i&taat 
wjfea ^ die nal oh^ec of the ehacMnaers be becooBK fwifrir with, 
ft iM:9er ^jaecL enter inco bis amid that thi^ stand %x ao laore 
ia ipeeeh dian thMepnffa, andblovs^and bisMS^ and qc&« fans j 
fl«M9ee> whidi rbe jonngcst in tiie spfcaol eonld aiake pnfrcdr^and 
ipoold flufcie widL aM^ defigbtfid interest ; tbis is alldarkiMas to 
Uan :^ — and 'it, b j aMoe accidental raoddaice be twe e n die main 
aad ptf)iireref a letter, a raj cf%bt flash npon biai, and he se^ to 
tnKe it to tbe tnitb which shot it fiirth, be soongires ap the 
teaveh in de^ipair; — tbe fight dis^ipcars at tbe first step frcaa the 
ehiah which let it in — and he can see no waj oat of the duaifa 
ifm^ ef^ efl^ d^ «, mrt, ea, e, damUt-tss^ (wildencas) bj which he 
fade hioMelf iornmnded. 

Tbe fine lad period ef his edncation at last orer — he ** hnovs 
Ue letten."* Uafortonatelj, howera, he discoTers that he is 
thia hardlj in the leart adianced in the art of reading, bat baa a 
aew taefc to lean, and a new relation, in erery new ccmbiBataon 
of leiten* One tbii^ howerer. is done, bejond the mastay ctf 
the alphabeiie names ; he has learned to ifom without aader- 


standing — to know without knowing what; — and he is therefore 
prepared to apply what he knows in anj waj he may be told, 
without inquiring, oc caring, to learn, the Aou; and whtf, A 
foundation is laid for a mindless after-course. The school he 
either dislikes, or loves only for its opportunities of social mischief ; 
till in due course he '* finishes his education," and leaves the 
school — ^with a certain amount of knowledge acquired by dint of 
preceptorial authority, but without having learned the pre-emi- 
nently important lesson — to teach himself — ^to love knowledge for 
its own sake — to have a ** constant care to increase his store" — 
and to go on a scholar to the end of his days. 

Fraught with consequences momentous as these, is, we believe, 
the false initiatory training of the alphabetic class. 

An improved orthography would, Ao doubt, be a ready means 
of improving this state of matters, — and a very excellent system 
of letters has recently been introduced as an experiment ;— -but 
we fear existing prejudices will be found too strong to admit of 
sufficient reformation in this way. A better use must be made 
of present materials. 

The rational mode of teaching to read would surely be, to begin 
with the mouth, and teach it to speak; — to present, first, to the 
imitative aptitude of children the simple elemental sounds of 
language, and get them practically mastered orally, before en- 
deavouring to teach the eye to recognise their arbitrary symbols. 
The sounds should be the first object of the teacher ; and their 
practice will be an amusement — not a task — to the children : — 
while, in learning them, they may be led on, almost insensibly, 
to a knowledge of the alphabetic symbols, and so by a most 
agreeable method, and in a very short time, gain all, and mtich 
more than all, that is now gained after laborious and protracted 
effort on the jJart botli of teacher and pupil. 

Distinct and graceful habits of speech, too, would thus be 
formed ; the mouth would bo always in advance of the eye ; and 
so there would be an end to those abortive moutbings, and to 
that hesitancy and stammering which, in a greater or less degree, 
are common to all educational tyros now, and which do sometimes 
strike root into the muscular and nervous systems, and produce 
most pitiable objects in society. 

A glance at the pages of English writers of past and present 
times will show that innovations in orthography are not to bo 


dreaded as novelties without precedent, and of doabtful conse- 
quence. Our language has been, in this respect, in a state of 
constant change ; modes of spelling, and modes of pronunciation 
too, have had their seasons of fashion and of desuetude : and 
people have got on without perplexitj amid their fluctuations, and 
have as readily adopted the noTolties, and antiquated their ante- 
cedents, as thej have changed the fashions of their garments. 
Now, there is less liability to change, and it is more difficult to 
effect alterations, on account of the numerous dictionaries which 
have given something like a standard to orthography. But even 
in these there have been changes, and every new lexicon registers 
8(nne alterations. There is, therefore, no ground for a spirit of 
' etymological conservatism, opposing improvements as destructive 
to long-instituted and time-lionoured modes of spelling. Changes 
will take place, and the more the subject of speech is studied, the 
more rapid and easy will transitions become, till letters present a 
picture of sounds almost as simple as the sounds themselves. 

An orthographic reformation is commonly deprecated by the 
educated, though none can deny that it would afford the readiest 
means of giving the blessings of education to the illiterate. The 
various objections urged against a change are all of them selfish 
considerations. They possess no weight in comparison with the 
great advantages which would result from the adoption of a mode 
of spelling correspondent to our actual utterance. 

An ill-represonted language is a hindrance to foreign com- 
munication ; and this must lead to reformations, as international 
intercourse increases. The inconveniences of English orthography 
are peculiarly great. The language itself is difficult enough to 
foreigners ; but its irregular orthography renders its correct use 
almost unattainable to those who are not 

" Native here, and to the manner bom." ' 

The object of the present work is not, however, to attempt a 
change in orthographic practice. We believe that a better 
acquaintance with the elementary simplicity of speech will in time 
work all necessary changes ; and we therefore leave speculative 
reformations in the meantime, and confine ourselves to practical 
improvements in the use of present materials. We have en- 
deavoured to frame from actual observation a complete scheme of 
the elements of speech — to show the true powers of our letters, and 
so to remedy in some degree those inconveniences which result 


from ignorance superadded to the systematic absurdities which 
confessedly characterize our language, as it yainly struggles to pre- 
serve an etymological shadow in the Writing, when the substance 
has no longer an existence in the Speech. 


Different degrees of quantity may be recognised in the simple 
elements of speech, vowel and articulate, as well as in their sylla- 
bic and verbal combinations. Among the English Vowels, singly 
uttered, we distinguish three degrees of quantity. The longest 
are those vowels which consist of two qualities of sound, viz. — 
DIPHTHONGS. They may be composed of either an open vowel taper- 

S 1 7 1 7 IS 10 1 12 IS 

ing into a closer, as a-e, ah-e, ah-oo, aw-e, o-oo, — heard in ail, 
isle, owl, oil, old, — or of any monophthong-vowel flowing into the 

8 1848 78 98 10 8 

open and peculiar sound er, — as e-er, eh-er, ah-er, uh-er, aw-er, 

U 8 13 8 

0-er, oo-er, — heard in ear, air, are, urn, drawer, ore, poor. These 
are all diphthongs; though only the 2ud, 3rd, and 4th of the first 
set Bxe generally enumerated as such.* 

The initial elements of all these diphthongs give long monoph- 
thongs, which are the next in quantity to the diphthongs. — The 

3 1 12 13 4 8 9 8 11 8 

first sounds of a-e, o-oo, eh-er, uh-er, o-er, do not occur separately 
as long sounds in English : the first two do not occur separately 
at all. 

The next and shortest class of vowels are those abrupt utter- 
ances of voice heard in ill, ell, an, us, on, hook, ^e,, which are 
short monophthongs. There is not, as seems to be generally sup- 
posed, any degree of duration essential to either of the monophthong 
vowels. The longest may be pronounced as shortly as the regu- 
larly short sounds ; and any of the latter may be prolonged to 
the full quantity of the longest of the former class. Thus, if^we 
endeavour to prolong the short monophthongs, or to stop abruptly 
the long ones, we shall discover that eh, aw, and oo, are essentially 
the same vowel formations as e(ll), o(n), (b)oo(k) ; and also 

* In Smart^s Dictionary, the last class of sounds is noticed in the scheme of 
Towels, under the separate head of " Vowels which terminate in 
Guttural Vibratiok." 



that u(8) ifi preciselv the same soiuid as the initial element of the 
diphthong ur. 

The monophthongs e and ak are nerer abort in accented ejJUte 
iu English ; hnt tliat thej can be ahartened as readily afi tiun 
which are sometimes long and sometimes short, will be evideiit 
from experiment In Scotland their short sonnds are o£ken i i a aid ; 
thej constitute, indeed, a main featme in the ScottiBh dialent 
The 5th vowel a(D), though always short in English, is often heard 

long in Scotland, as in the word fcAer — pron oun ced fi-ther — and 
in many words which have the Mi and 7th sounds in Kngfamd 
£yen in England, we sometimes hear along fonn of the 5ihyowel« 
and regularly in Ireland, in the words otnct, dbant, 4^., jmbs, pfv^ 
Umgk, hath, 4^. The correct yowel for the former words is mk, 

though the intermediate a, heard correctlT in the latter words, ii 
perhaps as often used by good speakers. 

Among the aehcdlations there are yaiious d^rees of quantity. 
The vocal articulations are essentiallj longer than the non-yocal, 
but in each class there are yarieties. 1. The Breath ObstrmaHiDm 
are th« shortest ; — 2. The LreaUt Comtimmaug elements are the 
next longer ; — 3. The Shut Voice ArtieulatUms (the shorteBt of 
the vocal elements) are the next; — L The Close, C otOimmmu 
Voice ArticulatioHSVre longer still ; and, 5. The Opem Comimmomt^ 
(or Liquids) are the longest simple articulations. Thus, there 
are five degrees of quantitj among the articulations. The foOow- 
iug is their arrangement : — 

(1.) P, T, K. 
(2.) F, Th, S, 6k 

(3.) B. D, G. 
(4.) V, Th, Z, Zh. 

(5.) L, M, N, ng. 

It will be observed, that we omit from this taUe W, Wh, T, and 
E. The reason is, that these articuladons do not occur after 
vowels, but ool/ as initials in English ; and all initial letters, 
whether voice or breath, are ilike in quantity. 

Tlwfse dilferences of articuladve quantity will be best obsOTved 
by prefixing to eM^b articulation the three classes of vowels. The 
short YOweU will be found to have degrees of shortness, according 
to tim kind of articulation they precede, — ^and the long monoph- 
tliofigs and diphthongs will also be found to be considerably 
MtcUA in quwitit/ hy the hucceeding articulation. — The follow- 



i|ig Table shows each class of Articulatious iu combiuatiou witli 
the Three Varieties of Vowel Quantity. To read over this table 
frequently will be a useful exercise both for the ear and the 
organs of speech. The whole of the combinations with each 
vowel, should be read consecutively — ^that is, the table should 
be read line by line, across all the columns, — that the ear may be 
enabled to trace the quantitative gradations. 

to . ^ tiO bo 

.s I g § § 

I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 

.S « S o 

i S S 

eS S 5 

o S3 "3 "oS "3 *© 35 


M N S S S 

.S S ce P o 

«11I1 1 

b. ► > > > 

.S^ « eS P O 

^ bo bp bo bo I 

.s s a s sJ 

.t; a> eii 3 o 

fe's'a's's I 



.s- s- &•§•§• 



S> I I 08 O 



I 38 

> CB q8 O 


tl I 

08 8 









.5 c .s s o o o o 



03 «.- 0.5 S'S § I'g 

••mi:gl€ III 










I I I I I I I I 


'§'fi'fi •S ja •S •£ ■S •S •§ 



We have now sbowu the essential differences of quantity in the 
simple elements of speech. There are others which arise from 
the Combination of Letters into Syllables, and Syllables into 
Words. And first — What is a syllable ? We have no non-vocal 
syllables; t9otce> therefore, is the first requisite; and the syllabic voice 
may be either confined to one letter, or distributed among several 
letters. The vowel part of a syllable may consist of two elements, 
— forming either a closing diphthong , as aye, owe, eye, hoy, how, 
&c., or an opening diphthong, as ear, air, ore, your, &c. If such 
words as fire, our, &c., which contain three vowel elements, — a 


closing diphthong followed by the open sound er, — be considered 
monosyllables, then the vowel part of a syllable might be said to 
contain a triphthong ; but, when these words are fully pronounced, 
they are undoubtedly dissyllables, and perfect rhymes to higher, 
power^ &c., which are never reckoned monosyllabic words. 

In colloquial speech^ fire, higher, our, power, and all words of 
this formation, are frequently contracted into one syllabic impulse; 
but this is by a slurring of the vowels, so that the close elements 

1 18 

e and oo are not formed at all ; the first combination ire (7-1-S) 
is converted into ah-air (7-4-8) or (7-5-8); and the second com- 
bination our (7-13-8) is converted into ahrore (7-1 1-8). From our 
account of the formation of these vowels (page 2(}), it will be 
found that the mouth undergoes very little increase or diminution 
of vowel-aperture in these combinations ; and consequently they 
may be uttered with such smooth indefiniteness as to blend into 
one concrete utterance, and so form but a monosyllable. Indeed, 
the whole of the possible shadings of vowel-sound between ah and 
e, or ah and oo, or conversely, might, we conceive, be flowingly 
blended into a monosyllabic utterance ; but no return from the 
closing progression to an opening one, or conversely, could take 
place without destroying the monosyllabic effect.* 

♦ Dr Rush, in his excellent and undervalaed work, — " The Philosophy of the 
Voice," says, that " It is the concrete function of the voice which alone consti- 
tutes a syllable." By the conorete function^ is meant that tapering quality of 
all spoken sounds, as distinguished from the even tenor of the sounds of song. 
These tapering and even quifities, however, have reference, not to vowel forma' 
ftwj, but to musical pitch. All speaking sounds thus taper ^ acutely or gravely^ 
—while, in song, the sounds maintain, for a definite time, one musical note. 
The " unbroken concrete" may, however, be contumed through more than one 
syllable :— for mstance, in toy-mg, joy-ous, pray-6st, hij?A-est, show^-y, &c. 
What, then, is it that syllables these words ? Is it not the necessary opening 
of the sound for the last vowel, after the closing cBphthong which precedes it V 


We have said that the syllabic voice may be either confined to 
one letter, or distributed among several. Thus: — Before and 
after the vowel may be placed a continuous vocal articulation. Let 

iis select, for an example, the vowel ai, toVhich let us add an 
initial and final Liquid; — thus, I ai n. This is still one syllable, 
and we may prefix and affix to it an Obstructive, — thus, hi ai nd. 
A Continuous Voice Articulation might still be added before and 
after — though we have not in English any initial continuous 
voice articulation followed by an obstructive : — this would give us 
the monosyllable zbl ai ndzh. An Obstructive might yet be 
added before and after this combination, without destroying the 
unity of the syllable, — ^thus, dzblaindzhd. This barbarous-looi- 
ing word is not so foreign to our language as at first sight it may 
appear. With the exception of the initial dz, the combination is 
a perfectly English one. We have the fi/nal combination complete 
in such words as cringed, changed, bulged, S^c, 

The organs slide from point to point in these clustered articu- 
lations, and there is no openness in the sounds. The open con- 
tinuous elements (liquids), it will be observed, are immediately 
before and after the vowel. They could not be elsewhere without 
creating other syllables — because for them the voice has a vowel- 
openness and purity. Thus I and n often of themselves make 
syllables in English utterance, — ^though not in orthography, — as in 
middle, bidden, bible, even, fasten, thistle, ^c* 

The liquid I may be prefixed to either of the other liquids in 
the same syllable. Thus we still write In and hn, though we no 
longer pronounce the former, and only in a few words the latter ; 
but neither of the other liquids (which are nasals) can be uttered 
before I in one syllable. The reason is, that the nasals shut the 
mouth, and are, therefore, before I, which opens a free oral passage, 
the same as the obstructives B, D, G. We might then in- 
sert I before the n in the illustrative word we have given, and so 

* Our orthographic practice refuses to acknowledge any syllable that has 
not a vowel letter ; so when we write a vowel with the liquid, Ks in these words, 
the syllabic effect of the liquid is not disputed ; but if, as in spasm^ rhythm^ &c. 
we write no vowel, then, though the syllabic sound is the very same, we do not 
acknowledge the syllable. We grant that listen ^^lis-n is a dissyllable ; but, 
with strange — ^ignorant — inconsistency, exclude rhyth-m from the same class, 
and call it a monosyllable. Either they ai'e both monosyllables or both dissyl- 
lables, for their elements of sound are, letter for letter, of the same class. 



present, as a monosyllabic combination, no fewer than five articu- 
lations after a vowel — dzblailndzhd. 

No voiceless articulations could be introduced among these vo- 
cal letters without cutting up the combination into as many sylla- 
bles ; nor could any voice-letter be inserted in a combination of 
breath-articulations without creating for every voice-articulation 
so added, a new syllable. Thus the letters spsjlinktstks, in this 
arrangement, constitute a monosyllable; but separate the vocal 
articulations from the vowel, and insert them among the articula- 
tions, and the same letters will constitute a trissyllahle ; — thus, 
splsjlktnsths. Both these words are capable of distinct articula- 
tion ; but it may cost the reader a little practice before he is able 
to enounce them with fluency. 

The following are all the articulative combinations which occur 
initial in English syllables. 


as in 


gl as in 


si as in 



• • • 


gr ... 


sm ... 



• • • 


kw ... 





• • • 


ky ... 





• « • 


kl ... 





• • • 


kr ... 





• • • 


my ... 


Da • • • 



• • • 


ny .... 





• •• 


fy ... 


spr ... 



• • • 


fl ... 


spy ... 



• • • 


fr ... 





• • • 


vy ... 





• • • 


thw ... 


skr ... 



• • • 


thy ... 


SKW ... 



• « • 


thr ... 


aky ... 



• •« 


8W ... 


shr ... 



• • • 


sy ... 


In the table at page 63, our main object was to show the ef- 
fect ci the articulations on the vowel quantities. The following 
table of the Articulative Combinations which are Final in English 
syllables, will show the numerous degrees of Syllabic Quantity 
which arise entirely from these constituents. 

Quantity is generally considered to have reference to Vowels 
only ; but if it is intended to mean the duration of the enuncia- 
tive process, it must include Articulations also. The practice of 
the following table will be found extremely useful in giving dis- 
tinctness and fluency of articulation. The test of correctness is, 
— Hear every liEiTER. 


The Liquids, — or, as their functions in syllables would rather 
require them to be called, transparent letters, — before a single final 
articulation, give the next degree of quantity greater than that 
of the single articulation : double articulations are the next 
longer ; then liquids before double articulations ; then treble arti- 
culations ; next liquids before treble articulations, and so on. But 
as the articulations are not all of the same duration, their com- 
binations present a great many slighter differences of quantity. 
The Liquids are so thin a veil before Breath Articulations that 
they hardly for an instant intercept our view of the adjoining 
letter ; — before Voice Articulations they become more massive, 
and two liquids are the longest double articulations in the language. 

Let the student prefix a vowel to the combinations in the follow- 
ing tables — ^long or short, but the same vowel throughout — ^and 
let him read them in the order in which we have arranged them, 
and he will be able to trace the nice gradations which connect by 
no less than twenty-one steps, the English extremes of voiceless combi- 
nations — sick and sixths ; and by eighteen, the voccd combinations in 
hid and hinged. 


JSote. — The letter C, signifies contindous ; [(CI.) close; (Op.) open;'] and 0, 
OBSTRUCTIVE, — referriug to our classification of the Ai'ticulations at page 11. 

,2 •■§ I I. O, p, t, k. as in step, shape, fit, site, ark, black, &c. 

a g 

a I 





2. C. f, th^ s, sh^ ... if, laugh, path, both, miss, gas, 

wash, &e. 

^ Q flp, It, Ik, nt, ... help, felt, wilt, milk, elk, teat, auiit, 

\ mp, mt, ngk, lamp, jump, dreamt, tempt, ink, &e, 

i If, Is, 1th, Ish, ... self, gulf, golf, health, wealth, else, 
4. C. I nth, ns, pulse, Welsh, ninth, plinth, once, 

( mf, ngth, dance, nymph, strength, length, &c. 

6. 0. pt, kt, ... apt, leaped, tripped, act, walked, &.c. 

6. O. \ Ip8,pth, ts, tth, ... steps, whip8,depth,boat8, feats, eighth. 

»F4 I 

o. » 

and > 
C. j 

f J 
C. j (tsh, ks, watch, search, ox, axe, back8,cork8,&c. 




7. C. 

and I ft ^n Bt «;k ^®^> puffed, wasp, fast, guessed, ask, 

ana > n, sp, st, sk, ... ^^.^^^ ^^ 

an £ I'll ii safes, life's, fifth, death's, broths, 

' ' * *" coughs, &c. 





10. o. 

C. \ 

r 9 O i ^^^' ^^ °^^^' ^* *^ S^lPf^i milked, stamped, inked, iMinked, 

I ngkt, suodnct, &o. 

Ips, Itt, lUh. ..'. Alps, whelps, bolts, waits, beldi, mileh, 

Iks, nts, ntsh, bulks, silks, prints, chants, Frendi, imA, 

mps, mts, imps, romps, tempts, shrink^ thanks, &e« 

U. C. flft, 1st, ... ingulfed, fail'st, teU'st, against, 

and X nst, mst, mean'st, feign*8t, dream*fli, oomVt, 

O. tngst, niig*8t, bring'st, &c. 

12 C i ^' ^^^'> nihM^ ... gulA, sylphs, healths, tenths, plinths, 

' I m£^ ngths, nymphs, lengths, &c. 

ri3. Dble. 



). Dble. ( 
O. and -cpts, kts, 
C. I 

14. O. 



16. C. (^ . 
O.andJ^' •?«'•*»' 

C. !*■' 

17. cJfths, 

... adepts, Copts, acts, sects, expects, &c. 

... shap'st, hop*8t, sat*Bt, got*st, patched, 
broached, look*8t, next, &rC. 

... eighths. 

... efts, thefts, asps, costs, wastes, asks, desks, 
husks, &c. 

... fifths. 



18. O. (Ipst, Itst, Itsht, ... help*8t, halt^st, filched, milk'st, 
C. J lkst,nt8t, ntsht, want'st, hint*8t, blenched, 

and I mpflit, mtst, flinched, limp^st, attempt'st, 

O. I^ngkst, think'st, drank*8t, &c. 

19. C, Ifths, 

20.O.C. f , . 
O.&C.t ' 

21.0. r 

I and -I ksths, 
tTrbl.C. I 



• •J 



1.0. b, d, g, as in babe, mob, bad, trade, egg, plague, &c. 

2. CI. f V, th, z, zh, ... leave, of, with, bathe, ease, as, buzz, rouge, 

hymn, on, sing, tongue, &c. 

1 2.C1. fv, th, z, zh, ... leave, of, with, 1 
i ^ 4 Ac. 

(3.0p. 1^1, m, n, ng, ... ail, ell, isle, am,! 


•m ^ 


4. 0. 

{lb. Id, mb, md, ... alb, bulb, old, willed, build, rhomb, hem- 
nd, ngd, med, and, Hnned, hanged, bunged, &c. 

fi. C. 


Iv, Iz, mZ) nz) ... delve, evolve, ells, palls, aims, comes, 
ngz, bronze, ens, longs, pangs, &c. 








6 0. bd, gd, a» in ribbed, stabbed, begged, wigged, &c. 

7. O. fbz, dz, dzh, ... cabs, tubs, adze, heads, odds^ edge, budge, 

C. Igz, eggs, lags, &c. 

8. C. ( yd, thd, zd, ... saved, lived, seethed, writhed, grazed, used, 
O. (^zhd, rouged, &c. 


9. CI. fvz, thz, ... graves, loaves, withes, bathes, &c. 
Im, helm, film, culm, &c. 



fll.O. Ibd, ...bulbed. 

12. O. f Ibz, Idz, Idzh, ... bulbs, folds, builds, bilge, rhumbs, lauds, 
and C, ( mbz, ndz, ndzh, finds, fringe, change, &c« 

13.C.&0. Ivd, nzd. ... delved, involved, bronzed, &c. 

14.C.(cl.) Ivz, ... shelves, wolves, &c. 


16. C. (op.) f 

& •{ Imd, ... helmed, overwhelmed, &c. 

o. L 

16. C. (op.) f 
j & i Imz, 

I C. (cl.) I 

... films, elms, &c. 

si 117. O. 

9.S « n AO I ^'^^> '*' Ju^£»^^9 besieged, &c. 

W "N g 


i r 

ndzhd, changed, hinged, &.c. 

f I ■{ 16. O. /Idzhd, ... bilged, &c 


From what we have said (page 65) on the component 
elements of syllables, it will be evident that voice articulations 
cannot follow breath ones in the same syllable, but that breath 
articulations may follow vocal ones. The following mixed com- 
binations (besides the Liquids already given in the first part of 
this table) are all that occur in English. 

1 dth, as in width, breadth. 

2 bst, dst, gst, ... brib'st, bidd'st, midst, hugg^st, &c. 

3 vst, thst, ... wav'st, striv*8t, sooth 'st, &c. 

4 Idst, ... hold'st, &c. 
6 Ivst, ... delv'st, &c. 



A further varietj of syllabic quantities arises from the Combi- 
nation OF Syllables into Words. 

An accented syllable — whatever its constituent elemental- 
followed by one unaccented, is shorter than a monosyllable con- 
taining the same elements ; followed by two unaccented syllables, 
it is still shorter ; by three, shorter still ; and so on, it decreases 
in quantity, as its terminational unaccented syllables increase in 
number. Thus, lit, Utter, literal, literally. If we repeat the 
monosyllable in its ordinary degree of time, we shall find that we 
can pronounce the dissyllable, trissyllable, or quadrisyllable in 
the same time. This may be well tested by accompanying the 
accent by a beat of the hand. 

It is further to be observed, that the accented syllable is longer 
when the syllable next to it begins with an articulation, than 
when it begins with a voweL A comparison of hve, lovely, lave- 
line88, with hve, loving, lovingly, will manifest this. Subjoined 
are a few instances of each vowel before the different classes of 
articulations, followed by one, two, and three unaccented syllablea. 

Instances of the first three classes are shown with both vowels 
and articulations following the accent. 














I citron 
I petty 
\ petrel 

i happy 
i haply 

I butter 

( buttress 


! fishes 







































( ribbon 
\ tribune 






f ebbing 


\ febrile 




f madam 
\ madman 





1 muddy 
\ bloodless 




J dogger 
1 dogma 





i woody 
( woodland 



































































— • 















































































































































































mouth (v.) 








































We have now shown the differences of quantity essential in the 
separate elements of speech ; and«,the quantitative influence of 
Articulations on Vowels, and of Unaccented on Accented Syllables. 
The influence of another vowel immediately succeeding the ac- 
cented one, as in theatre^ drawing, &c., remains to be noticed. 
If we compare any words of this class with others which have the 
shortest articulation interposed between the vowels, — as, 

seeing, fluid, sawest, 

seated, fluted, soughtest, 

we shall find, that while the words in the first VoiQ allow of greater 
duration on the accented vowel (when under emphasis) than those 
in the second, yet in their ordinary pronunciation, the vowels are 
shorter in the first than in the second class of words. The judge 
of this is of course the ear ; to it, in confirmation of our assertion, 
we appeal. 

In order to test this fairly, however, it will be necessary to com- 
pare the words — not separately, but in a sentence, that they may 
have their ordinary colloquial quantity ; for as the words of the 
first class more easily hear an increased quantity than those of 
the second, they would be very liable to receive an unconscious 
addition in separate comparison. Test them in the following 
sentences : — 

Seeing you seated here, I came to you. 

Lucky fellow ! thou sawest that for which thou s(mghtest not. 

Th&ifiuted glass looks very like a streaming ^titc7. 

As a general principle, then, we should say, that accented 
monophthong vowels preceding another vowel, are shorter than 
when they are before any articulation. Not so, however, diph- 
thongal vowels, — as in grey-ish, joy-ous, flow-ing, &c., these, when 
fully pronounced, are as long before a vowel as before a vdce- 

• In the preceding Quantitative Tables we have shown the nature 
and extent of our Articulative Combinations. To complete the 
view of English Elementary Compounds, we shall now exhibit an 
arrangement of our 

Vowel Combinations. 
. The English language is usually supposed to be more deficient 
of vowel combinations than it reaUy is. Examination may show 



that it has more vowel qnaUtj than it generallj gets credit for. 
It certainly has a great proportion of articulationB, and long — 
because final — clusters of these elements ; but thej giro it a 
strength and dignity in utteranoe, for which euphonioiis Yowet 
smoothness would but ill compensate. The apparent scarcity of 
vowels, however, arises in great part from the rude way in which 
these soft elements are slurred, and curtailed of their " fair pro- 
portion" by our speakers. Let them be fully given, with all their 
tapering qualities, and softly blending in their combinations, with- 
out careless elisions and clippings, and the English Tongue will 
be found to possess as muchi)f vowel-euphony as is consistent with 
the masculine character of its utterance. 

We have collected a few instances of our Vowel-Combinations, 
— accented and unaccented, — ^which we commend to the student's 
tasteful practice. The perfect enunciation of these combinations, 
without either of the sounds being impaired in quality, is one of 
the neatest acts of speech, and a sure criterion of the cultivation 
of a reader. 

Vowels l-l. Caries, congeries, minutiae, period, pre-eleet, sanies^ series. . 
1-2. BeiDg, seeing, seine, deity, theism, deism, eaneifomiy deibido, 

corporeity, nereid, howbeit, seity, spontaneity, velleity, 

reiterate, atheist. 
1-3. Create, creator, reagent, enunciation, verbiage, ideate, 

permeate, affiliation, lineage, depreciate, initiate, excoriate, 

foliage, malleate, muriate, obriate, recreate, satiate. 
1-i. Re-echo, arietta, Vienna, acquiesce, oriental, pre-eminent, 

siesta, ambient, requiem, inscience, orient, lenient. 
1-5. Ideal, peean, Sabean, pharisean, react, sodiac, myriad, 

pancreas, lineal, dealbate, meander, genealogy, adamantean, 

alias, encomiast, bronchial, burial, cardialgy, caveat, anteaet. 
1-6. Agreeable, screable, cochleary, theatre, aviary, zea, diarrhoea, 

dulia, mania, dyspnoea, malleable, nausea, scoria, trachea* 
1-7. Dearticulate, pianist, linear. 
1^. Near, bier, deer, appear, cheerful, afeard, veneer, barrier, 

moneyer, courier, glacier, rapier. 
1*^. Theuigy, lyceum, mausoleum, museum, idiot, idiom, curious, 

permeous, cupreous, axiom, amphibious, calcareous, cameous, 

fhrious, geninium,igneons. 
1-10. Deaurate, geology, oeolipile, areotic, areometer, ebriosity, 

curiosity, geoigic, geotic, heliolatry, meteoric, periodical, 

teleology, deobstruct, junior, senior, meteor. 


Vowels 1-12. Leo, peony, xeolite, pleonasm, grayeolent, deodand, geode, 
soagliola, embryo, neoteric, helioscope^ aposiopesis, ratio, 
seraglio, uroeolate. 
1^7-1* Radii^ Agnus-Dei. 
1-10-1. Helioid, eardioid. 
. ... 1-12-1. Vitreo* electric. 

The third element, it will be remembered, is a diphthongal 

1 B 

sound. Its finishing quality of e, or before very open rowels of i, 
must in all cases be heard,^-ofi;en with extreme delicacy of 
shading ; but the total omission of it is un-English. 

Vowels 3-1 . Aerial, phaeton. 

3-2. Playing, grayish, laity, mosaic,tr ochaic, hebraic, clayey, 
judaical, hebraist, archai8m> Judaism. 

3-4. Obeyestj weigheth, prayest. 

3-5. Naiad, abeyance, conveyanoe. 

3-6. Affiraiable, weighable. 

3-8. Weigher, player, gayer, delayer. 
3-10. Aorta, archaiology, chaos, chaotic. 
3-11. Aorist. 
3-12. Aonian, kaolin. 
3-7-1 • Orey-eyed, hebraize, judaize. > 

Thp 4th English vowel occurs initial in but one combination, 

— 4-8, as in air, heiry ere, prayer, care, Ac. 

Notc^^lxL Scotland, a diphthong compounded of 4-1 or 4-2, is commonly 
heard instead of 7-1 > in my, buy, sigh, &c. 

The 5th vowel (an) with the 12th or 13th, is often heard 
among English speakers, instead of the more open vowel which 
correctly forms the first sound of the diphthong ou. Thus, hough, 
thou, how, &c. are pronounced with 5-13, b&-oo, th^-oo, &c. 
There is a mincing effect of affectation in this peculiarity. 

Vowels 7-1. Buy, try, sigh, I, fye, lie. 
7-13. How, noun, drought. 
7-1-1* Hyena, hyemal, empyema, trieterical, syenite, dietetic, diesis 

quietus, strie. 
7-1-2. Buying, sighing, dying, trying, thyine, skyey, shyish. 
7-1-4. Buyest, dieth, science, quiescent, dioeresis, scientific, lien, client 
(rariety, quiet, notoriety, piety, propriety, ubiety.) 

Note, — The words within brackets are often — if not gene- 
rally — pronounced 7-1-2. In Scotland, they are 
contracted into 7-lj and pronounced pah-eety, 
varah-ecty, &c. 


Vowels 7-1 -S. Diameter, iambus, dialogist. eyas, sciatica, biangulous, bias, 
8ialog<)gue, alliance, phial, elegiac, sdagiaphy^ triaL 
7-1-6. Via, viaduct, diapason, pianet, friable, striatore, siriasis. 
7-1-8. Fire, crier, dyer, irierarch, dire, briery, fiery. 
7-1-9. Orion, lion, pious, triumph, scion, iron, triumphal, diurnal. 
7-1*10. Ionic, triobolar, myology, scioptic, dioptrics, diorthosis, prior. 
7-1-12. Iodine, rioleut, trio, sciolist, pioneer, myopy, bryony, inyio- 

lable, diocese, yiolin, meionite, meiosis. 
7-13-1. Advowee. 

7-13-2. Ploughing, allowing, vowing. 
7-13-4. Allowest, voweth, vowel, bowel, rowel, towel. 
7-13-5. Allowance, avowal. 

7-13-8. Our, power, shower, dowery, hour-glass, towering. 
... 7-1 -7-1* Dry-eyed. 

lO-l. Boy, oil, noise, adroit, conoidical, avoid, soil, alloyed, join, 

10-2. Sawing, pawing, drawing, flawy, gnawing, rawish, thawing, 

10-4. Drawest, gnaweth, sawest. 
10-5. Withdrawal. 
10-8. Drawer, rawer, war. 
10-1-2. Boyish, enjoying, annoying^ toying, coyish, cloyii^g. 
10-1-3. Voyage. 

10-1-4. Destroyest, joyeth, employest, annoyeth. 
10-1-5. Buoyance, annoyance, royal, royalty. 
10-1-8. Employer, alloyer, coyer. 

The I2th vowel, like the 3rd, is diphthongal. With less or 
more distinctness its compound quality should be heard in every 
combination in careful reading. Colloquially, however, ^and es- 
pecially before very open vowels, — ^the more open and simple o is 


used instead of o-oo. Care must be taken that the lips do not too 
much modify the 12th vowel, or there will be a tendency to pro- 
duce the articulation w, instead of the vowel oo, before another 

Vowels 12-1. Coeval, proemial, orthoepist. 

12-2. Stoic, owing, doughy, coincidence, poet, poetry, heroine. 

12-.3. Boation, acroamatical. 

12-4, Owest, knoweth, proem, poetical, aloetics, coheir, coefficacy, 

12-5. Coagulate, coadjutor, coagmeot^ coadunition, salsoacid, 


• •• 


Vowels 12-0. Oasis, zedoary^ proa, boa, coacervate. 
12.7. Coarct, coarctation. 
12-8. Coerce, lower, mower, borrower. 
12-10. Co-operate, zoology, zoography, co-ordinate, co-optation. 
12-12. Zeolite, zoophyte. 
12-7-1. Polychroite. 
13-2. Bruit, wooing, truism, druid, fluid, dewy, ruin, fortuitous, im- 
puissance, puissant, assiduity, pituitary, comminuible, Jesuit, 
13-3. Sinuate. 
13-4. Crael, fluent, duel, incruental, inuendo, circumfluence, afiluent, 

13-5. Pursuant, renewal, truant, accentual, casual, manual, mutual. 
13-6. Suable, pursuable, estuary, mantua, mulctuaiy. 
13-8. Brewer, tour, your, cui'e, poor-house, moorish, reviewer, 

durable, mure, lure, surely. 
13-9. Sinuous, innocuous, assiduous, vacuum, fatuous. 
13-10. Fluor, sinuosity, impetuosity. 
13-12. Actuose. 
13-7-1. Pituite. 




Iir the former put of tliiB vork, we have dtmiufujd die theorj 
of Vovel and Aitiealite Fonmlintw We shaD mm pvoeeed to 
make eooie Pkacticil ObserfalioiiB oo each of the fl e meiilB of 
Boyish Speech, and to famish a seiieB of Bzera9ei»ni the prac- 
tice of which the etadent will find the certain means of his im- 
prorement^ whether in Distinctness of Articnlatinn, the Ang^ioia- 
ing of Prorindal ChaiacteiisticB, or the Bemoring of Indindiial 
Faults of Utterance. 
The anangement of the Vowel Exercises is as ficdlows : — 
Fint^ Words are given, containing the soond nnder coosidam- 
tion in utiacctHted sjQaUes : the unaccented Towek are pruUed 

Note. — The exact founds of the towcIb dioiild be heard as ^atmcCty in tlieir 
nhorteit tons, as in the longest. The perfect preGervatiao of the characteristic 
ioonds of the Towds in unacceiUed s^DaUes fiunisheB the most mm*mt«lrfahlc 
evklcooe of aeubnrated pronandation. 

Secdfidliff Words in which the soond is accetUed ; L Before 
a Vowel ; II. Before Breath Articulations, or Liquids followed 
by Breath Articulations ; III. Before Voice Articulations fed- 
lowed bjT a Vowel ; IV. Before Double or Final Voice Articula- 
tions; V. Final 

Thirdly, Words which aredistinguished 5^ tAe^ouiuf from other 
words, with which, in careless utterance, they are liable to be con- 

F(jurthly, WordH of identical sound, but yarious orthography. 



The following Table of English Monophthongs and Diphthongs, 
shows the order in which we shall treat of the Vowels, and arrange 
the Exercises on each. 

as in educe, element, exavioB, sheepfold, beam- 
less, bee. 

. impose^ verilj, differ, dimness. 

. agate, acre, ague, gaj. 

. embrace, empty, embers. 

. erewhile, ere. 

. admire, action, admiral. 

. arouse, academic, sofa, master, baths. 

. partake, partial, pardon, papa. 

>• idea, lightly, mindful, sky. 

. howeyer, doubtfol, loudly, how, 

, , herbaceous, martyr, certain, thirdly, sir. 

.. supply, cutler, cudgel. 

.. curtail, curtain, curdle. 

.. obtain, donkey, dogma. 

., austere, auction, auburn, aure. 

.. boisterous, boiled, boy. 

,. portray, porter, boarder, adore. 

.. omit, disobey, also, motion, moulding, 

... footman, should. 
... utility, ague, bootlace, shooed. 



1, i 






J (short,) 
*' t Gong.) 














f (short,) 
*■ I (long.) 


f (short.) 









^^' 1 Cong.) 


Obsvbvations. — This is the Alphabetic sound of £ in English, and of I in 
the French and other continenta] tongnes. It is the closest of the Lingual 
VowcAb. In its formation, the tongue rises convexly within the arch of the 
palate, and presses laterally against the palate and back-teeth, leaving only a very 
narrow 2q[)ertiun8 for the voice, between the middle of the tongue and palate. 

A very common fault in the formation of this vowel consists in the depres- 
sion of the point of the tongue to the lower teeth — a position which, besides 
being injurious to the quality of the vowel, is unfavourable to the action of the 
tongue for many of the Articulations. The tongue must be kept back^ and its 
point directed horizontally, to guide the sound out of the mouth without striking 
the teeth. The teeth must, of course, be sufficiently apart : they should, for 
no vowel, have a less opening than a quarter or a third of an inch. 

so FlliST V.jWfiL. 

Many penmis tayi tu pmiiuaMe 'iu vowei mtk pvitf . wfaia k ■ 
emphmJB, «peeiafly when fimi : « in -^3> be jr aot oi he"* **■€ 
^^ tfaej ^uill be &ee«** '^ to '4£ep;» p ntajuB e a> ii«BL** 
rastfing M ^ mumikj fitm too ctet ^jr^mie i^ifnaimmkm. To 

praooniiQe ipondi imrtfiif; with a, ani (Arefl « ike jmni for 

ing that the tungv iftkepft psMiiT ^dfl iai& the mmd be iEnHhal a the 

In Soothynl thb vowid n» gwud h kjkiati t'a ifj e wf ani 'jmamiib§i the 
e m nMgt» ineatt» te>^ hang so— iedL ah—e ae ahraprfr mdaiK in meehMJe, b 
many tiaaeB» the 3itl Towei, but tot smku and wiiheni 
termiiiatun^ i» dobititateil dir the l£C : ±ni aHiL saoi, deoi^ dkcL, 
notmoed nuUe, stittet dAfe» ^ Hm ^wniiTiilj jb— id be ahnoefc 
to wonb spdkd with ea. 

A aimflar eomhinge of vuwdb tafase plaee in IniaBi: bnt aoEh woris » 
awaiii^ cfaiti^ 9efa£ine« ^b^ where the junnd ie vacioiaiT nfRaennd, peitafci 
ofthepeenfianty. The Irish Mond biaoieopnaad prohn^Bi thai the SaiftE^ 
anditaToeafity iekaip«re» bong mind with the jukiniati ie A iy i utiu n whiek 
of the Iridb JiaiBet. 

i9fi»te.~Vowei I, ia aefahan osaetlf aonnM in ai imMiiiaiil ijHrfih 
ifiateij after the tuxeiU^ m in a{iprtile» MritK.— ^ ^ poKtiafee, &e. fii 
caeee it ia TCfr Qahle to take the mora ofMt wd easor &m of the 2nd YdweL 
Before die cnnxnt, howerer, » m tidEtion^ bcaeaeh, pneoowa^ letmn, jhe^the 
lat fiirmatinn mmk always be cacefiiDy prafianred. 

UnacceiUed. — abflnmcate, ac«tatB» adequate. <«ttte> aggeiatBaii, 
aggragaitB, algsbnv ali&s> albggrr, ambergrtsy ambten^ aiunn- 
meter, anhdatioii, aatdope> antmieiic, aotemuv, aiitxpoda% appn- 
hend, arum, aasotftudey atii6ist» aTuuy^ axsom ; bacanae, iMfiote* 
babold, hekfWy hmeaih^ baoiNich* bareft» between, btfware, beyoad; 
enate, cndnfity; daalbate^ dMoiate, (kbar, December, dtfdaoD* 
defimct, dtfbort* dont^^mte, dalaj» demand, dsmy, dfluzjdaabB, 
depoot* denaan, doscend^ datain» d^relop ; ebadet^^ tfcfipuw 
a ditkm, daatic, dicit; «maciate» 0mit» «ner?ate, enon^^ aoBc^ 
eofian, ^pisde, equator, areet^ espouse, erade, erent, e^cate* 
exxrwia; fecmidity, ft^eity; generic, gisotic, geology; haw- 
cEtaij, heroic; letfaargicy brant; meander^ meefaaDic, w^ 
mento, nmutaeums, metropi£»; necesaty, ne£arioii8> negatwii. 

nedogj ; orsent, obsaqnies ; pecofiar, pedantic 


preamble^ precede, precipitate, precocious, predict, prefer, pre-emi- 

eat, prehensile, preliminarj, premtum, prenunciation, preoccupy, 

prepare, prerogative, prescind, preserve, pretend, prevail; react, 

realitj, rebellion, receive, recover, redundant, regard, rehearse, 

reiterate, rejoice, relapse, religion, remember, remonstrate, renew, 

renown, repair, reprehend, republic, request, research, resolve, 

resource, result, retail, return, revere, revisit, reward, rhetorical ; 

secession, secrete, secure, sedate, select, senescence, setaceous, 

severity, stereotype ; temerity, terreous, theatrical, theocracy, 

tremendous ; vegetate, vehement, velocity, veranda ; zetetic. 

Note, — R, after long vowels, has the sound of the 8th vowd, (as in sir). Its 
oombination with e will therefore give the diphthong 1 -8. The omission of 

the 8th vowd IVom snch words as ear^ here, cheer, &o. is a Scotticisra. There 

is, besides, a harshness in the junction of e with the articulative effect of R, 

which is gracefully avoided by the interposition of the open element which is 

always heard in English. 

Care must be taken to avoid the intervention of any similar sound between 

e and L or N : the habit of inserting another vowel in tliis situation prevails in 
Scotland ; but these articulations must be directly joined to the simple and un- 
changed vowel. 

Accented. — I. Adhere, aerial, albeit, apotheosis, appear, aureola, 

eneid, idea, cheerful, unreal, really, sphere, weary, fierce, pierce, 

shire, zero, we're, pier, rear, bier. 

II. Reaf, chief, leaf, belief; eke, apeak, unique, seek, speaker, 
pique, weakness ; steeple, deep, people, keeper, heap, weep ; 
antoeci, apiece, auxecis, east, easter, exegesis, obese, fleece, 
priesthood, police, pelisse, increase; accretion, appreciate, specious; 
acetous, excrete, feature, meetness, sweet, treaty, conceit, seat, 
veto ; appeach, beech, preacher, leeches, teaching ; ethiop, ether, 
heath, wreath, teeth. 

III. Abstemious, adhesion, leisure, seizure, aegis, alleviate, 
amphisboena, aphelion, arena, arundelian, eagle, easy, edict, 
either, emir, enfeeble, even, evil, expedient, illegal, feasible, in- 
gredient, mediate, oadema, feeling, ingenious, {^easing, reason, 
sheathing, penal, tedious, meagre, peevish, abbreviate. 


. I 


-: •»' 

^ i>] 




1* I MH^t 








































Observations. — This sound we are inclined to consider ahnost as a charac- 
teristic of the English language, fh>m its frequent occurrence in English, and 
its compai'atively little use in other modem languages. It has been generally 
reckoned the short form of the 1st vowel, — but erroneously. The shortest 

utterance of 6 will be a distinctly different sound firom this, which, as its position 

1 3 

in pur table indicates, is a formation intermediate to those of e and a. The 

tongue, from its position at e, is depressed for the 2nd vowel, about half way 


to its position for a, — as careful experhnent will manifest. 

There is no longer form of this vowel in English, than that of the word 
hinge; but the. prolongation of the sound is of course quite practicable. 

The second vowel is not heard in English before R, final or followed by any 
articulation: the 8th vowel is substituted in these cases. When the R is 
followed by another vowel^ as in muror, mii-ade, &c. the i has generally the 
sound of the second vowel, — as before other articulations. 

In Scotland, we hear, instead of this vowel, a peculiar and more open sound, 
nearly approaching to that of the 4th English Vowel, being a formation inter- 
mediate to the 3rd and 4th. This will be found noted in our General Scheme, 
(page 28) as the 4th of the Lingual series. 

Among Northern speakers, ambitious of an English enunciation, but who have 
been taught to believe that the vowels 66(1) and iQ\ arc identical in formation, 
we frequently hear the 1st instead of the 2nd vowel, as in vision, condition, 
suspicion, &c., pronounced veesion, condeetion, suspeecion, &c. This need 
not any longer be a mark of Northern English, for there is no difficulty in pro- 
ducing the true sound of the English element when once its formation is under- 

The 2nd vowel is common enough in Scotch under another form. It is heai'd 
instead of the shoi-t sowid of the French u, (The 3rd Lahio-lingual vowel, 
0. V. S. page 28), which is vernacular in Scotland. Thus the word g*ide, 
(good) is in many districts, pronounced exactly like the first syllabic in giddy : 


andf where tliis custom prevsuls, we bear the sound opened into a(3) in long 

syllables, as in do^ pronounced da^ (without the English diphthongal quality ;) 

thus practically illostrating and corroborating our remark at page 30 on the 

tendency of i(!2) to be lengthened into a(3) rather than into 6(1). We have 

besides numerobs instances in English of a(3) being shortened into t(2), as in 

the final syllables of tarriage^ marriage^ cabbage^ orange^ &c, pronounced 

idge^ inge, &c. 

2 3 

In the Irish dialect we have i, opened into a, and sometimes into the proxi- 
mate Scotch vowel noticed above. Thus ill is by Irish speakers pronounced 
nearly like ale in English, his like hazcj forgive like forgave^ &c. 

In the unaccented terminations, ?7, in, ive, &c., we generally hear Element 

9 in Ireland ; as in peril, motive, genuine, &c., which are pronounced nearly 

as if spelled peniZ, moiuv, gennun, &c. Anothei* Irish peculiarity is to sound 

1 2 11 2 

Y final, imaccented, like e instead of i, as pretty, many, &c. for pretty, 

2 « 
mojiy, &c. 


Unaccented. — Abdicate, abditive, accident, acrid, admonish, 
adventive, agile, agitate, agonism, algid, alkali, airy, ashy, ambit, 
amicable, amice, amortise, amplitude, anaglyph, analysis, anguish, 
animal, anise, antidote, architect, argentine, article, assassin, 
auspice, axis, baby, bony, booty, bushy, busy, beauties, bodies, 
critic, caitifif, cherubim, captain, curtain, certain, cockatrice, 
conduit, creditable, chary, cherry, dervis, dreamy, duty, daisy, 
edible, egotism, eighty, segis, evitable, every, easy, fishes, flighty, 
fury, finny, fancies, finish, furtive, forfeit, foimtain, gelid, greasy, 
gory, healthy, hurry, happy, honey, hostile, hospital, hereditary, 
holy, holly, icicle, icy, livid, lattice, latitude, ladies, loamy, 
leafy, laughing, lordship, mastiff, mimic, mountain, miraculous, 
merit, missive, many, money, marry, merry, mossy, mighty, 
naughty, knotty, navies, ninny, noddies, omnibus, orifice, orpiment, 
origin, oxygen, oily, pencil, prehensile, premise(s), precipice, pre- 
mises, poppies, plaguy, pity, petty, putty, posy, pithy, retinue, 
reddish, roguish, roughly, racy, ruddy, sooty, sorry, slippery, 
sheriff, servile, subtile, seraphim, similitude, syringe, spicy, saucy, 
slily, sully, tumid, tariff, thummim, turnip, treatise, tarry, (adj.) 


tarry, (v.) tiny, tetchy, vivid, vestige, virility, visit, vallies, 
very, wiry, witty ; average, baggage, breakage, brokerage, cab- 
bage, carriage, cribbage, courage, cottage, image, leakage, 
marriage, message, orange, passage. 

Accented, — II. Abyss, anticipate, amiss, distance, crystal, listen, 
missile,' risk, piston, scissible, thistle, whisper, hyssop ; slipper, 
antipathy, frippery, whip, pipkin, sippet, stipulate, strip, triple ; 
lift, whiff, swiftly, gift ; pith, frith, smith ; bittern, citron, citizen* 
ditto, ditch, fit, kitten, litter, little, admittance, literal, literature, 
literally, literarily, admit, knit, pit, pitcher, capitulate, written, 
rich, wit ; ambitious, fish, dish, agnition, vicious, bishop, antiscii, 
wish ; wicked, auricular, quicksand, ticket, brick, pickle, sick, 
diction, stricture, afSx, mix, admixture; imp, limp, simper, shrimp, 
tympanum ; lymph, symphony, nymph ; filth, plynth, Sc^nthiau, 
grilse, since, wince, princely, minster, quince, evince; chintz, 
flint, printing, scintillate, stinted, inch, pinch, filter, milter, milch, 
hilt, guilty ; milk, silken, ink, brink, drink, wrinkle, trinket, lynx. 

III. Nibble, cribbage, gibbous, exhibit; imitate, simmer, 
women, limit, timorous, intimidate ; living, quiver, vivify, carni- 
vorous, oblivion ; wither, hither, thither ; busy, busiljr, dizziness, 
visit, prism, drizzle, invisible, prison ; fiddle, hideous, fastidious, 
idiom, avidity ; administer, anguineal, dinner, liniment, minnow, 
guinea, miniature ; utility, ambilogy, anguilliform, miller, milliner, 
billow, lily, gillyflower, pillage, village, chilly ; lyric, mirror, 
miracle, spirit, myriad ; wriggle, rigorous, vigour, bigger ; singer, 

IV. Fib, nib, rib, squib, giblet, biblical ; give, live, sieve, 
livelong ; with ; his, quiz, business, wisdom ; did, bid, fiddler, 
kid, midshipman, midge, amidst, vigil, width ; fin, grin, gives, 
hindrance, kindred, minion, spindle, sin, stingy, astringent, hinge, 
window, thin, chin, vineyard, rescind ; drill, bill, gills, hill, killed, 
silver, children, film, fulfil, million, instil, illness, bilge, bewilder ; 
big, figs, dig, wigged, higgler, jig, pigment, ignorant, cygnet, 
signal ; ring, fling, wing, kingdom, jingle, finger, thing, tingle, 
eringa, shingle, ringlet. 


Dutingni^h between 
« r n ~ 

pasfiibk and poasaUe. aspirate and asperate. 

i f 

gennin — German. sar;^*e .. sorj^iis. 

4 f 

rabbit ^^ rabbet. :iabtik .^ sabtfe.(jprsiitlle.) 

Words of the same prcmmeiaiiony hut dijferetd ortkograpkj^, 
eandid candied cliff clef 

empirical empjrical gild guild 

linka Ijnx signet cjgnet 

tint teint 


OBSERVATiosrs. — ^Tbe depresaoa of the tongue to a pootioa as moeh Bore 
open thao that of i(2) as the latter is more open tiian that of e(l), prodaeeB 
the Towd whidk it the alphabetic soiiDd of £ in French. This soond is not 
heard nngfy in Fjigfiah, bat is ahrays d^thongally tapered into or towards 
the eioeest fingnal rowd ee. The omisaon of this ^phthongal termination to 
the third rowel it a mariLed pnyvinciafism, and is one of the leading featores of 
the Seoitifth dialect, in which the mon<^thongal a==e Frmcft is a Yery common 
Towd. When the English a^^Hi-e occurs before a Toicdcss articolation, the 
ranishiDg somid (e) it so abmpt, and so blended with the radical a as to be 
with diiBcahy dittii^^iiiflhed hy the unpractised ear : but the contrasted utterance 
(/mM!h words at mate^ cape, lake^ jrc. bj an Englishman and a Scotdmian, 
win show that even in the shortest utterance of this vowd the two demits are 
really present in En^ish pronnndatioii. When the vowd is final, or before 
voice articulations, its compound quality will be unmistakeabty manifested. 

The En^h custom of making this vowd a diphthong is very apt to throw 
the radical part of the sound too open, so that we often hear 4-1 instead of 
S'l, from careless speakers. 

The dd vowd is not heard before R in the same syllable in England. R, which 
has the sound of the 8th vowd, could not follow the dose finish of the English 
a without creating a uew syllable ; and therefore the 4th vowd — ^whioh readily 
blends with the 8th, is always substituted, as in air, care, Sfc, pronounced 

4 9 4 9 

rti-r, ca-re, ffc. 

The Scotch a, bdng a monophthong, unites with R in the same syllable, 
and, therefore, is retained in those words which in English have the more open 
ftound — (4) ; so that there is a very marked difierenoe betwixt the English and 
the Scotch pronundation of such words as air, pear, heir, Sfc, 

In Scotland the 8d vowel is used in many words instead of the English 

12th ; as in stone, bone, alone, &c., pronounced st^ne, bSne, al^ne, &c. This 

a 12 
is another indication of the analogy between a and o, which we have noticed at 

pngo 25. 



Unaccented, — Serial, aorta, aonian, archaiology, archaism, 
vacate;* adage, dotage, herbage, homage, mortgage, salvage, 
tillage, umbrage, vassalage, wharfage; preface, surface, 
menace, palace, terrace; paraphrase, ukase ;t agate, allegate, 
advocate, antedate, cerate, confederate, deliberate, dedicate, 
dissipate, emigrate, extricate, electorate, habitate, initiate, 
inmate,- legate, meditate, oblate, palatinate, pontificate, phos- 
phate, sulphate, situate, portrait ; acroamatical, ansated, astrolabe, 
counterpane, murrain, wassail, travail, headache, landgrave, 
margrave, survey(s), roundelay, essay(s). 

Accented, — I. Aorist, chaos, crayon, obejest, gajetj, greyish, 
clayey, paying, saying, surveyor, weigher, archaic, alcaic, aerate. 

II. Crape, draper, maple, papist, hal^enny^ rapier, sapient, 
tape, staple, drapery, vapour, insapory ; safe, waif, chafe, wafer, 
safety; faith, faithful, wraith, scaith; ace, base, face, phasic, 
graceful, hasty, mace, plaice, complacent, race-horse, erase, waste, 
obeisance ; nation, approbation, gracious, education, equation, 
oration, spacious ; eight, bait, great, fated, hatred, crater, lately, 


nature, enate, equator, straight, potato, waiter; ache, baker, 
naked, opaque, sacred, snake, vacant, breaker, wake ; plaintive, 
complaint, mayn^t, acquaintance, saint, restraint, quaintly. 

III. Able, babyhood, daybook, labial, neighbour, nabob, sabre, 
tabor, stable ; amiable, famous, claimant, paymaster, gaming ; 
bravery, favour, engraving, quaver, slavery, saving, wavy ; 
bathing ; brazen, blazon, hazy, lazar, nazal, razor ; azure, oc- 

* From the diphthongal nature of this vowel it is comparatively seldom heard 
in unaccented syllables : in the terminations age, ace, atn, al, &c., the Second 
vowel is generally substituted; but a few words are given above, as, in deliberate 
^leaking, the Tlurd vowel would not be pedantic, and is often heard, especially 
in such words as dotage, herbage, mortage, ^., where the preceding syllabic 
is loni;. 

2 4 

t The colloquial tendency is to open the termination ate into et ; but the 
Third vowel is uniformly heard from good speakers. 




cosion, abradioii, eya^ion ; faded, degrading, heyday, lady, 
decadence, cradle, maidenly, radient, trading ; caning, craniam, 
waning, zany, drainer, gala, exhaling, jailer, paling, tailor, sailor ; 
sago, plaguy, plaguing. 

IV. Ably, stabler, scabrous, babe ; aim^ blameless, dame, 
James, exclaim, lamely, namesake, shame, tamed, came; 
brayely, graveness, behaviour, sacred, slaves, waveless, waive, 
they've, cave ; bathe, lathe ; baize, brazed, haze, crazed, maize, 
amazed, surveys, weighs, chaise, brazier, grazier; aid, braid, 
flayed, arcade, allayed, shadeless^ obeyed, age, umbragious, 
^^g^'^f gSMge, major, stage, wager, rage ; brains, gains, reniain- 
der, domain, pain, reign, reindeer, stained, attainder, vainly, 
stainless, banefdl; ale, dale, frailtj, hailstone, nails, assailed, 
veiled, bewail ; craig, vaguely, plague, vagrant, flagrant. 

y. Bay, obey, fray, clay, nei^^, prey, ray, dismay, tray, sleigh, 
weigh, survey, inveigh, yea, they, array, dray, jay, allay, grey, 
hay, gay. 

Distinguish between 

Payer and pair I Layer and lair 

Weigher and wear | May<Hr and mare 

Gayer and gare. 

Words of the same Pronunciation hut different Orthography, 










































































Observations. — In forming this sound, the oral channel is enlarged by the 
depression of the fore-part of the tongue, from its position at a(d), about as 
much as it was increased from ee to a. This formation is one of the cardinal 
points in the vowel scale, being about midway between the closest and most open 
fbrmations ee and ah ; the vowel is one of the commonest in all languages. It is 
the note uttered by the sheep in bleating. 

A vowel intermediate to this and the preceding formation is heard in Scotland, 
as the vernacular sound of the English i, in ill, in, it, &c. This is one of the 
most common vowels in the Scottish dialect ; it is heard instead of the English 
4 th in cherry, merry, &c. ; instead of the 8th in her, sir, &c. ; the 9th in 
does^ &c. ; the 13th input, foot, &c : combined with ee, it makes the Scottish 
form of the English diphthong 7-1, as in ay, child, idle, mine, &c. ; and it is 
heard, besides, in numerous unaccented syllables. 

The organic change from the 4th vowel position to the succeeding formation 
is comparatively minute ; and consequently the sounds 4 and 5 are liable to be 
confounded. The English long form of vowel 4 (lieard only before R) often 
verges on 5 ; and in Scotland the short form is characteristically subject to 


the same change ; perish being pronounced almost like the English parish, 

5 5 

very like varry, heaven like hav\ &c. In some districts, or in some words, 

4 5 

the converse of this change takes place, and we hear kerrier for carrier, 

A 5 

merry for marry, &c. 

A peculiarity similar to the former occurs in the Irish dialect, in which such 

words as men, pen, bed, &c., are pronounced nearly like man, pan, bad, &c. 

The long form of this vowel — identical with the French ^ in m^me, b^te, &c. 

3 8 

-—is that sound which we have said is substituted for A before R in English. 

It is heard in no other position in our language. In Scotland it is common as 

the sound of the English diphthong 7-1, when final, as in eye, high, buy, my, 

try, &c. ; and also in emphatic or strongly accented syllables it is heard instead 

of A (3), as in " Isay,^^ ^^awayP^ '•^admiration, tribidation,'' &c., pronounced 

'' I iEH," " aivYM !" " adniirEUtion,'^ &c. 



An ear oiuiociiBtoiiied to analyse Yocal sounds, may possibly, at first, fail to 
recognise tbe same Towel formation in the words eU and ere ^ air =» heir ; 
arising fixMn its combination in the latter words with the open R(8): bat 
dose observation and caiefiil eiqperiment will satisfy the donnrring ear of the 
correctness of oar classification. When we find aD our orthoepists at fiudt with 
this sonnd, and see even Mr Walker, in his laborious analysis of the prindples 
of oar language, omitting to notice this lengthened sound of ek ; naj, assarting 
that ea in bear^ e in there^ &c. are the same in vowel quality as a in trade,, 
ai in pain^ &c., we cannot expect our new doctrine to be received without 
question. It is, however, most certain that all English speakers at the present 
day do make a difference in the sound of a as in care and in cane ; and there 
can be no doubt that Mr Walker, fifty years ago, must have made a corres- 
pondent difference between them in his own practice, or else the very obvious 
difference now made must have grown with marvellous rapidity and obstinacyi 
at variance as it is with the theories of our orthoepists. To the qualified ear we 
appeal to corroborate our well tested conclusion, that the a and e in vary and 
very are identical in quality^ and different only in quantity or fulness ; just as 
the long sounds in yawn and pool are — confessedly by all orthoepists — the same 
in quality with the short ones in yon and pull. 

The combination of this long vowel with R, it must be remembered, consti- 
tutes a diphthong, viz. 4-8. Thus, 

48 48 48 482 

pa - ir, be - ar, sha - re, va - r - y. 

Let the reader pronounce the words in the first of the two following columns, 
omitting the vowel-sound of the r, and joining its articulative effect to the first 
vowel as abruptly as possible, and his pronunciations should correspond to the 
words in the second column : or, conversely, let him pronounce the words in the 
second column with the interposition of the vowel-sound of R between its arti- 
culative effect and the preceding vowel, and his utterances should give the words 
in the first column. 

fairy, ferry. 

vary, very. 

chary, cherrj'. 

Mary, meny. 

dairy, Derry . 

airing, erring. 

But it is not every ear that will be at once competent for this experiment. 
We every day see how difficult it is for the unpractised organs to analyze even 
the simplest words into their elementary sounds ; and how hard it sometunesis 
to get the judgment to assent to the correctness of what seems so strange and 
peculiar as the separate utterance of the elements of language. The ear requires 
peculiar training, as well as natural acutcness, to catch and distinguish tJie 
transient and shadowy tones of the speaking voice with accuracy. Even ex- 


cellence in utterance or in the practice of mumc, would appear to be no certain 
qualification for this peculiar province of the critical ear : thus Mr Rice, in his 
Art of Reading, wishing to prove the untenable assertion, that speaking sounds 
do not range between tones of various acuteness or gravity, but differ only in 
force or intenmty, like the notes of a drum, — says, ^^ That I might not be mis- 
taken, however, myself, in this particular, I repeated at different times several 
passages fit)m Milton and other poets, in the hearing of one of tlie greatest mas- 
ters in that science, (Music) who, after paying the utmost attention to the seve- 
ral articulate sounds in each sentence, declared them to be all of the same tone I** 
No fact in the sdence of speech is better established than that all speaking 
sounds partake of an upward or downward movement— called an inflexion— of 
the voice ; and that, consequently, there is not a sameness of tone throughout any 
correetly-delivered articulate sound ; but here were a Professor of the Art of 
Speech^ and ^* one of the greatest Masters in Muaic" deceived in that particular. 
We cannot, therefore, wonder if critics, less apparently qualified than these 
professional Masters of Sound, should be unable— or unwilling, against general 
theoretic authority — ^to corroborate by accurate experiment our Vowel-Theory and 
classification. Accustomed, as we are, to a false scheme of representative letters, 
it is not easy to examine sounds by the ear alone, irrespective of their signs ; 
but tins must be done by the philosophical student of speech. 

Let the Northern reader now endeavour to lengthen the vowel in the word 

eU^ — and he will produce the sound which, followed by the peculiar formation er, is 

regularly heard in English instead of the 3d vowel before R in the same syllable. 


4 (short) Unaccented. — Bip^d, learned, sacred, forest, hellenic, 
minstrel, majesty, Messiah,' project, (s.) peremptory, quadruped, 

In the initial syllables^ ef, em, en, ex, Ac, ; as in efface, effect, 
efficient, effeminate, effete, effulgent, effuse ; ellipse, elliptic ; em- 
balm, embellish, embezzle, embody, emphatic, empiricism, em- 
ploy ; enable, enamel, encamp, enchant, enclitic, endear, endea- 
vour, endow, enfeeble, engage, engorge, engrare, enhance, enjoy, 
enkindle, enlarge, enlighten, ennoble, enrich, enslave, entire, en- 
viron ; erratic, erroneous ; eschew, essay, (v.) eccentric, eclectic, 
ecstatic, exact, example, exceed, except, exchange, exculpate, exe- 
cutor, exempt, exergue, exhale, exhilarate, explain, explicit, ex- 
pression, exsiccate, extend, exterior, extol, extract, extreme, exude, 
exult, &c. 


In the terminations, ed, edst, ence, ent, est, eth, less, ment, ness, dec, ; 
as in blighted, dreaded, weeded, elated, noted ; blottedst, mould- 
edst, jelledst ; evidence, penitence, essence, conscience ; provi- 
dent, different, eminent, serpent, comment, (s.) washest, bathest, 
veilest ; breaketh, laugheth, aideth, shibboleth ; headless, heed- 
less, edgeless, soulless, aimless, useless ; government, refinement, 
figment, segment, indictment, ointment, ailment ; wickedness, 
happiness, madness, likeness, illness, lameness, wanness, witness, 
freshness, blitheness, emptiness, harness. 

4 (short) Accented, — II. Depth, depurate, heptarchy, jeopardy, 
kept, wept, leopard, pepper, reprobate, reptile, sceptic, separate, 
tepid, shepherd, epitaph ; effluent, deaf, feoff, cephalalgy, feoffor, 
heifer, zephyr, bereft, theft ; death, saith, ethics, lethargy, method, 
breath, bethel ; bless, best, breast, essence, arrest, fester, guess, 
jessamine, lesson, message, pestle, pessimist, pressed, sessile, tes- 
tament, invest, zest, vesicate ; debt, better, detriment, etiquette, 
etch, fret, etymon, heterodox, heterogene, jet, kettle, metaphor, 
metal, metrical, petty, petulant, retinue, reticle, wretch, veteran, 
wet, yet, treachery, thetical ; fresh, profession, especial, thresh- 
hold, mesh, session, procession ; deck, beckon, elect, mechanism, 
neck, nectarine, peck, wreck, rector, protect, technical, check, 
equerry, equitable, equinox, freckle, peculate — Help, helper, help- 
mate, yelp, whelp ; delf, Delphian, belfrey, Guelf, pelf, selfish, 
shelf, elfin ; health, stealth, wealth ; else, elsewhere, keelson ; 
Celts, dealt, felt, helter-skelter, knelt, melting, shelter, welts, 
belch ; Welsh, Welshman ; elk, welkin ; emphasis, Memphian ; 
empire, emperor, empress, hemp, temper, sempervive, temple, 
temporal, temperate, temse, sempster, sempstress ; dreamt, 
empty, attempt ; emption, pre-emption, redemption ; tenth ; pence, 
density, prehensile, commence, pensive, sensitive, spencer, tense, 
whence, wainscot ; bent, indent, dental, entity, nonentity, meant, 
mental^ pentagon^ scent, assent, tentative, content, events ven- 
tricle* went, twenty, blench, drench, henchman, wrench, retrench ; 
gentian, pension, providential ; lengthen^ lengthwise. 


III. — Ebbing, pebble ; headed^ wedding, meadow, ready, dedi- 
cate, medical, predicate, redolent, sediment, zedoarj, treadle, 
steady ; beverage, crevice, ever, evidence, heaven, levy, level, revel, 
lenigate, prevalent, reverie, seven, endeavour ; blemish, emanate, 
emigrant, feminine, general* hemisphere, hemorrhage, lemma, me- 
mory, supremacy, seminary, cemetery, semibreve ; feather, to- 
gether, heather, nether, weather, wether, whether, tether ; hesi- 
tate, peasant, presence, resident, resin, resolute, resonant, mesen- 
tery ; berry, burial, beryl, ceremony, derogate, eremite, errand, 
error, ferret, ferreous, herald, heritage, heroine, peregrinate, pe- 
remptory, peril, perishable, seraph, terebrate, very, veracund, 
verify, wherry ; bellow, cellar, delicate, element, eloquence, felon, 
gelid, gelatin, hellebore, helical, jelly, melancholy, melody, pellet, 
pellicle^ prelate, relevant, relegate, relic, stellar, spelling, telegraph, 
teller, vellum, vermicelli, zealous, zealot ; benefit, denizen, deni- 
grate, enemy, energy, fennel, kennel, menace, pennate, penance, 
penetrate, penny, renegade, rennet, senate, seneschal, splenetic, 
tenable, tenement, tennis, venerate, venom, zenith ; measurable, 
pleasure, treasury ; beggar, dreggy, legate, legacy, megacosm, 

IV. — Ebb, web, February, pebbly, hebdomad, nebula ; bed-rid, 
educate, headlong, medley, pedlar, hedger, edge, allege, sledge, 
bed, bread, dead, fled, head, said, instead, sped, tread, wed, hegira, 
legend, schedule, regimen, vegetate ; tremble, tremulous, sem- 
blance, remnant, remember, membrane, hemlock, emulate, em- 
brocate, ember, emblem, condemn, phlegm, gem, them, stem ; 
brethren ; says, presbyter ; bell, dell, ell, fell, knell, quell, sell, 
swell, tell, rebel, (v.) compel, well, yell, shell, beldam, belluine, de- 
luge, delve, elbow, elder, elves, elm, helmet, helve, prelude, (s.) 
realm, seldom, sheldrake, velvet ; den, fen, again, ben, ken, men, 
ten, wen, then, when, dendroid, endless, engine, envoy, envy, fend, 
friend, gender, genuine, lend, mend, mendicant, penman, pendent, 
pendulum, penguin, phengite, render, slender, splendid, strenuous, 
tenure, tender, tendril, vengeance, venison, Wednesday, wend ; 



beg, egg, keg, leg, peg, eglantine, segment, integrity, regulate, 
regnant, impregnable, phlegmon, negligent, segregate, tegument. 


4 (long— only before R). — I. Airy, bearable, daring, fairy, garish, 
flaring, glaring, hairy, heiress, carious, Mary, prairie, pairing, 
tearing, vary, variable, wearer, sharing, chary, charily, comparing, 
unvarying, sparing, staring, scarer, ensnaring, swearer ; heirloom, 
scarecrow, prayerless, yarely ; bear, bare, dare, air, Ayr, ere, e'er. 
Eyre, heir, fare, fair, glare, hair, lair, mare, ne'er, pare, pear, pair, 
prayer, rare, spare, stare, scare, snare, tear, tare, wear, ware, yare, 
share, chair, there, where. 

In bricklayer, stage-player, rate-payer, &c., where layer, payer, 
&c. are unaccented, the monosyllabic form 4-8 is generally heard, 
as in prayer ; but when these or similar words are emphatic, as 
in the sentence, " a good worker makes the best player,^* the dissyl- 
labic form 3-1-8 should be preserved. 



essay (v.) 


pendent (a.) 
pendant (s.) 






Distinguish between 

effluent enallage 

affluent analogy 

elocution evocation 
allocution avocation 












Words of the same Pronunciation, but different Orthography. 

















stair tare 
stare tear 

berry bread iH'east ' read 
bury bred Brest red 



Observations. — This vowel is characteristically an English one. Its for- 
mation is slightly more open than that of the preceding sound — by the depres- 
sion of the middle of the tongue backwards. The vowels fh>m ee to eA are 
produced by depressions of the fore-part, while the middle or back of the tongue 

4 7 

remains elevated ; those fh>m eh to ah bring down the middle of the tongue, 
and so evenly enlarge the whole cavity of the mouth. 

The tendency to interchange the vowels 4 and 5 has been noticed under the 
former of these. In Scotland, it is not unusual to hear the 4th soimd in the 
effort to hit the peculiar English formation 5, which the unaccustomed organs 
do not readily take with precision. Mincing and affected speakers in England 
pronounce 4 instead of 5, as — ** The ettitudes were edmirable." In some words 
this change is established by almost universal custom ; as in any, many, pro- 
nounced enny, menny. 

The 5th vowel, when initial, is liable to be confounded with the 6th or 7th in 
the article a, as in 

arrode, attest, appeal, accustom, 

a road, a test, a peal, a custom, &c. 

There is a shade of difference in the articulation as well as in tlie vowel-sound 
of these combinations, though the distinction is not generaUy attended to. 

In Scotland, the 5th vowel is seldom heard ; the usual pronunciation of all 
words with that element in English, being a short sound of a (7), as in are. 
Thus the verb tarry has in Scotland the same sound as the adjective tarry in 
England — but more abrupt ; cap has a short sound of ca(r)p, back of ba(r)k, 


Unaccented, — Abbreviate, abduce, abhor, abjure, absent, (v.) 
absolve, absorb, abstain, acclaim, accredit, accrue, accumulate, 
acquiesce, address, adhere, adjacent, adjure, administer, admire 
admonish, advert, advise, afflict, aggress, allude, alternate, ambi- 
tion, antarctic, anterior, antique, appertain, apprehends asbestos, 
ascertain^ assuage, assume^ atlantean, annual^ banian^ baptize, 
caviare^ hallucinate^ disturbance^ diaphragm^ diagonal^ epigram, 
heroicals headland^ collateral^ general, principal, lineal> dissonant, 
consonants epitaph, cenotaph, lactescent, lampoon, lascar, magnetic, 
mandamus^ mazarine^ myriad, nankeen, olympiad, orgasm, 
plantation, pleonasm, regal, spheroidal, transmit, transfer, trans- 
form^ translate, tattoo, vagrant, Vandyke, woodland. 


Accented. — II. Accident, accurate, acid, acetate, acme, acrid, act, 
action, actual, afiBable, affluent, apathy, apple, aphony, aphorism, 
apogee, apophthegm, appetite, apposite, apsis, apt, aquiline, ash, 
aspect, asperate, asinine, assassin, assonance, asthma, at, atlas, 
atmosphere, atom, atrophy, attic, attitude, axe^ axiom, axis ; 
bachelor, back, baffle, baptism, bashful, bat, batch, batten, battle, 
cap, capital, captain, cat, category, catholic, catch, clap, clatter, 
crackle, drachma, facile, fact, faculty, fashion, fat, fatuous, flap, 
flash, flatter, flatulent, fracture, gap, gash, glacier, gracile, graphic, 
grapple, gratify, hackney, hap, happen, hatch, jackal, jasper, 
lacerate, lack, lapidary, lapse, lassitude, lateral, latin, latitude, 
lattice, lax ; macerate, machinate, mackerel, maculate, map, 
masculine, massacre, match, mat, matin, matrimony, matter, 
maxim, nap, naphtha, napkin, nascent, pacify, packet, pap, 
paralysis, passion, passive, patent, patch, patrimony, placid, 
platter, practice, quack, raffle, rapid, rat, rational, rattle, relapse, 
refractory, sack, sacrament, sacrilege, saflron, sapphire, satchel, 
satin, satire, satisfy, saturate, Saturday, Saxon, scaffold, scatter, 
scrap, scratch, slash, snap, snaffle, spatter, sprat, stack, static, 
statue, stratagem, tacit, tabid, tactic, tap, tapestry, tax, that, 
thrash, thwack, tractable, traffic, trappings, yacuate, vaccinate, 
vacillate, vapid, vascular, vat, waft, wax. 

Alchymy, alcohol, alkali, alphabet, altercate, altitude, ample, 
amputate, ancestor, anchor* ankle, antre> anthem* antic* antler, 
anxious, balcony, bank^ banquet* banter, blanch, blanket, calx, 
calculate* camp, camphor* canker, cancer, cant* canto, cramp, 
crank* dank* flank* halcyon* hamper, handkerchief, lamp, lank, 
lantern* mansion, mantle* mantelpiece, palpable, pamphlet, 
pantry, philanthropy, panther, plank, rampant, rancour, rant, 
samphire, sanctify, scalp, scamper, shank, stamp, talc, tamper, 
tantalize, thank, trample, trance, tranquil, transit, transient, 
transom, transport, vamp, vanquish. 

Ill, Abbey, abbot, abbess, adage, adder, adequate, agaric, 
agonism, alibi, aliment, aliquant^ aliquot, allegory, alley, aloe. 


alum, amaranth, amazon» amethyst^ amitjr analyse, anarchy, 
anecdote, anile, animal, annals, anodyne, arable, arid, aristarch, 
arrogate, arrow, avarice, average, azote, azymous, babble, bag- 
gage, balance, ballad, ballast, banner, bladder, cabbage, cabinet, 
callender, callid, calumny, cameo, cannon, canopy, caraway, carol, 
cavalry, clamour, dagger, dally, damage, dazzle, dabble, dragon, 
drama, fagot, family, famine, fathom, galaxy, gallant, gamut, 
gaseous, gather, grammar, granary, gravel, habit, haddock, hag- 
gard, harass, havock, hazard, inhabit, janitor, labyrinth, ladder, 
lammas, laneate, larynx, lather, madam, malady, malice, mam- 
mon, manacle^ manage, marigold, manifest, manner* mariner, 
marrow, marry, narrow, navigate, palate, palace, palliate, pallid, 
panic, parable, paradox* paragon, paragraph, parallel, parallax, 
paraphrase, parasite, parergy, parish, parody, parrot, parricide, 
planet, radical, rally^ raillery, ramify, ravage^ ravish. Sabbath, 
saddle, salad, salary, sally, sallow, salmon, salique, savage, scarify^ 
shadow, shallow, Spanish, stagger, stammer, stannic, straggle, 
tabid, tallow, talon, tariff, trammel, travail, traverse, vagabond, 
valance, valid, vanish, waggon. 

IV. Abb, abdicate, abject, ablative, abnegate, ablepsy, abro- 
gate, adze, aggerate, adjunct, adjutant^ admiral, adnoun, adverb, 
advocate, agitate, aglet, agnate, aggrandize, aggravate, aggregate, 
albatross, album, algebra* algid, almoner, alveary, amber, am- 
bient, amble, ambush, amnesty, aneurism, anger, angle anguish, 
annual, antalgic, anvil, as. bad, badger, bag, balneal, band, bang, 
cambist, camlet, can, candid, canvas, dam, damsel, dandle, dandy, 
dangle, bland, brag, bramble, brandish, cram, clang, fag, fangle, 
flag, flagellate, flambeau, fragment, gad, gag, galvanism, gamble, 
glad, gland, gradual, granulate, grand, halberd, halliard* hand, 
handle, hang, handiwork. Iambus, jaguar, jangle, jamb, January, 
jasmine, javelin, lad, lamb* lambative, land, language, laniard, 
lazuli, mad, madrigal, magic, magistrate, magnify, magnet, ma- 
jesty, man, manganese, mangle, manuaL manuscript, pansy, nag, 
pad, padlock, plaid, pageant, pan, pander, plan* plasm, quagmire, 




rag, ramble, random, remand, harangue, sad, sagittal, salutary, 
salvable, salver, sand, sandal, sanguine, scandal, scramble, shag, 
shambles, shamrock, sham, slab, slander, span, spaniel, stag^ stal- 
lion, stand, stanza, strand, strangle, swag, tag, talmud, tambour, 
tan, tangle, than, tragedy, valiant, value, valve, van, vandal, van- 
guard, wag, withstand, yam. 




Distinguish between 






coral cymbal 

corol symbol 

principal missal 
principle missile 




Sixth Vowkl. 

Obsbrvations. — Usage is considerably divided in England with respect to 
the pronunciation of some words ending in and^ aunt^ ath^ ass^ ast, ask, &c. ; 
some speakers giving them the open sound of ahy while others pronounce them 
with the 5th vowel. With reference to the more open sound in these cases, Mr 
Wfdker has remarked, — ^^ This pronunciation of a seems to have been for some 
years advancing to the short sound of this letter, as heard in hand, land, grand, 
&o. ; and pronouncing the a in after, answer, basket, plant, mast, &c., as 
long as in half, calf, &c., borders very closely on vulgarity." But between 
a(t) and, a(r6) there is a great organic difference, sufficient to admit of at least 
one distinctly intermediate sound ; and such a sound is undoubtedly heard in 
our language, and is the most common variety of vowel-quality in these irregular 
cases. The extreme pronunciations 5 and 7 are at the present day compara- 
tivdy seldom heard. The precise quality of the prevailuig intermediate sound 
cannot be correctly noted : for it ranges among different speakers through every 
practicable shade of sound within these limits. But the recognition of a dis- 
tinctly mediate sound may give us more uniformity in its employment. Per- 
haps the best standard of this vowel-quality would be the French sound of a 
in mal, or in the article la. 

Speaking of a middle sound between vowels 5 and 7, Mr Walker remarks, — 
** As every correct ear would be disgusted at giving the a in such words as 
past, last, chance, &c. the full sound of a in father, any middle sound ought 
to be discountenanced, as tending to render the pronunciation of a language 
obscure and indefinite." The theoretical discountenancing of any sound in 
general use has undoubtedly this tendency; but the classification of every variety 


of sound distiDguishable in common nsage must have tlio oppoeite effidot, and 
tend to remove obscurity and indefiniteness. The vowel noted as the 6th in 
our scale is unquestionably in our mouths every day, and it must therefore find 
a place in the catalogue of our vocal dements. 
This variableness of vowel quality is not observable in aU words containinff 

7 7 7 

the Combinations in which it occurs. We never hear band^ gas^ hath. &o., 

5 5 5 

but uniformly, band^ gas^ hath^ &c 

In the Scottish dialect we hear in some words the 4th, and in others the 7th, 
instead of the English 6th voweL Thus grass^ hrass^ &c., are generally pro- 

4 4 7 7 

npunced gress^ hress^ &c., and bath, dance, &c. bath, dance, &c. 

Unacc^ted a in the syllable immediately preceding the accent, as in abolish, 
alacrity, bazaar, &o. has generally the sound of the 6th vowd ; but among 
different speakers, it obscurdy ranges through all the shades of sound fix>m 
the * equal formations of each vowd dass, a(n,) i(rJc,) ti(p,) onward almost 
to ah. 

the unaccented final a, in comma, sofa, viUa, &c., has alwa3r8 a more open 

sound than that of the a in fat, which is assigned to it by Walker ; but its 

sound is less open than that of the accented a in papa. In such words, we 

have instances of the 6th element. In Scotland the a in this situation is dosed 

s 2 9 

into a, or even to i : thus sofa is pronounced as if written so&y, or sometimes 



UiMCcented. — abandon, ability, abode, above, abolish, abound, 
abundant, abyss, academy, academic, acoustic, adapt, adept, 
adopt, adorn, adult, again, aghast, ago, alacrity, alarm, alembic, 
alert, alive, alkalize, aloft, amalgam, amanuensis, amass, amaze, 
ameliorate, amenable, ascend, amidst, anoint, apace, apepsy, 
apology, apostate, arithmetic, arouse, aruspice, ashore, aside, 
asunder,atone, avail, avenge, aver, avert, avidity, avoid, avouch, 
avulsion, await, awake, award, aware, awhile ; baboon, banana, 
btiorometer, basalt, bashaw^ bazaar ; cabal, cadet, cajole^ charade, 
chateau, calamity, canaL canine, canoe, capacious, capitulate, 
caprice> careen caress, carotid, catarrh, cathartic, dragoon^ 
facetious* familiar, fanatic ; gazelle* gazette, gratuity* ha- 
rangue ; laburnum* laconic, lament laniferous ; malign, macaw. 

♦ See General Vowel Scheme, — page 28. 


machine, madonna* Mohamet, m^ijoritj, m/^tntw^ manusmaSt 
marine, maroon, material ; oasis ; pacha, pc^odc^ parade^ pan- 
logjf paralysis, parodiaJ, paternal, pathetic, pkicaid^ platoai; 
rorine; sabaoth, sogacioos, saliya* »doon, scdnbrioiu* aa?aiiiia» 
saroj, stalactite, statistic, taboo, tarantula, tradition, tni^enam, 
Yonilla; sjUable, idolatry, sjnogogae, logomcwhj, maasocre^ 
sympathy, apathy, comma# idea, era, sofa, errata, genera, potasBOv 
diorama, dileouno, analemma panorama, diarrhooay dyspnoBo. 

Accented. — After, afterwards, alas, ask, bath, cast, castle, 
brass, class* clasp, craft, draft, faet^ fiisten, g^asa, graft, gra^ 
grass, last, mask, mast, master, nasty, pass, past, raft^ 
raft^er^ rasp, sample, staff, task, vast, surpass, repast. 

In words ending in nee and nt, custom wayers between the 5th 
and 6th yoweb, as in danee^ glance, chance; grant, plant, slant, Ac. 
In words spelled with au before nt, we generally hear the 6th or 
7th, as in aunt, gaunt, Jlaunt, taunt, &c. 

The Article a generally has the 6ih or 7th sound ; though some 

speakers use the alphabetic Towel a. 

Distinguish between 

abrade ayert foremast passable 

upbraid eyert foremost passible 

Seyenth Vowel. 

Observations. — ^This Vowel, which is often called the open Italian A^ is 
formed with the lips drawn back, the teeth conmderably separated, and the 
tongne evenly depressed, so as to spread the sound in the mouth, and direct it 
in a broad current out of the expanded oral aperture. The slightest alteration 
in the position of the tongue or lips will affect the quality of the sound ; and 
thus, though this element is very common in all languages, there are often 
minute differences which give it a distinctive character. 

Habits of oral action — such as pouting the lips, keeping them doise at the 
comers, &c. influence all the vowels — the open ones espedally ; so that this, 
the most open sound, is peculiarly liable to be affected by them. The efifective 
speaker cannot be the slave of any habit of this kind. His lips and tongue 
must bo pliable and plastic, and theu- action must be light and agile, that the 
most minute and momentaiy movements, either for articulation or emotional 
expression, may be performed with facility. 


In English this vowel occurs chiefly before B, final, or followed by an arti- 
colation ; bnt it is almost uniformly heard in alve and alm^ (I not sounded) as 
in halve^ ccUve, palm^ calm^ alms^ ^c. Before (/*, as in calf^ half^ Sfc. ; and 
in laugh, haunt, Sfc, we as frequently hear the less open sound of the pre- 
ceding vowel, a(6.) 

The 7th vowel is never short in English. In Scotland we hear an abrupt 
form of it in words which in English have the 5th and 6th sounds, as in man, 
mask, Sfc, : bnt we comparatively seldom find the 7th vowel sounded in words 
which have that sound in English. Thus, bar, jar, star, calm, palm, father, 
Sfc. are generally pronounced ahnost as if spelled bawr, cawm, fawther. Sec ; 
farm, heart, alarm, Sfc, are very commonly pronounced with the 4th vowel 
feh-rm, heh-rt, Sfc, ; and guard, serjeant, large, Sec, as regularly take the 
sound of the 3d vowel (monophthongal), and are pronounced as if written 
gayrd, sayrjeant, layrge, ^. 

Unaccented. — Alegar, archangel, archaic, armorial, arthritic, 

articulate, artillery, artificer, arbitrement, artistic, armada, ar- 
senical, barbaric, cardoon, cartoon, curvilinear, dotard, harpoon, 
harmonious, harmonics, linear, lunar, marmorean, monarch, 
narcosis, narcotic, narcissus, niggard, parhelion, participate, par- 
tition, partake, parterre, particular, rectilinear, sarcastic, sardonic, 
sugar, vinegar, wizard. 

Accented, — (Before M[S]tfollowed hy a Breath Articulation,)'-^ 
Arc, arch, archery, architect, archives, arctic, arsenic, arson, art, 
artist, artifice, artery, article, bark, barter, carcass, carp, carpet, 
carpenter, cart, cartridge, cartilage, chart, charter, charta, clerk, 
embark, dark, dart, debark, depart, farce, garter, hark, harp, 
harsh, heart, hartshorn, hart, hearth, hearken, impart, larch, 
larceny, lark, march, marsh, mark market, marquess, mart, 
martial) martin, Martinmas, martyr, parcel, parchment, park, 
parse, parsimony, parson, part, partner, partial, participle, parti- 
zan, sarcasm, scarf, shark, sharp, smart) spark, Spartan, start, 
startle? tart, tartan? Tartar. 

In the following, and similar words, in which the vowel is before Breath- 
articulations, or Liquids followed by breath-articulations, good usage is pretty 
equally divided between the 7th and 6th vowels. 

Aunt) can*t, calf, daunt, draught, gaunt, gauntlet, half) haunt, 

haunch, laugh, launch? saunter, jaunt? taunt. 

102 DIPHTHONG 7-1. 

*( Before -B[8], finals or followed by a Voice Articulation,)'^' 
Arbiter, arbouri arduous, are, argue, arm, armour, bar* barbarous, 
bard, barge, bargain, barley, barm, car, carbon, card, cardinal, 
carle, carnal, carve, charge, charm, charnel, charlatan, darling, 
darn, far, farthing, farm, garb, garble, garden, gargle, garland, 
garment, garner, garnish, harbour, hard, hardihood, harm, har- 
mony, harness, harvest, lard, large, larmier, larva, mar, marble, 
marl, marmaladei marvel, nard, par, parboil, pardon, parliament, 
parlour, parvitude, sardonyx, scar, scarlet, shard, snarl, spar, 
star, starling, starve, tar, tardy, target, targum, tarnish, varlet, 
varnish, yam, yard, garnish, jar, jargon, debar, guitar, alarm, 
enlarge, cargo, guard, serjeant, ardent, armament, carnival, 

(Final, or before Voice ArticulationS'^l silenty^ Aimoni, alms, 

almry, balm, calve, brahma, hah, halve, malmsey, mamma, papa, 

palm, qualm, salve, father, psalm, jaundice. 

Distinguish between 
altar collar lumbar 

alter choler lumber 


Observations. — ^This combination is the alphabetical sound of the letter I 
in English, and a veiy common element of speech. The first part of the diph- 
thong is Hable to considerable dialectic and individual modification, as are all 
the open formations^ — 5, 6, 8, 9, &c. ; but the combination of the extremes of 
the vowel scale^ — 7-1 =• ah-ee, — ^is generally recognised as the correct English 
diphthong. The most usual departures from this in England are to 6-1 and 
8-1. In Ejiowlcs^s dictionary, this diphthong is analyzed into 10-1, whidi, 
however, confounds it with another diphthong, — as in isle and oil, — ^from which 
that author makes it differ only in some ill-defined abruptness of maxillary 
action. The student has but to blend the most open sound he habitually makes 
in such words as far, papa, palm, Sfc, with the first vowel, to produce that 

* The combination of the 7th vowel with R, is truly a diphthong, though, fix)m 
the slight difference in the formation of its elements, it is not very obviously so. 
The comparison, however, of such words as arm and aim, harm and halm^ 
carve and calve, farther a,nd father, will clearly manifest the diphthongal quality. 

DIPHTHONG 7-1. 103 

form of this diphthong which suits his habit o( speech ; but, if he open his ears 
to the utterance of educated Englishmen^ free from peculiarities of oral action, he 
will find that the radical part of the diphthong is nothing short of the broad 
Italian ah. It must be remembered, however, that the sound is much more 
abrupt than in the separate or interjectional utterance of that vowel. (See 
page 73.) 

There is a tendency in all diphthongs in careless utterance to slide into a 
sound intermediate in form to their component elements. Thus we often hear 
the 5th or even the 4th vowel substituted fur 7-1. In Scotland, especially, is 
this eommon : the almost regular utterance of this English diphthong, when 
Jinaly being vowdl 4 or 5, as in /, eye^ my^ huy^ ^c, pronounced eh, meh, beh^ 
jrc. Sometimes the same sound is used before R, and^r^, wire, ^c, are pro- 

6 ft 

noxmoedfehr, wehr, or fa-r, wa-r, ^c. When the vowel is in other situations, 
as in night, idle, crime^ wild, ^. the Scotch use a diphthong compounded of 
then: peculiar vowel (4th Lingual, G. V. S. page 28) with the First vowel. 
This combination is heard, independently, in the Scotch pronunciation of the 
word aye, and, — ^in some words, — ^in the termination ay, as in pay, Tay, 8fc, 
— and frequently otherwise instead of vowel 3, probably from the same tendency 
that opens the radical part of this vowel to 4, in English mouths. 

In Irdand the general form of this diphthong is 9-1, or even 10-1, — ^but 
abruptly uttered, — ^which has doubtless led Mr Enowles to set down 10-1 as 
the formation of the English diphthong. 

The letter R, after a long vowel, always having a vowel sound in itself, 
forms, in combination with this diplithong, a triphthong ; the elements of which 
are 7-1-8, as in^re, wire, higher, S^c. ; words which, fully pronounced, are 
dissyllables: but, to render the combination as monosyllabic in effect as possible, 
the middle element of the triphthong is frequently opened colloquially to vowel 
3 or 4. 


Unaccented, — /ambus, iconoclast, idea, identify, idolatry, 

/onic, iota> biangulous, bipetalous, cycloidal^ diathesis, diameter, 

diaeresis^ diecian, dilate, dtlemma, diocesan, dioptrics, diurnal, 
gigantic, gyration, hiatus, hibernal libation, m^logy> nihility, 

nigrescent, nitrometer, phytivorous, primeval, privation, sciatic, 

pst^hologj, quiescence, Riphean, sciagraphy, scribatious, sialo- 
goguci sidereal) stupify, edify, gratify, triennial^ trinomial, 

triumphal viaticum, vicegerent, villi, vivaceous. 

Accented, — I. Iodine, ire, iris, Irish^ iron, bias, brier, buyer, 

client, cyanite, diaphragm, dialogue, diadem, diamond, diet, dire, 

dying, fiatt friar, giant, hierarch, hire* liar, liable, lion, lyrci mire. 

104 DIPHTHONG 7-13. 

mjopj, nias, orion, phial, planet, piety, pious, pirate, pliant, prior, 
ptjalism, pjre, quiet, choir, riot, science, sciolist, scion, sire, 
society, spiral, squire, syenite, trial, triangle, trio, triumph, tyrant, 
viaduct, viand, violent, viol, virus, wire, zodiacal. 

II. Ice, icicle, ichor, icon, isagon, item, bifid, bifold, bite, 
blight, brighten, cycle, Cyprus, cycloid, dice, dike, fight, flighty, 
fright, gripe, knife, knighthood) lifeless, lightsome, likely, micro- 
cosm, mighty, mite, mitre, nice, nightly, nitre, nitrogen, pike, pipe, 
plight, rightful, righteousness, rice, sight, slighted, smite, snipe, 
spice, spite, sprightly, stifle, strife, strike, thyme, tight, titan, title, 
tricolour, trifle, tripe, tripod, trite, type, vice, viper, viscount, 
vital, whiteness, wipe, write. 

III. Ibis, idem, idle, idol, idyl, iman, ising-glass, island, ivy, 
ivory, bible, bivalve? briny, bridle, climate, climax, cider, divers, 
eider, fibre, finery, finite, Friday, libel, lilac, limature, migratory, 
miner, miser, nidor, piebald, pilot, pineapple, primate, private, 
riding, rising, rival, sidle, silent, sliver, spider, spinal, swinish, 
tiger, trident, trinal, twilight, viminal, wily. 

IV. I'd, ides, I'm, isle, I'll, bide, bile, bind, blind, blithe, bride- 
well, bribe, climb, crime, digraph, divine, drive, file, find, five, 
gibe, glide, grinder, grime, guide, guise, gyve, hind, hide, hithe, 
hive, kindliness, kibe, knives, library, ligure, live, lithesome, alive, 
livelihood, mild, mile, mind, pile, pine, pride, prize, quinine, 
Rhinct rhyme, scribe, shine, sign, size, scythe, smile, stride, 
stylet thine, thrive, thyme, timely, tine, tithe, tribe, trigraph, 
twine, vibrate, vile whine, wide, wild, wile, wind, wiseling, withe, 

V. I, bye, die, fiy, fy, high, lie, rely, my, nigh, pie, ply, rye, 
awry, shy sigh, sky, sly, sty, thigh, thy» tie, try, vie, why, wry. 


Obsebvations. — This diphthong, which la a blending of the extremes of the 

vowel scale, on the labial side, as the preceding diphthong was of its extremes 

on the lingual fflde, is a veiy common element of language. Its radical part is 

liable to fluctuations of the same nature as those to which that of the preceding 

DIPHTHONG 7-13. 105 

diphthong is subject. The most usual English deviations from 7-13 as the ele- 
ments of the diphthong are, to 5-13 or 6-13, though we sometimes hear 8-13, 
and sometimes even 4-13. In Scotland, its general form is 9-13. In Ireland, 
it is 10-13. 

This diphthong before R, gives the triphthong 7-13-8, the middle element of 
which in colloquial English is monosyllabically toned down into 11 or 10. The 
ftill utterance of such words as our^ sour, &c. is however dissyllabic. They 
are perfect rhymes to power, bower, &c. 


Unctccented, — Ay(w<^ei boiestrophedon, brot(m-8tudy, ftmndation, 
however, ourselves, otetbalance, outbrave, outbid, outdone, out- 
number, outrageous, outshine, shrew-mot^se, tot^m-crier, vouchor, 
vouchee, vouchsafe. 

Accented, — I. Avower, avowal, bower, bowels, coward, cower, 
dowagert dowered, lowery, now-a-days, ploughing, power, rowel, 
scour, shower, sour, towel, tower, trowel, vowel, howitzer, our, 
dowry, avowry. 

II. Avouch, bout> chouse, clout, couch, couchant, cowslip, 
crouch) doubt, doughty, drought, gout, grout, grouse, h^use, 
knout, lout, mouse, nous, ouch, oust, out, outermost, outcry, 
outhouse, outlaw, outline, outport, outrage, outset, pouch, pout, 
rout, scout, shout, slouch, snout, souse, south, spout, sprout, stout, 
tout, trout, vouch: bounce, bounty, bounteous, council, coun- 
sellor, count, countenance, counter, countess, county, fountain, 
frounce, mountain, mountebank, ounce, pounce, trounce. 

III. Browbeat, cloudiness, dowdy, dowlas, drowsy, frowsy, 
mouser, owlet, powder, roundelay, thousand. 

IV. Bound, boundary, browse, cloud, clown, qowI, crowd, 
crown, down, downright, drown, foul, foully, found, foundling, 
fowl, frown, gownman, ground, growl, hound, house, (v.) howl, 
loud, lounge, mound, noun, owl, pound, proud, prowl, round, 
rouse, scoundrel, scowl, sound, spouse, stound, touse, town, 
wound, (v.) blouze. 

V. Avow, bow, bough, brow, cow, endow, frow, how, now, 

plough, slough, sow, thou, vow, mow, (s.) prow. 




Observations. — ^This is characteristically an English Vowel. Its position 
in the General Scheme, (page 28) indicates its exact formation. It is inter- 
mediate to ahy and the French sound eu; seeming to the attentive ear to 
partake of the quality of both somids, and to be thus analogous to the tint 
produced by the amalgamation of two shades of colour. As the colour varies 
with the varying proportions of its elements, so, this vowel, among different 
speakers, and in different dialects, partakes in a greater or less degree of the ah 
or the eu. In London it is often heard as open as ah, (but this is a vulgarity,) 
as in sarve for serve, sar for ^V, &c. ; and, in some of the English provinces, 
it is pronounced almost identically with the French sound, — as in sceur for sir^ 
peur(/ect) for per(fect), &c. 

The formation of this vowel differs but slightly from that of vowel 9 ; and 
the difference between these sounds is therefore, though clearly appreciable, not 
very strongly marked. This leads to a confusion, on the part of ordinary 
speakers, of such words as^r and fur, earn and urn, jrc. ; but the audible 
distinction, though slight, should always be preserved. 

" John's wife and John were tete-a-tete ; 

She witty was, industrious he ; 
Says John, ' IVe earned the bread we've ate,' 

' And I,' says she, ' have umed the tea.' 


The changes which take place in the organic arrangement for vowels of tfiis 
open class are not all within reach of observation. The vocal passage is 
modified by the root of the tongue, and the parts immediately above the larynx. 
The visible difference between the formations 8 and 9 is a slight depression of 
the posterior part of the tongue, which directs the breath against the palate 
somewhat farther hack for the 9th than for the 8th vowel. With so little 
accuracy have sounds been observed, and their formations studied, that many 
of our orthoepists — ^Walker for instance— consider this vowel the same as our 
^th, and mark the er in ermine, perfect, Sf^, to be sounded with the same 
vowel, as in elL Other authors,— as, for instance, those of the " phonotypic" 
scheme,— consider this sound identical with our dth, and write the same vowel 
mark in sir and surly, myrrh and murder, S^c, 

This vowel is inseparably connected with the letter R in English. That 
letter alone, after a long vowel, has invariably the sound of the 8th vowel ; as 

4 8 4 8 2 12 1 8 2 IS 8 IS 8 2 . 

in fai - r, fai -r -y, nea - r, chee - r - ing, poo - r, moo - r - ish, Sfc. 

4 8 11 8 19 8 

The terminations re and er have the same sound ; as in ca - re, co - re, lu - re^ 

98 IS 89898 

ae - re, luc - re, wond - er, broth - er, S^c. The R in these terminations 
has no articulative effect, but in such words aia fairy, cheering, moorish,, S^c, 
where a vowel follows it, the R has both its vowel and articulative effect. 


Welsh and Irish speakers use the 9th mstead of the 8th vowel. In Scotland, 
though the 8th vowel is not heard, the 9th is not its substitute. The letters e 
and i before r, have the same sound as before other articulations,— ^/^/Z and 
Jirm^ still and stir^ S^c, ; send and serve^ pension and person^ S^c, having 
respectively the same vowel sounds. The reason of this is, that R has always 
an articulative effect; it is trilled in all situations; it has no vowel eSeot 
even when final. The termmations er and re have the peculiar Scotch vowel- 
sound noticed at page 25. 

The 8th vowel and its associated softening of the letter R, are so peculiarly 
English, that they constitute a shibboleth to Scotchmen over the Border. In 
practising the following lists of words to acquire this English sound, the 
Northern student may at first proiiounce the syllables tr, er, re, Sfc,^ simply as 
oft, — and without any R. By a littie practice he will thus check the tendency 
to raise the tongue to the palate, and be enabled to produce the true sound 
with precision. Frequently the mere efibrt to open the vowel to ah, and omit 
the R, falls short of that point, and produces at once the precise English 
element. The article the is often pronounced 8, when the next word does not 
begin with a vowel. 


Unaccented, — Certificate, circumferedice, Circuitous, ferment, (v) 
herculean, hermitic, hirsute, mercurial, perhaps, perceive, 
perception, percussion, perdition, petfection, perfidious, per- 
force, petform, perfume, (v.) petfuse, ascertain, permit, per- 
mission, permute, pernicious, perpend, perpetual, perplex, persist, 
perspectiye, perspicuous, perspire, persuade, persuasion, pertain, 
perturb, pervade, servility, sternutatory, tergeminous, thermo- 
meter, verbose, vermilion, vernacular, verticity, vertigo, verbatim. 

In r and re final after long vowels, — (the following words are 
monosyllables,) — bier, peer, mere, fear, veer, sear, sheer, tier, 
dear, near, leer, rear, gear, clear, here ; air, heir, hare, pear, 
bear, mare, fair, where, wear, there, stair, share, tare, dare, ne'er, 
lair, rare, yare, care, glare ; *par, bar, mar, far, star, tar, car ; 
♦purr, fur, cur ; war ; hoar, ore, o*er, oar, pour, boar, more, four, 
floor, wore, sore, shore, tore, door, lore, roar, yore, core, gore ; 
poor, boor, moor, sure, tour, dure, lure, your, cure. 

* In these words — ^the vowels 7 and 9 being so litUe difierent in formation 
from r (8), — the separate vowel quality of R is not so perceptible as in the other 
instances, in which a closer vowel precedes the r ; but sufficiently nice observa- 
tion will detect the same final element in all these words. 


In the terminational syllables, er, ir, yr^ re, &c. payer, weigher, 
obejer, assajer, layer, gayer ; ire, higher, fire, pyre, mire, wire, 
sigher, tire, dire, nigher, lyre ; our, power, plougher, bower, 
flower, sour, shower, tower, dower, lower, (v.) cower ; employer, 
alloyer, coyer; mower, sower, shewer, tower, (v.) lower, goer, 
grower; sabre, fibre, briber, acre, massacre, meeker, striker, 
ochre, lucre, nadir, pleader, cider, fifer, chafer, ephir, proifer, 
differ, loafer, eager, tiger, ogre, wager, niger, railer, feeler, 
beguiler, ruler, aimer, dreamer, emir, rhymer, roamer, plainer* 
meaner, dinner, diner, owner, paper, sleeper, piper, hoper, 
hopper, coopeir, airer, wearer, nearer, admirer, adorer, curer, 
lacer, fleecer, nicer, grosser, grocer, looser, hater, lustre, hatter, 
knitter, theatre, nitre, otter, voter, neuter, shutter, graver, ever, 
beaver, quiver, diver, hover, lover, over, mover, raiser, teazer, 
wiser, quizzer, poser, user, buzzer, washer, fisher, usher, rather, 
either, wither, bother, clothier, soother, other, watcher, pitcher, 
hatcher, botcher, butcher, impeacher, poacher, hanger, singer, 
finger, monger, maugre. zephyr, martyr, satire, sapphire, 

Accented. — II. Chirp, perpetrate, herpes, serpent ; perfect, per- 
fidy, perforate, serf; birth, dearth, earth, earthquake, girth, mirth ; 
Chersonese, erst, hearse, first, mercy, mercenary, immerse, perse- 
cute, person, personate, thirst, terse, verse, versatile, versify ; ter- 
tian, version ; birch, certain, certify, dirt, fertile, flirt, kirtle, pert, 
pertinent, shirt, skirt, merchant, smirch, spirt, squirt, thirty, ver- 
tex, vertical, virtue, revert, myrtle ; circle, circular, circuit, cir- 
cumflex, dirk, firkin, gherkin, irk, irksome, jerk, kerchief, mercury, 
percolate, perk, perquisite, quirk, smirk, zircon, circumflex. 

III. Stirrer, whirring, myrrhine, (sirrah, stirrup, squirrel, 

* These words are sometimes heard with the 2d vowel ; the others are al- 
most uniformly pronounced with the 8th, to show their derivation from stir^ Hr^ 
whir, §fc. There is a tendency also to prefer the radical vowd-sound of 
err, prefer, infer, S^c, in the derivatives erring, preferring, inferring, S(C, ; 
but e and i before R followed by a vowel, have otherwise the same sounds 
as before other articulations in the same predicament. 


IV. Herb, herbalist, verb, reverberate, verbiage, ermine, fer- 
ment, (s.) firm, firmament, germ, germinate, hermit, kermes, mer- 
maid, permanent, permeate, permit, (s.) sermon, skirmish, sperm, 
term, terminate, termagant, thermal, thermoscope, vermin, myr- 
midon ; cervical, fervent, fervour, nerve, nervous, serve, pervious, 
servant, service, swerve ; tirwit ; kersey, sirs, hers ; bird, gird, 
girdle, herd, merge, perdurable, perjure, third, verdant, verdict, 
verge, verjuice, dirge, virgin ; earn, earnest, fern, kern, kernel, 
learn, learning, stern, ternary, vernal, yearn, internal ; earl, early, 
earldom, girl, merlin, pearl, sirloin, sterling, twirl, whirl, whirl- 
pool, whirlwind ; bergamot, birgander. 

V. Err, her, sir, stir, whir, myrrh, defer, prefer, aver, confer, 


Distinguish between 

kernel pearl pertinence pervade circle circulate 
colonel purl purtenance purveyed surcle surculate 

asperate asperation literal anker auger onerary 

aspirate aspiration littoral anchor augur honorary 

manner miner sailer raiser concert kerb 

manor minor sailor razor consort curb 

firs myrrhine earn wert fir ternary 

furze murrain urn wort fur turnery 

Wards of the same pronunciation, hut different orthography, 

berth earnest herd verge 

birth Ernest heard virge 


Obseryatioi^s. — ^In forming this vowd, the tongue is drawn back a de- 
gree farther than for the preceding element — ^hardly midway to its position for 
aw. This sound is always short in English, except when it occurs before i2, 
final or followed by an articulation : it is consequently very liable to be changed 
to the more fiimiliar long sounds ah or aw^ when it has to be prolonged, as in 
singing. This arises, not from any difficulty in mfuntaining the 9 th position, 
but fix>m the English organs being unaccustomed to maintain it. A Welshman 
would have no trouble in prolonging the vowel to any extent, simply because 
he is accustomed to form it as long as our ah or aw. 

Among English speakers, there is too little pi'ecision in this sound. All the 


open vowels are liable to oonsiderable variation among individual speakers ; but 
this vowel is perhaps one of the most indefinite and variable of any. It would 
be well if at least a dear distinction were preserved between it and the preced- 
ing fbrmation, in such words as urn and eam^ fur andjir, purl and pearly SfC, 
but the erratic habits of both these vowels renders it the more difficult to con- 
fine them to a settled location in the mouth. When the Art of speech shall be 
more generally studied, these confiisions and ^versities will be condemned as 
unworthy of the educated speaker. The ^rfect distmction of minutely differing 
vowels is no less a test of polished and elegant speech than is the clear enun- 
ciation of unaccented syllables the test of a good articulation. The power of 
marking these vocal and articulate niceties with deamess, evidences a degree of 
command over the vocal organs which is rarely obtained without considerable 
application. It gives, besides, a precision and graceful variety to the utterance, 
which should, of themselves, suffidently recommend its cultivation to the taste- 
ful student. 

9 13 

In some English dialects, we hear, instead of u, a sound approximating to oo 

IS n 19 

— ^ranging in some cases between oo and o(re), and in others between oo and 

the French vowd 4 or eu; aa in tnother^ one^ further^ Thursday^ &c. pro- 
nounced m^ther^ vj^n^ f^^^^^i &c. It was probably a dialectic habit like 
this of sounding o for the 9th vowd, which seduced a recent writer on English 
sounds into the assertion, that the vowels in cup and cope are identical in qua- 
lity, and £ffer only in quantity.* All these peculiarities arise generally fix)m 
a habitual contraction of the labial aperture, and a too close position of the 
teeth. Let the defective vowd be practised with a very open formation — even 
though, at first, the sound be as open as <ih ; and the ear and organs will soon 
be able to distinguish and form the 9th vowd with precision. 

In Scotland, this dement is slightly less open, and of a deeper formation than 
in England, — the tongue being farther retracted towards its position for aw. 

This Scotch sound will be found separatdy noted in our general vowd-scheme 

(page 28.) The open character of the English u will be readily acquired, by 

simply opening the mouth well, and retracting the lips in its utterance ; and, 

when it is followed by 72, final or before another articulation, by guarding against 

any lingual vibration for the R, The Irish pronunciation of u has, like the 

Scotch, a deeper formation than the English, — ^partaking more of the quality of 

aw ; it will be Anglicised by the same means. 

We take occasion here to notice the peculiar French sound eu, which, in ig- 
norance of its mechanism, is often so difficult to the English mouth ; and to 
bring it in contrast with the English 2^(9) — ^the formation of which is equally diffi- 
cult to French organs. The 9th vowel is not heard in French : the nearest ap- 

* PitmMi'a Phonography. 


proach to it is the vowel eu^ as in jeune^ peur, &c. Frenchmen do not, how- 

9 10 11 

evesv pronoaoce eu instead of u, bat generally aw or o. They may with little 
difficulty acquire the true sound of this vowel wl;ien they compare its formatiop 
with that of their eu, the French eu is formed with the organs internally ar- 

4. 10 

ranged as for the English eh, and externally as for aw ; it is the compound, or 
LahiO'lingual vowel corresponding to these simple Labial and lingual Forma- 
tion8» (Let the English student of French apply this theory to his mouth, and 
he will at once produce the perfect French eu. The simplest way to practise is 


to dwell on the sound of eh, and, while doing so, to contract the labial aperture 

10 9 

to its ordinary shape for the. sound aw,) The English u is intermediate in for- 
mation to aw apd ah. The French student of English cannot fail to produce 
it by sounding the vowel ah, and while doing so, showing the organs slowly 
to arrange themselves upon the sound, so as to modify it into aw. An acute 

ear will trace several shades of vowel-quality in the progression from ah to aw, 

The English sound of z^ is rather less than halfway between these points. : Hav- 
ing acquired the formation, let the sound be pronounced as abruptly as the 
vowel in que, de, &c., and it will be perfect. 


9(short.) Unaccented, — Botnbast, bombard, bwflfoon, constel, 
corpuscle, doubloon, ductility, jt«sticiary, fwngosity, lumbago, lus- 
tration, multangular, multiloquous, punctilious, runcation, rustici- 
ty, scurrility, stultiloquence, subdue, subjunctive, sublime, sub- 
mission, subordinate, subscribe, substantial, subtract, subvert, 
succession, succinct, suffice, sufiEuse, suggest, supplant, support, 
suppose, suppress, susceptible, suspect, suspend, sttspire, sustain, 
ulterior, umbrella, unable, uncertain, unclean, uncommon, un- 
doubted, uneasy, unfold, unfortunate, ungainly, unhappy, unkind, 
unless, unmerciful, ^unnecessary, unpleasant, unpopular, im^ues- 
tionable, unravel, upon, unrol, unsafe, unseen, unsightly, unsound, 
untidy, until, untrue, unusual, imwary, unwieldy, upbraid,* uphold, 
uxorious, seldom, influx, impulse, bankrupt, bisniuth, medium, 
odium, opium, earldom, birthdam, blithesome, i^earisome. 

In the terminational syllables otis, us, ion, S^c, as in amphibious, 
synchronous, pestiferous, somniferous, abnonnoiz&, enormoiiSj sy- 


uonjmous, dubious, conscious, studious, atrocious, jealous, mar- 
yellous, oviparous, precious, syllabus, genus, incubus, genius, 
momentous, troublous, gorgeous, ferocious, grampus, collection, 
obligation, selection, elocution, delusion, collusion, omission, de- 
mission, transmutation, vision, evasion, adhesion, version, question, 
dudgeon, retention, dimension, attention, extortion, distortion, 

9 (short). Accented. — II. Bluff, bufiUo, cuff, chough, gruff, 
huff, muffin, muffle, enough, puff, ruffian, scuffle, slough, 
snufi^ stuffing, suffer, suffocate, suffrage, tough, tuft, couple, 
crupper, cup, puppet, scupper, supplicate, supplement, supple, 
suppurate, upland, uproar, upward, abrupt, interrupt, nuptial ; 
doth ; bluster, bust, buskin, bustle, cluster, custard, custom, 
cusp, dusk, dust, fluster, frustrate, gust, gusset, husk, hustings, 
joust, justice, lustre, musket, must, pustule, rusk, rustic, russet, 
thrust, thus, trusty, percuss, discuss ; but, button, butler, buttress, 
clutch, clutter, cut, crutch, cutler, flutter, glut, hut, mutter, much, 
mutton, nut, nutmeg, putty, scuttle, shut, shuttle, strut, sputter, 
subtle, utmost, utterance ; brush, crush, flush, hush, luscious, 
mushroom, rush, usher, bucket, buxom, buzeous,chuckle, duck,duct, 
ducat, flux, huckster, juxta, luxury, structure, succulent, suction, 
truckle, tuck : blunt, brunt, bunch, constable, dunce, front, grunt, 
hunch, hunt, junto, luncheon, month, punch, unto, bump, bump- 
kin, chump, clump, consumption, comfort, company, comfit, 
crumple, culpable, jump, lumpish, mump, pumpkin, something, 
stump, sumptuous, trumpet, umpire, bulk, consult, cultivate, 
dulcet, fulcrum, fulsome, gulf, hulk, mulct, multiform, multiply, 
multitude, pulp, pulse, stultify, skulk, silk, sulphur, sultry, ulcer, 
ultimate, vulture, result, wont, consult, function, junction, monk, 
monkey, puncture, punctual, sunk, truncate, uncle, unction. 

III. blubber, borough, brother, buzzard, chubby, colour, cou- 
rage, cousin, covenant, cover, cully, cunning, cupboard, currant, 
curricle, curry, double, dozen, drubbing, drugget, drummer, flurry, 
furrow, gullet, honey, huddle, juggle, luggage, money, monetary. 


mother, mummery, nmmerj, puddle, rubbish, rudder, rugged, rum- 
mage, shovel, shudder, sloven, slubber, smother, smuggle^ sum- 
mer, study, stubborn, subaltern, sullen, summit, thorough, Thum- 
mim^ druggist, surrogate, tunnel, worry, hurricane, shrubbery, 

9 (long) only before B. — Purple, turf, surfeit, cursory, worse, 
burst, hurt, curtain, workman, lurk ; suburban, worm, furze, 
ourlyt churlish, furl, worldly, churn, burnish, furnace, turner, 
urn, word, absurd, occurred, curdle, burden, purge, urgent, 
urge ; purr, burr, murmur, fur, spur, slur, cur. 


Observations. — ^This vowel, called the German A, is formed by an in- 
creased retraction and abasement of the root of the tongue, coapled with a slight 
contraction of the labial aperture. It is perhaps the most melodious and mel- 
low-toned of all the vowel-sounds. 

Mr Knowles considers this the most open vowel- formation, 'but our experi- 
ment, stated at page 23, proves that the oral aperture is considerably smaller 
for this than for the 7th vowel ; and this latter may be proved bj a simple, and 
conclusive experiment, to be the most open possible vowel-formation. Thus, 
let the month be opened to the uttermost, — by widely separating the teeth, — 
flattening the tongue, and drawing back the lips ; and if the vocal effort be made, 
ah will result. Endeavour to sound aw, and it will be found impossible 
to do so without relaxing the lips or approximating the teeth, and manifestly 
reducing the oral aperture. In the light of experiment, there can be no ques- 
tion of the relative openness of these vowels. 

The sound of this vowel is often too much modified bj the lips ; their pro- 
jection and corrugation— faults too common— are injurious alike to grace and 
distinctness of articulation. It maj be stated to be one of the characteristics of 
a good and practised speaker, that he forms his vowels as much within the 
mouth as possible. The beautiful Oratorical Foice— the Orotund— which many 
speakers acquire from long practice, but which may also be attained bj cultiva- 
tion, tends very greatly to subdue the action of the lips in speech ; and this is 
attended with another advantage, that it leaves the lips free for their higher 
offices of emotional expression. 

The habit of contracting the lips for this vowel is apt to modify it into the 
next, viz. 11, or even into 12, to the confusion of such words as war and 
wore ; scald and scold, &c. 

In practising the 10th vowel for the reduction of the labial action, the totigue 



should be drawn back as fiir as poseible, while the lips^xsudt^y ooTering the 
teeth a little more— remain retracted as for ah. With the finger placed wider 
the chin, close to the neck, the downward pressure of the root of the tongue 
shonld be distinctly feh. 

This vowel and the 7th are most irregolarly used in Scotland :— -words pro- 
noonced with the 7th in EngUnd having the 10th in Scotland, and others hav- 
ing the 10th m England being pronounced with the 7th in Scotland. Thus 

10 10 7 7 7 

the English what and walk^ are whdt and wdXk in Scotland, while star and 

7 le 10 

calm^ are staur and caulm. This exchange does not take place in words in 
which the 10th vowel is represented by o or ou. In these cases, the vowel is 

10 10 10 12 

closed into 12 in Scotland ; as in momy bought, cost, S^c, pronounced mourn, 

boat, coast, ^c. To correct these irregularities, let our lists of words under the 
7th, 10th, and 12th vowels be fi*eqnently and carefully read. The English 
pronunciation will soon become habitual ; for the formation of the vowels can 
present no difficulty. 

A peculiarity similar to the above is characteristic of the Irish dialect ; for 
while in the diphthongs 7-1 and 7-13 the first element is changed into 10, we 
hear the 10th vowel changed into, or almost into the 7th, in the great majority 
of words in which it oeomrs. 

The 10th vowel combines with the 1st to form a common English dif^thong 
—heard in such words slb joint, joy, d^c. 


10 (short) Unaccented, — Blockade, bronchotomy, cochineal, 
cognition, collapse, collate, collect, collision, collude, cedlusory, 
combustion, command, commensurate, commingle, commiserate, 
commodious, community, commotion, compages, companion^ com- 
pare, compeer, compendious, compete, complacent, complexion, 
comply, compress, compute, conceal, conceive, concentric, concern, 
conciliate, conclusion, concussion, condemn, condense, condign, 
condole, condition, confabulate, confection, confer, ccmgeries, con- 
gratulate, conjoin, conjunct, connate, consider, consign ; conspi- 
racy, consummate, contain, converge, conyulse, correct, corroborate, 
corrode, corrupt, cosmetic, costume, hoUoa, longevity, monsoon, 
nocturnal, nonentity, obduce, oblate, oblique, obliterate, oblivion, 
obnoxious, obscure, observe, obstreperous, obstriction, obstruct, 
obtain, obumbrate, occasion, occlude, occult, occur, October, offend, 
officiate, omnipotent, oncotomy, ophthalmic, oppose, opponent, 


ojpipress^ opprobrious, oppugn, ostent, ostensible, oxalic, pollute, 
poltroon, poljlogj, poljmathj, pontifical, possess, posterity, progno- 
sis, prosperity, quadroon, sialogogue, solstitial, somnific, spon- 
taneous, spontoon, tontine, volcano, voltaic. 

10 (short) Accented. — Block, blossom, blotch, boscage, boss, 
botany, bottle, bottom, box, broth ; chocolate, chop, clock, 
cloth, cochleary, coxcomb, cockle, cofifee, coffer, colossus, copper, 
copse, copula, copy, cortical, Cossack, costive, cottage, cotton, 
cough, crockery, crocodile, crop, cross, crotchet ; docile, doctor, 
doctrine, document, dropsy ; , fiock, fop, fortify, fossil, foster, fox, 
frock, frost, froth ; gloss, glottis, gnostic, gospel, gossamer, gossip ; 
hospitable, hostile, hot, hough ; jockey, jocular, jocund, jostle, jot; 
knock, knot; locket, loft, lottery; mock, moss, moth, motley, 
motto, moxa ; nocuous, nostrum, notch, noxious ; Occident, occupy, 
octave, ocular, off, otifeet, office, often, opera, operate, oppidan, 
opposite, option, optics, optimist, opulent, oscillate, osseous, ospray, 
ostler, ostrich, otter, ottoman, oxygen, ox, oxide ; phosphorus, 
pocket, poplin, populace, populous, positive, posset, possible, pos- 
tulate, pot, process, proctor, proffer, profligate, prologue, prop, 
property, prophecy, prosecute, proselyte, prosody, prospect, pros- 
per, prostrate, proximate ; quantity, quash ; rocket, rostrum, rot ; 
scof^ sconce, Scottish, scrofula, shock, shop, shot, shocking, socket, 
softly soften, sop, sophist, soporate, sot, squash, squat, stock, 
stopple, strop, strophe ; theocracy, theology, theosophy, throstle, 
tocsin, spot, topic, toss, totter, tropic, trot, troth, trough, twattle ; 
vocative ; vash, wasp, wassail, watch, wattle ; bronchus ; com- 
pact, competent, complex, complot, compromise, concave, conch, 
concave, concord, concourse, confident, confluent, conquer, con- 
scious, conscience, conscript, consecrate, consequent, consistory, 
consonant, constipate, constitute, consuetude, contact, continent, 
contraband, contrary, controversy, contumacy ; dolphin, donkey ; 
font, frontal, frontier ; monster ; nonplus, nonsense ; pomp, pon- 
tiff. Pontic, prompt ; romp ; solstice, swamp ; tonsil, tensile, ton- 
sure ; wampum. 


III. Bobbins, body, bonnet, borrow, bother; cauliflower, chronic, 
choler, chronicle, clog, clonic, cobble, college, colleague, collocate, 
colloquy, colony, colophon, comedy, comet, comity, comma, com- 
merce, commigrate, conunon, Corinth, coronal, corollary, correlate, 
corrugate ; dollar, domicile, dominate, Doric, dromedary ; fodder, 
folly, foreign, forest, frolic ; glomerate, goggle, grovel ; hobble, 
hobby, hollow, Holland, holocaust, holograph, homage, holiday, 
homily, homicide, horrible, hovel, honest, honour ; jolly ; know- 
ledge ; laurel, lobby, logarithm, Lollard ; model, moderate, mo- 
dest, mollify, monad, monarch, monitor, monody, monogram, mo- 
nostich, monotone, moral ; noddy^ nomad, nominal, nonage, nosUe, 
novel, novice ; obelisk, obolus, oligarchy, olive, ominous, oracle, 
oraison, orator, orange, orifice, origin, orrery ; phonic, policy, 
polish, pollen, polyglot, polypus, porridge, pother, probable, pro- 
digal, prodigy, prominent, promise, proverb, provost ; qualify, 
quality, quarrel, quarry ; rosin ; scallop, scholar, solace, solecism, 
solemn, soUd, solitary, sonnet, sorrel, sorrow, sorry, sovereign, 
squabble, squalid, stolid, swaddle, swallow ; theology, theodolite, 
toddle, tolerate, tomahawk, tonic, torrid, torrent, twaddle ; volant, 
volatile, volley, voluntary, vomit ; wadding, waddle, wallet, wal- 
lop, wallow, warrant, warren ; zoology, zymology. 

IV. Bob, bodge, bog, bond, bondage, bronze; clod, cobweb, cob, 
cod, cog, cogitate, comrade, conder, condyl, congener, congregate, 
congruent, conjugate, congress, convent, conversant, convex, cos- 
mical ; dog, dogma, dogmatize ; fog, fond, for, (prep.) frog, from ; 
globule, gone, goblet, gondola, gong, grogram ; hog, hogshead ; 
job, jog, John ; lodge, lodging, log, logic, loll, long, longitude ; 
mob, module, modulate, mollient, monument ; nod ; obdurate, 
obduracy, oblong, obviate, obvolute, odd, odontalgy, omnibus, 
omnium, on, onward ; plod, pod, pond, ponder, poniard, problem, 
progeny, prong ; quadrant, quadrangle, quadruple ; rob, rod, 
rondeau ; shod, shone, sob, sod, soluble, solve, somnolent, song, 
spondee, sponsor, squab, squadron, squad, squander, strong, swab, 


swan ; throb, throng, tod, tongs, *twas ; voluble, volume ; wad, 
wan, wand, wrong, wrath ; yon. 

10 (long) Unaccented, — -41beit, although, altogether, auda- 
cious, audacity, augment, aularian, aurelia, auricular, aurora, 
austere, auspicious, authentic, authority, autocracy, automaton, 
auxiliary, autumnal, discord, corporal, forbid, forgave, formation, 
formality, glaucoma, laudation, mordacious, mortality, ordonnance, 
ordain, orthography, ornate, organic, orthoepy, pauciloquy, salt- 
petre, scorbutic, tautology, tomahatok, torment, (v.) traumiatic. 

10 (long) Accented, — Boy, joy, oil, point, &c.; pawing, raw- 
ish, sawest ; war, drawer, for, (conj.) border, chord, corpse, dor- 
sal, forfeit, fork, fortunate, gorse, horse, hortative, morphia, re- 
morse, mortify, mortuary, north, orphan, orpiment, orthodox, 
porcupine, porphyry, porpoise, quart, quarter, quality, scorch, 
scorpion, short, shorten, snort, sorcery, sort, sortilege, stork, swart, 
swarthy, torch, torpid, tortuous, torture, vortex, warp : conform, 
cord, cordial, cormorant, com, corner, corneous, comet, cornice, 
dormant, dormouse, forlorn, form, formula, formidable, gorge, 
horn, lord, lorn, morbid, morn, mortgage, normal, northerly, 
orbit, ordeal, ordinance, ordnance, organ, orgies, orgues, 
ornament, scornful, shorl, sorb, sorbile, sordid, storm, sward, 
swarm, torment, (s.) war, warble, ward, warlock, warm, warn. 

JI. auction, aught, auspices, author, authorize, autocrat, auto- 
graph, autumn, awful, awkward, balk, bought, brought, calk, cauf, 
cautery, caustic, caution, chalk, daughter, dauphin, falcon, fought, 
fraught, haughty, hawthorn, hawk, laudable, lawful, lawsuit, 
mawkish, naught, nausea, nauseous, nautical, nautilus, ought, 
paucity, pauper, raucity, sauce, sausage, saucepan, slaughter, 
sought, stalk, talk, taught, thought, vaunt, walk, water, wrought, 
malkin ; also, altar, alter, balsam, Baltic, false, falter, fault, halt, 
malt, salt, saltcellar, smalt, spalt, vault, waltz, want, wanton. 

III. Auburn, audible, augur, August, aulic, bauble, caudal, 
causey, daudle, gaudy, glauber, laureate, maugre, plaudit, plausible, 
sawyer, solder, strawberry, tawny, thaumatrope, traulism. 



IV. Alderman, all, almost, audience, augur j, awe, awl, awm, 
awn, bald, balderdash, baldrick, ball, bawl, brawl, brawn, broad, 
caldron, call, caiise,caldron, clause, claw, crawl, daub^ dawn, drawl, 
fall, fawn, flaw, fraud, ifraudulent, gall, gauze, gnaw, hall, halse, 
khan, laud, lawyer, lawn, maul, maudlin, pall, pause, pawn, prawn, 
scald, scrawl, shawl, shawm, small, spawl, spawn, sprawl, squall, 
squaw, stalder, stall, tall, talbot, tawdry, thaw, wall, walnut, wal- 
rus, yawl, yawn, yager. 

y. Caw, draw, faugh, haw, jaw, law, macaw, maw, pacha, paw, 
raw, saw, spa, straw, taw, yaw. 

Distinguish between 




















Obsbryations. — ^This is a beantiM diphthong, oomponnded of aw and ee. 
It is generally somewhat longer than the diphthong 7-1 : this arises from the 
less easy fluency of its elements. To modify the voice from ah to ee, the tongue 
has only to ascend; while to modify it from aw to ee, the lips also must take 
part in the action — and elongate the labial apertnre while the tongue rises. 

ThAjirst part of the diphthong is very uniform among English speakers : the 
second is less so, being very often stopped at t(2,) and sometimes even at a 
more open portion. The Irish pronounce ahnost 7-1, for this diphthong, but 
with the 7 longer than in the English utterance of that combination. In Scot- 
land the first part of the diphthong is closed into (11) or (12) (monophthong) 
which is usually united with the 2nd or Srd formation, for the second part. 

K never occurs with 10-1 in the same syllable in English: the word 
choir is pronounced qu-ire for greater fiicility of monosyllabic contraction. In 
such words as coyer ^ destroyer^ &c, the full dissyllabic combination 10-1-8 
is clearly preserved. 



Vnaecented.—^ovaateTpoini, enYoy, cjclotd, monochotd, tro- 
choid^ conchotd^ rhombotd. 

Accented. — I. Bojish, joyous, jojance. buojanti coyish, annoy- 
ing, loyal, loyalty, royal, royalty, moiety, voyage, voyager. 

II. Boisterous, choice, cloister, coif, coistril, doit, foist, 
goitre, hoist, joist, loiter, moisture, noisome, oyster, poitrel, 
roister, quoit, voice, voiture. Joint, jointure, ointment, anoint, 
appoint, pointedness, pointless. 

III. Boiler, broider, coynesst cloyment, doily, embroider, 
foible, hoiden, joinery, moidore, oily» poignant, poignancy, 
poison, poisonous, spoiler, toilet, voidable zyphoides. 

IV. Adjoint avoid, broil, coigne, coil, droil, essoin, foil, groin, 
join, loin, moil, noise, noiseless, oil, poise» soil, soilure, spoiled, 
toilsome, void. 

V. Alloy* boy, cloy, hoy, joy, soy» troy, annoy, employ, buoy, 


Obsmbyations. — This is a fonnation interaiediate to a(ll) and o(Id) which 
occurs in English instead of the latter vowel when before R in the same syllable. 
The 12th vowel is a doong diphthong, and the open element 8(R) conld not 
be pronounced after it in one syllable. This has led to the omisaon of the 
seoond constitiient of the diphthcmg, and the opening of the first, before R, to 
render the combination smoothly monosyllabic. 

The open vowel quality of the English R draws all preceding closer vowels 
to a greater degree of openness than they have before articulations. This is 
paitioalaady noticed in the cases of the 9rd and 12th vowels, which are regnlariy 
changed into the 4th and 11th before r(8) but the Ist and Idth—- the 
dosest vowels — equally illustrate the tendency. Very few uncultivated English 
speakers pronounce ee(l) or oo(13) distinctly before R, at least in conversational 
utterance. Such words as heard, hereafter, earwig, merely, &c. cure, your, 
pureneast &c., are flippantly pronomiced, 2-8 and 11-8 instead of 1-8 and 13-8. 
However this may be passable in ordinary conversation, it must be reckoned 
objectionable in more defiberate speaking, or in reading. In some cases, the 
elose element, instead of being opened, is altogether omitted before r(8), as in 


cheerM, future, courtesy, pronounced by many speakers, cherfuLf futyur^ 
curtesy or curtsy ; but general custom warrants this elliptical utterance only 


in the last instance — ^die other words being correctly pronounced in full, che erful^ 

future^ &c. 

•^ ' 11.8 

There is a delicacy in the softly blending English combination o re which is 
worthy of the attention of provincial speakers— especially of Scotchmen, whose 
pronunciation of these letters is peculiarly harsh. In this lies one of those little 
points, which are, perhaps, the most difficult to be separately appreciated, yet 
which give to dialects their most prominent features. 

That the English ll(o-re) is not the same as the radical part of the 12th 
vowel (0-ooId),but a moi-e open formation, will be evident on comparing the Scotch 
and English pronunciations of such words as ore^ shore^ chorus, porus, &c. 
The Scotch o is the simple radical part of the English 0— oo(12) ; but it is dis- 
tinctly different from the o(ll) before R in English. The rapid alternation of 
the proximate formation aw— oh, aw — oh, &c., or oh — aw, oh — ^aw, &c., will 
lead the ear to recognise the medial sound. The R final or before an articul- 
ation must not be trilled. 

The monosyllabic combination 11-8 does not invariably supercede the dis- 
syllabic form 12-8 ; but in personal nouns, such as rower, sower, mower, &c., 
the vowel retains it diphthongal quality, and these words are thus distinguished 
fi^)m such as roar, soar, more, &c. 

Urictccented, — Forebode, forecast, foreclose, foredoom, forefend, 
forego, foreknow, foreknowledge, foreshone, forestal, foretel, 
forewarn, forereach, foreshorten, fourteen, portfolio, portcullis, 
portmanteau, pourtraj, sycamore, transport, (s.) import, (s.) 
bezoar, deportation, larboard, purport. 

Accented, — Borax, boreas, doree, dorian, floral, forum, glory, 
glorious, glorify, gory, hoary, horal, koran, morion, oriel, 
orient, oriole, quorum, roral, scoria, scorify, sory, storax, 
story, storied, tory, torus, decorum, aurora, porous, canorus, 
censorious, chlorus, chorus, choral, inglorious, psora, pylorus, 
sonorus, thorax, immemorial, Marmorean, notorious, uxorious, 
yictorious ; coarse, course, court, courtier, courteous, courtship, 
force, forcible, forth, fourthly, hoarse, porch, pork, port, portly, 
portable, porter, porte, portico, port-hole, portion, portrait, 
portraiture, source, sportive, sportsman, sport, transport, (v.) 
report, support, apportion, deforce, deportment, fort, forte, import. 



discourse, discourteous, disproportion, divorce, enforce, perforce, 
proportion, recourse, report, support ; board, borne, bourn, ford, 
forefather, forefinger, foremast, foremost, forecastle, foreground, 
foreland, forelock, foreman, forenoon, forepart, foresight, foretaste, 
forerank, forge, form, (a seat,) fourfold, gourd, hoard, mourn, 
shorn, som, sword, sworn, torn, tournament, towards, untoward, 
afford, untom, unworn, horde, upborne ; boar, bore, core, corps, 
door, encore, explore, floor, fore, four, gloar, hoar, lore, more, oar, 
o'er, ore, pore, pour, roar, score, shore, snore, soar, sore, store, 
swore, tore, wore, jore, adore, ashore, before, restore, implore, 
explore, ignore, restore. 

Distinguish between 




form (a seat) 




form (figure) 















r import(toconve7into) 

\ . ^® 
^ import, (to signify) 

import (s.) 

import, (signification) 








Observations. — ^This formation is, in English, invariably associated with 
the closer form oo^ producing a labial diphthong, 12-13, corresponding to the 
lingual diphthong 3-1. 

The radicid part of this diphthong is somewhat closer than the preceding 
element o(re)(ll), but it is hardly, perhaps, so much as half way between it 
and oo(ze)(13.) The diphthongal habit tends to make the English mouth 
throw thiff sound too open, so that the combination is somethnes even in 
danger of being confounded with 7*13 ; but this is an extreme : less degrees of 
openness, however, particularly to o(ll), are very common. In this respect, 
as well as in several other points already noticed, there is a striking analogy 
between vowels 3 and 12. 


A very conunon fault in the medianism of this sound consists in a pursed 
projection of the lips to ** something like the shape of the letter o,^' (as the 
student is actually directed in many of our Elocution books ;) but the roundness 
of the month must be internal^ not external. The lips, for expression's sake, 
should be used as little as possible in speech. To form this vowel the tongue shoald 
be well depressed backwards, while the lips simply approximate a little. This 
inward formation of is, besides, productive of a mellowness of tone which is 
particularly agreeable, especially in public speaking. 

The tendency of diphthongs to slide colloquially into a sound uitermediate to 
their component elements, is illustrated in a veiy common Provincial English 
ntterance of this vowel — ^noted m our General Vowel Scheme, (page 28,) as the 
2nd Labial Formation. 

In Sc(Hland this element, when attempted, is pronounced monophthongally. 
The vowel may be perfectly Anglidsed, by simply allowing the sound to taper 
into 00 before closing. 

It 12 

Thus, instead of foe < pronounce foe > « 

12 I IS 

" ho -•me " ho> IJnie 

12 12 

" no^te " no> *ite 

The Northern Student will at first be apt to overdo this in quantity^ but 
after a little practice he will have no difficulty in giving the requisite abruptness 
to the combination. He may take confidence from our assurance, and he may 
easily assure himself by experiment, that in the shortest utterance of the English 
vowel the diphthongal quality is really heard. By comparing the English 
and Scotch pronunciations of words contiuning o(12) before P, T, or E, as 
hope^ moatj yoke, ^c, he will satis&ctorily and readily ascertsun this fact. 

In Scotland the sound of a(3 monophthong) is common instead of o(12), as 
in ^^7716 for home, st&ne for stone, aldne for alone, &c. In some districts a 
closer lingual sound is used in such cases, and we hear stiin for stone, bifin for 
bone, &c. 

The 12th formation is comparatively seldom heard m Scotland : its most 
usual substitute, however, is the 10th. Words in which the 12th vowel is re- 
presented by ou or ol, as soul, mould, folk, bolster, &c. are pronounced with 
the diphthong 9-13 in Scotland. In Ireland a amilar pronunciation occurs, 
but not to the same extent. The 12th formation (but monophthongal) is 
usually sounded in Ireland in words pronounced with that vowel in English. 

Unaccented, — Alogy, also, allocation, amphiboly, ana- 
qbronism, analogy, anecdote, annotate, antagonist, antelope, 
antonomasia, apogee, apoplexy, apostrophe, apotheosis, apposite, 
approbation, arrow, artichoke, autograph, barroto, bellicose, bene- 
volence, bifold, bilbo, billou?, borou^^, borroir, botanic, brocade. 


broccoli, bufiiEda, burrot^, callow, cameo, canopy, cargo, cenotaph, 
chromatic, chronology, coact, coagulate, coalesce, cocoon, coerce, 
coeval, cohabit, cohere^ colony, colossus, coquette, coronal, cosecant, 
crocodile, cuerpo, cupola, cynosure, daffodil, derogate, disobey, 
dissonant, domestic, dominion, echo, elboto, elocution, eloquent, 
embargo, embryo, esoteric, exodus, falloti?, farrago, fello«o, foUoio, 
foment, frivolous, furloti^^, furroio, grotesque, halo, harroto, holloto, 
hyperbole, immolate, imposition, inmost, inchoation, indolent, in- 
nocent, innovate, inuendo, insolate, insolent, intaglio, interrogate, 
introduce, inviolaMe, iodine, junto, kinsfolk, leo, limbo, malevo- 
lence, manifesto, manifold, marigold, raaxrow, mausoleum, meadoto, 
mellotc, methodize, metropolis, mezzo, minnoio, mistletoe, Mogul, 
molest, molasses, monopolize, monotone, motto, mulatto, mosquito, 
myopy, narroto, negro, neoteric, nitrogen, nobility, nosology, nota- 
tion, obese, obeisance, obedient, obituary, oblige, obloquy, obsolete, 
omit, omnipotent, opaque, operose, opinion, ottoman, ovolo, pal- 
metto, panado, panoply, peony, philosophy, pilloie?, pleonasm, 
poetical, polemic, police, position, potato, primrose, proboscis, pro- 
ceed, proclaim, procure, produce, (v.) profane, profess, profile, pro- 
late, quotation, quotidian, ratio, reciprocal, re-echo, reprobate, re- 
produce, rogation, romance, rondeate, rosette, rotation, scare -croto, 
scholastic, sciolist, dirocco, society, soever, solemnity, solicit, soli- 
dity, sorroti?, stiletto, strappado, stucco, studio, sycophant, syllogism, 
symphony, syncope, synonyme, systole, tadpole, talloto, tenfold, 
theodolite, thorou^^, threshold, tobacco, tyro, upmost, variolous, 
vertigo, veto, violate, violin, virago, vocation, volition, wallot^, zoology. 

Accented, — I. Boa, oasis, poet, proa, proem, stoic, goer, 
orthoepy, owing, mower, zoophyte. 

II. Appro£ich, appropriate, atrocious, betoken, bloat, blowpipe, 
boat, both, broken, broach, broke, choke, cloak, close, (a.) coach, 
coast, coat, coax, cocoa, cohobate, cohort, coke, connote, copal, 
cope, copious, croak, crocus, devote, devotion, dissociate, doat, 
dose, (s.) dotage, elope, emotion, encroach, engross, ferocious, 
float, £c>cus>, folk, grocer, grope, gross, hoax, hope, host, iota, 


jocose, joke, loach, loaf, loath, locomotive, locust, lotion, moat, 
mope, mote, motive, motion, narcosis, negotiate, note, notary, 
notice, notion, oaf, oak, oakmn, oat, oath, open, opium, opiate, 
parochial, poach, poke, post, potable, potent, potentate, precocious, 
procreate, prognocis, promotion, protest, (s.) quote, quota, quotation, 
remote, reproach, revoke, roach, roast, rope, rotatory, rote, scope, 
slope, sloth, smoke, smote, soak, soap, sociable, social, sofa, spoke, 
stoker, stroke, throat, toast, token, tope, total, trophy, trope, 
Utopian, vocal, votary, vote, wrote, yoke, yolk ; bolt, bolster, bolter, 
colt, colter, dolt, holt, jolt, moult, molten, poultry, poultice, revolt, 
volt, won't. 

III. Aonian, bonus, bowline, Caledonian, clover, cobalt, curioso, 
demoniac, diploma, encomium, ennoble, eolian, erosion, foliage, 
folio, froward, frozen, gnomon, harmonious, hautboy, holy, imme- 
lodious, inconsolable, incontrollable, inharmonious, inodorous, 
mastodon, matrimonial, mohair, molar, moment, noble, October, 
odious, odour, odorous, ogle, ogre, olio, omen, omer, onyx, op- 
ponent, oval, over, overboard, overt, overture, ovine, pagoda, par- 
simonious, petroleum, probate, Roman, roseate, sober, soda, solar, 
spoliate, toga, trover, zodiac. 

IV. Appose, arrode, atone, behold, blown, bold, bole, boll, bone, 
bowl, brogue, close, (v.) clothes, clove, code, cogniac, cold, 
coal, condole, cove, comb, corrode, crosier, depone, depose, de- 
throne, dispose, doge, dole, dome, doze, droll, drone, explode, ex- 
pose, flown, foal, foam, fold, gloze, groan, hold, hole, homely, hose, 
hosier, impose, incommode, control, indisposed, infold, intone, knoll, 
load, loam, loan, loathe, lobe, moan, mode, mole, mould, node, 
nones, nose, ode, old, oppose, opprobrious, osier, own, parasol, pis- 
tole, pole, poll, pose, prone, probe, propose, road, roam, roan, 
rogue, roll, rose, rove, repose, scold, shoal, shown, shrove, sold, 
soldier, sole, soul, stone, stove, suppose, swollen, though, thowl, 
throve, throne, toad, told, toll, tone, troll, unload, uphold, vogue, 
woad, wold, wove, zone. 

V. Although, beau, below, bestow, blow, bo, bow, bureau, crow, 



dough, flow, foe, fro, glow, go, grow, ho, hoe, holloa, know, lo, low, 
mow, no, owe, roe, row, show, sloe, slow, snow, so, sow, stow, thi'oe, 
throw, toe, tow, trow, woe. 


Observations. — ^This is the closest of the Labial class of Vowels. In its 
correct formation, the base of the tongue is depressed, and the lips are evenly 
approximated. Its mechanism is veiy often rendered deforming to the mouth, 
by the lips being *•*■ thrust out like a funnel." Indeed, this is the mode of 
formation set down in the great majority of books which profess to give 
directions on the subject ; but it is faulty in many ways, both to the eye and 
ear. It muffles the voice, and deprives it of depth and mellowness ; it is a 
hindrance to expressive utterance ; and it impedes the actions of articulation, 
and renders them heavy, thus creating, or greatly aggravating, difficulty in cases 
of stammering and defective articulation. The comers of the lips should meet, 
and their central edges approximate, without projection ; and the depression 
of the root of the tongue should be so firm as to round off the angle of the neck 
and chin. The close position of the lips is merely required to lessen the 
external aperture of the mouth, and, in whatever way this may be effected, the 


sound win be modified into oo. The projection of the lips is therefore as per- 
fectly unnecessary as it is unquestionably graceless. 

This element, like the 1st, has an Articulative effect, when the modifymg 
organs are further approximated during the continuance of the sound. By a 
slight appulse of the lips, the vowel oo becomes the articulation W. Thus if 
the lips be momentarily compressed between the finger and thumb while 
sounding oo^ the voice will be modified into woo^ woo, woo^ ffc. 

Words ending with oo are liable to the fault noticed with respect to £, 
(page 80) ; the sound dies away in breath as the organs, assume their close 
position. This habit will be easily corrected by prolonging the sound, and 
sharply finishing it in the glottis, without waste of breath. 

The thirteenth vowel is so associated with the articulation Y in English, from 
the Alphabetic monograph U bearing the compound name Yoo, that the English 
student has often some difficulty in believing that u = yoo is more than a 
simple vowel ; but he must lose sight of letters in his study of sounds, and' 
then he will be able to analyze this seemingly simple element, and detect in it 
an articulative action, as well as a vowel sound. 

In Scotland we commonly hear the 8rd Labio-Lingual formation H, (French) 


instead of oo. This is the general Scotch pronunciation of words containing 


00 represented by o or oo, as in do, too, &c. In some districts the Lingual sound 

2 1 

i or ee is used,— as in dee for do, sifen for soon, skill for school, fill for fool, &c.; 


and in long sylUbln, as when the vowel is final, the Third Towel (monoph- 

thongal) is not nnoommon ; as in to€ for too, day for <2o, &c. Thus the 

S12SS «siss 

sentence, ** Poor John '5 so heated that he V just gone out to cool himself^'* 

eoayejs to an English ear the rather startling assertion, that *^ John b so hated 

that he has just gone ont to kill himself.'* 

Element Thirteen is the common Scotch soond of the English diphthong 7-13, 
as in house, plough, now, coto, &c. pronoonoed hoose^ ploo, noo, coo, &c. 

In Irehind this vowel is seldom heard exactly as in England; the ver- 
Bicolar soond osed instead of 00 is the Labio-Lingual formation prodoced by the 
anion of the fi)nBation8-{~. This gives a very peculiar sound, which an E n gl is h 
month win have some trouble to mould. The Irish sound will be Angtigsed by 
simply holding the tongue well back; the labial position being the same as 
for 00, 


Unaccented. — Ambush, anteroom, arrowroot, • bivouac, bride- 
groom, brunette, brutality, cesspool, cherubim, comminute, con- 
gruous, courant, crtisade, faithful, ferula, fruition, fulfil, hurrah ! 
httzzah ! instrument, into, issue, pressure, prudential, prunello, 
rendezvous, routine, rubescent, rupee, souchong, tissue, together, 
toupet, treasure, unto, virulent. 

Accented, ( short), ^IL Book, brook, butcher, cook, crook, 
cuckoo, cushat, cushion, foot, footman, footstool, hook, look, 
nook, partook, push, puss, put, rook, ruth, ruthless, soot, took, 

III. Bosom, buUock, bullet, bulletin, bully, courier, fuller, 
goody, pullet, pulley, sugar, unbosom, unwomanly, woman, 
wcHnanhood, woody, wooUen. 

IV. Bull, bullion, bulwark, full, fully, good, hood, pull, should, 
stood, wood, woodman, wool, would, would-be. 

^ (Long) I. AUeluiah, congruity, cruel, cruet, doer, druid, 
fluid, gruel, incongruity, insure, poor, rou6, ruin, sure, surety, 
tour, truism, your. 

II. Behoof; boot, booth, booty, bouquet, brutal, caboose, 
coop, coot, croop, crucify, croupier, droop, fluke, flute, fruit, 
fruitage, goose, croup, ho(rf, hoop, hoot, hookah, inhoop, in- 
scrutable, loof, looping, loose, moot, peruke, poop, proof, recruit. 


reproof, roof, roost, route, rufous, ruler, rutilaut, schooner, 
scruple, scrutable, shoot, sloop, sooth, soup, spruce, stoop, tooth, 
troop, truce, truth, uncouth, whoop, wootz, wooi^ jouth. 

III. Cerulean, booty, doodle, foolish, frugal,- gloomj, looby; 
manoeuvre, moonish, obtrusion, oozj, ousel, prudent, prudish, 
removal, rheumatism, rhubarb, ruby, rudiment, ruminate, ru- 
mour, schooling, smoother, souvenir, trusion. 

lY. Admove, approve, balloon, behove, bldom^ boon, boom, 
bouse, brood, broom, bruise, brucine, buffoon, cardoon, cartoon, 
choose, cocoon, cool, crude, cruise, detrude, doom, doubloon, 
food, fool, galloon, gloom, gouge, groom, groove, harpoon, improve, 
intomb, loom, loon, lose, maroon, monsoon, mood, moon, move, 
noon, noose, ooze, pantaloon, peruse, picaroon, bigaroon, platoon, 
poltroon, pool, prove, prude, prune, remove, reprove, rheum, 
rood, room, rouge, rubric, rule, ruse, saloon, - school, shrewd, 
smooth, soon, soothe, spoon, spontoon, spool, stool, swoon, tool, 
whose, whom, womb, wound, yule. 

V. Accrue, ado, beshrew, bestrew, brew, coo, crew, do, drew, 
halloo, Hindoo, loo, ormolu, ragout, rue, screw, shampoo, shoe, 
shrew, strew, taboo, tattoo, threw, throi^gh, too, true, two, undo, 
who, woo, you. 


Observations. — ^We have shown, at page 36, that the letter H does not 
represent any fixed formation, but simply an (v^ration of the succeeding 
element. Thus H before e is a whispered e, before a a whispered a, &c.-«dif- 
fering, however, firom the simple whispered vowel by the inexplasive commence- 
ment of the aspiration, as before explained ;~4uid H before alphabetic u — 
which, it will be remembered, r^[nesent8 the combination y-oo--.denote8 a 
whispered T, as in hue^ human^ &o. pronounced Yhiie «= Yhyoo^ Yhuman, &c. 

Some writers analjae the combination Why correspondently, into Whw ; and 
it must be acknowledged thai many persons do pronoonce sudi words as what^ 
ivhichy when, &c. with a Vocal 9& well as a Breath W^^^Whwat, Whwen^ 
&c.-^at this is by no means the general mode. Wh— -the Breath W-^ often 
in these words used independently; although its lingual correspondent, the 
Breath T, is not so used in English. 


English speakers too commonly omit the aspirate of Y and W, and so 
confound m their pronunciation, such words as liue and you^ which and witch^ 
whale and wail^ whither and wither^ whig and wig. These aspirations are very 
unwelcome to the English mouth, but they can only be omitted at the expense 
of ambiguity. How very awkward to have a brother named Hugh. — " I as- 
sure you I gave the book to 'Ugh." " I beg your pardon, — that you certiunly 
never did." " Upon my honour ! — 'Ugh cannot have forgotten it." " I ! — 
come, come I" " You ! no, no, I did not mean yoM, but ' Ugh^ — your brother 
'Ugh !" 

The Vowel aspirate is very irregularly used in many parts of England ; it is 
heard when it should be silent, and silent when it should be sounded ; and that 
with such perverse obstinacy that pure initial vowels are almost unheard, except 
in cases where they ought to be aspirated. A gentleman dming on cold hare, 
astonished his entertainer, by exclaiming, ^^ The hair is very 'ot. Explaining 
himself, when he observed the misapprehension, he said, ^^ I mean the hair we 
breathe^ and not the 'are weWe heating ^ 

This remarkable perversity of custom has been amusingly made the sub- 
ject of a petition in verse from the letter H to the inhabitants of Shrewsbury, 
who are notorious for then: haddiction to this abit. 

Whereas by you I have been driven 

From Hotise, from Home^ from Hope^ from Heaven ; 

And placed by your most leam'd society 

In Ills^ and Anguish^ and Anxiety : 

Charged, too, without one just pretence, 

"With Atheism and Impudence^ — 

I now demand full restitution. 

And beg you'll mend your Elocution ! 

To this petition by the Rev. R. W. Evans, an aspiring Shrewsbury poetess 
aptly rejoined : — 

Whereas we rescued you, ingrate. 

From Horror^ HavoCy and from Hate^ 

From Horse-pondy Hungering^ and fix)m Halter, 

And consecrated you on Altar, — 

And placed you, where you 'd never be. 

In Honour, and m Honesty ; 

We think your talking an intrusion, 

And shall not change our Elocution. 

Many public speakers contract a very disagreeable habit of ^ving a vocal 
commencement to H,— ixAoZrf, Uhundred, &c., — as if feJirful that otherwise it 
would not reach the ears of then: auditors. But if it be legitimately aspirated, 
and no more, it will not fail of audibility : the succeeding vowel makes it heard 
far better than can the tasteless expedient of puttmg a vowel sound before it. 


A Northern habit of fonniug, or rather deforming tlic II, oonsists in giving a 
degree of gattural compresdon to the breath, by approximating tlic base of tiio 
tongue and the soft palate, producing the effect of the Scotcli cA, which other- 
wise is not used as an initial sound. There is sometMng in this Highland pe- 
culiarity extremely harsh and grating to English ears. It should be studiously 
avoided,— and easUy may be, — by all who aim at propriety in speaking English. 

Let the Stammerer study attentively the characteristics of the letter H. It 
18 invariably a severe stumbling-block. He will find that, in his fruitless efforts 
to pronounce it, or rather to pronounce the vowel after it, his chest is bearing 
down with collapsing force, and the breath welling out in heavy spouts from his 
convulsed glottis. A useful exercise to check this, consists in prolonging an 
expiration as much as possible. Let tlie lungs be iuUy inflated^ by expanding 
the chest to its utmost breadth, and then let the breath be emitted slowly, softly, 
and equably in one unbroken streamlet. After a little practice, the whispered 
expiration will be continuable almost as long as a vocal one, — a vowel. The 
junction of tliis breathing with the vowels must next be aimed at. Thus : — iltcr- 
uate, in the prolonged expiration, the voice and the whisper of the same forma- 
tion, h-e-h-e-h-e, Sfc, ; h-o-h-o-h-o^ Sfc. If the difficulties with initial vowels 
have been first worn off, the Stammerer will not be long in subduing this, — ^per- 
haps the most troublesome feature in his impediment. Habit, — strong habit, — 
will, for a time, baffle his skill, or try it sorely ; but steady perseverance will 
overcome even the tyranny of habit. 


Initial. — Heap, heave, hillock, hymn, hatred, heinous, he- 
terodox, hairy, habitable, hand, hasp, hearken, halve, her, hum, 
hurl, hospital, haughty, horsemanship^ horal, hopeful, homely, 
hood, hoof, who. 

Medial. — Abhor, ahoy ! behold, behest, behemoth, dishearten, 
enhance, forehand, heigh-ho ! inhibit, mahogany, manhood, nihi- 
lity, out-Herod, outhouse, parhelion, perhaps, prehensile, rehearse, 
unhappy, vehement. 

In the following words, though H is written, the vowels arc not aspirated : — 
Heir, heirship, heirloom, &c. ; honest, honesty, &c. ; honour, 

honourable, &c. ; hostler ; hour, hour-glass, &c. ; humble, humbly, 

&c. ; humour, humourous, &c. 





We have already explained the leading General Principles of Ar- 
ticulation, and given a complete scheme of the Articulate Ele- 
ments of our Language. We shall now proceed to offer some 
Practical Observations on each of these elements, with reference 
to their formations, defects, coinbinations, d/C, and to furnish sets 
of Exercises, in the practice of which the student will be enabled 
to acquire perfect mastery over the Instrument of Speech. 

This department of our work will, we trust, be of especial ser- 
vice to Teachers, Parents, and others who have the management 
of children, in enabling them to prevent, or check by timely skill, 
the formation of habits of Defective or Uncouth Articulation, and 
to direct the vocal efforts of children in such a way as to insure 
their speaking with fluency, grace, and distinctness. 

To the Lisping, Burring, Mumbling, and Mouthing " children 
of a riper growth," who are conscious of their cacophonies, and 
desirous to correct them, these Observations and Exercises fur- 
nish the means of removing such articulative blemishes. To the 
Public Speaker they offer Principles and Praxes such as, in ap- 
plication, cannot fail to give Articulation its highest effectiveness. 

The Stammerer will find many remarks under the different Ele- 
ments, which will be of much service to him, both as directory and 
cautionary assistances. An intelligent and a practical acquaint- 
ance with the Mechanical Principles of Speech is the only rational 
foundation for a system of cure. We cannot better advise the 
Stammerer than bid him study well the Natural Principles of 
Speech. Knowing them familiarly, he must be dull indeed who 
does not work out a large measure of improvement from them. 



¥oT perfect freedom from impediment, however, Oral Instruction, 
and the vigilant eye and ear of a master — ^who can ''follow Na- 
ture^* in his Art — ^majbe, in almost all cases, necessary. To no Art 
must the Poet's definition of ** TrueArf* be more strictly applicable 
than to the Art of Speech as applied for the eradication of Stam- 
mering. It must be, merely, " Nature — to advantage dressed.'* 
The following Table exhibits the Articulations in the order in 
which we shall now treat of them : — 



Fiual. Between Vowels. BeforeanArtieulatioi 

I. P, 

as in pay 




II. B, 

a • • Dee 




III. M, 





IV. Wh, 

... why 




V. W, 

... way 




VI. F, 

... fed 




VII. V, 

... veal 




VIII. Th, 

. . . third 




IX. Th, 





X. s. 

... sell 




XI. z, 





XII. R, 

. . . rare 




. . . left 




XIV. T, 

... tale 




XV. D, 

... day 




XVI. N, 

... nave 




XVII. Sh, 

... shelf 





... giraffe 




XIX. Y, 

... ye 

fille (French) 



XX. K, 

. . . cap 




XXI. G, 

... gum 




XXII. ng. 






Observations. — ^The formation of ibis letter consists, Ist, in a firm and 
equal contact of both lips, so as to retain the breath perfectly behmd them while 
it is compressed within the mouth ; and, 2nd, in an equal and rapid disjunc- 
tion of the lipe to allow the compressed breath to escape — ^which it should do 
with a degree of distinct explosiveness. If the contact of the lips be not suffi- 
ciently firm to stop the breath, the letter will strike the ear like F; and if their 
acticm be heavy, the p will be altogether inaudible when final, and very ungrace* 
ful, and injurious to distinctness in other atuations. 

While the lips are in contact, there should be no pouting, or motion of any 
kind ; their separation should be by one light and uniform action, so that the 
whole lips may be simultaneously disengaged ; for if they are projected and 
pushed asunder — as they not unfipequenUy are — ^the features are needlessly de- 
formed, and many faults, both of articulation and expression, are created. P 
before i^ or F, is in this way rendered an impossible combination, or at least an 
excessively ugly one in the attempt ; and many of the vowel sounds also suffer 
in quality from the contracted and rounded aperture of the mouth. The comers 
of the lips must be brought apart, or all the vowels fi:om ee to ah will be more 
or less injuriously affected. Besides, the liabit of forming the labial-articula- 
tions in this loose and wrig^ing way interferes much with the expresdve power 
of the lips in the manifestation of feeling. The moutii is tiie best and most ex- 
pressive index of emotion, and that whose signs are least capable of suppression. 
The eyes have been called tiie '^ windows from which tiie soul peeps forth ;" — 
we should call the mouth the door by which she actually comes forth. But if, 
by ungainly habits of speech the delicately-varying expressiveness of tiie mouth 
may be defeated, how important — ^to the orator and physiognomist at least — 
must be the power of regulating the articulative motions of the Hps. 

Where tiiere exists any fault in the formation of this letter, we should pre- 
scribe the following Exerdse, which will be found easy and highly improving. 
Practise words containing the letter P in tiie four situations indicated in tiie 
Table, and keep the lips in firm contact for some seconds at each P,-i^bfierving, 
that whne tiie pressure of breath is continued, tiiere is no motion of any kind 
in tiie lips. Observe, also, that there is no escape of breatii by the nostrils. 

Tliis exercise will subdue, and, with a littie care, soon remove the tendency 
to labial mal-articulation. It will be found very useful to Stammerers, who 
experience difficulties firom want of power over the fiuaal musdes. The lips, 
in many cases of Stammering, are so tremulous and feeble in thdr motions, that 
they cannot retain the breath under the slightest pressure, but start off again 
the instant they meet, causing repetitions of the labial syllable— 7>a-/)a-pa- 
paper. Sometunes the upper lip is held so loosely, that in tiie effort to sepa- 
rate the lips it will descend with the lower lip, as if glued to it, dragging down 
the nostrils, and deforming the whole coimtcnancc. The vppcr Up should have 


a£ little motion as posBible, aud it should never be depressed below the edges 
of the upper teeth. 

The letter P presents another difficulty to Stammerers, from an upward pres- 
sure of the lower jaw locking the under teeth within the upper range, while 
the lips are in contact. This renders a downward *motion of the jaw, as well as 
of the lip, indispensable to finish the letter ; and the teeth are thus fordbly jerked 
down, again to be jammed upwards in fruitless repetitions : and often, instead 
of disengaging the jaws by the descent of the lower teeth, the Stammerer puts 
the efibrt of separation into the headf and tosses it backwards, or draws it from 
ude to side. P is a formidable difficulty under such circumstances ; but a care- 
ful study and practice of the correct formation of the letter will soon remove this 
source of impediment, and correct any fault that may interfere with grace or 

P is an obstruction of breath only ; there is no effort of voice in its forma- 
tion ; it has no sound but the explosion of breath which finishes it. A fault is 
oilen created by the too forcible conjunction of the lips, which gives a degree of 
audibility to their meeting ; and this, in an aggravated degree, accompanied by 
deficient glottal power, often produces Stammering of a very heavy and con- 
vulsive kind. The lips, and the organs of articulation generally, should assume 
the position required for the different formations, gently, smoothly, and slowly, 
— ^retain it firmly while the breath is compressed behind or between the articu- 
lating organs, and by an energetic disjunction, give off the explosive effect of 
the articulation with rapidity. The letter P having no other element of audi- 
bility than this explosion, can never be deprived of it without producing indis- 
tinctness or difficulty. 

We may exjp^ss in a sentence the great leading characteristics of good and 
bad articulation. The energy of vocal action is disjunctive in good speaking, 
and conjunctive in heavy or impeded utterance ; that is to say, the contact or ap- 
proximation of the organs is light in the one case, and heavy in the other; — the 
general direction of the actions is downwards from articulations to vowels in 
good speech ; and in indistinct or stammering speech, the force of the actions is 
upwards firom vowels to articulations. In order to be clearly understood, with 
reference to the letter P, then, we observe, that it is not made by the conjunc- 
tion of the lips, but by their separation ; and this of course implies that they 
must be in contact before they can be disjoined. If the Stammerer, and the 
Mumbler, and all classes of bad speakers, could apprehend and apply tliis prin- 
ciple of articulation, they would soon rejoice in distinctness aud fluency. 

We must farther observe, that in separating the lips there must be no jerk- 
ing of the jaw. If a vowel follow the P in the same syllable, the teeth should 
descend for the vowel as fireely as possible, but the P itself must have no motion 
of the teeth, either upwards when the lips meet, or downwards when they se- 
parate. The teeth should remain apart even when the lips arc in contact. If 
while the lips are in the articulating position, the tongue be advanced towards 
them, it should feel that the teeth are apart, and that howcYor great mny be the 
pressure of breath, the teeth remain perfectly steady. 


There is some little art I'equired to make P audible when it occurs in con- 
nexion with any of the other obstructive articulations^ as in nap-ldn^ step- 
quickly^ slep-t^ cheap-tea, scape^goat, ^c. To master this difficulty, a little 
practice of the following Exercise will be found effectual : — 

ape tay ape kay ape day ape gay, — ^with e, I, o, oo. 
ap tap ap cap ap dap ap gap, — ^with ^, i, 5, tL. 

In finishing this and other articulations, it is highly important in every case 
of difficulty, to notice that the issue of breath be restrained immediately on the 
organic separation. If the breath pour out in a continuous stream, the chest 
will fall, and the lungs will soon be exhausted. It is the want of this power to 
retain the breath after articulations which causes the groat difficulty which Stam- 
merers experience in joining articulations to succeeding vowels. They will 
often get smoothly over the consonants, and stumble at the vowel, utterly un- 
able to connect the two. They must bear in mind that the breath in articu- 
lation is exploded /rom the mouth, and not from the chest. The space within 
which the air is compressed is above the glottis, and the effect of the compres- 
sion must not be communicated-below the glottis. 

When a word cont^dns the combination /)p, the effect of only one p is heard ; 
as in apprise, upper, supplicate, S;c, ; but when one word ends with P, and 
the next conunences with the same letter, they should in general be separately 
articulated. Two j7^s can only be made by a repetition of the action of one. B 
and M, being formed by the same labial action as P, will not blend with that 
letter ; but the P must be separately finished when it comes before them. Not, 
however, when it is in the same word, as in upbraid, upborne, upmost, top- 
most, Sfc, where the P is a mere stop of the voice. In cupboard, the b only 
is heard, and in subpoena the b is sunk, and p heard. 

It was noticed at page 48, that the nasal letters M, N, NG, must have 
the breath perfectly obstructed by the mouth, in order that the current of sound 
may pass completely through the nostrils ; it follows, therefore, that any of the 
obstructive letters coming before either of the nasal elements, must be finished 
indep^dently of the nasal letter, or the explosion which necessarily results firom 
compression of the breath, must pass through the nose. This cieatcs a degree 
of sniffling which is very ungraceful, and which may be easily avoided by a light 
and rapid articulation of the explosive element. PorB before M, must, from the 
hiatus caused by the repetition of the same action, be allowed to nasalize their 
explosions when they meet in one word, or in conmion phrases ; but there is no 
excuse for sniffling the explosions of 2\ D, K, and G before M, for they are 
produced by actions which may be rightly performed without at all disturbing 
fluency of articulation. On the same principle, 7* and D before iV in the same 
word, must lose their oral explosiveness ; but the four other obstructives (P, B, 
K, G) shoidd never be allowed to do so in the same situation. 

P initial, combines only with /, r, and y in English ; therefore in all the 


other oombinations which we write^ namely, pn^ as in pneumatic ; ps, in psalm ; 
pty in ptarmigan^ Sfc. tlie p is silent. Pw is a common French combination, 
as in poids^ (^pronounced pwah.) 


Initial, — Pier, pean, peal, peat, piece, pique, peep, peevish, 
pibroch, pigeon, pickle, pimple, pippin, pivot, pith, pitj, pinguid, 
pace» pathos, Paphian, pavement, paper, pepper, pebble, pestle, 
pettish, pap, pabular, pamphlet, papaverous, pavilion, pabulum, 
pass, path, paternal, palatial, pagoda, parboil, parmezan, parvi- 
tade, partisan, perceive, percolate, peifect, permeate, perk, per- 
haps, puppet, public, pump, puff, purchase, purple, pugnacious, 
pucker, pauper, popish, put, poop, pipeclay, pounce, point, poig- 

PI, — Plague, placable, plait, played, place, plays, pleonasm, 
plethoric, plenary, pliable, plight, plinth, plod, plot, pluvial, plural, 
plum, plump, plunder, plush, plough, plant, plasm, plaudit, plau- 
sible, platoon, Platonic, pledge, plenitude, plexus, plicature, plover. 

Pr, — Practice, prairie, praise, prate, pragmatic, prank, prattle, 
pravity, prawn, prayer, prebend, precarious, preamble, precious, 
precipice, preclude, predal, predicate, preface, prefer, pregnant, 
prepare, preposition, presbyter, pretend, preterit, pretty, previous, 
prevalence, privilege, privative, proper, probable, probe, prove, 
prime, proud. 

Pff, — Puce, pudency, puerile, pugilist, puisne, puissant, puke, 
pule, pumice, pupil, pure, putative, putrid, pewter, pew. 

Between vowels, — Sleepy, reaper, pippin, sippet, paper, apex, 
epoch, pepper, wrapper, napping, cupper, supping, pauper, stopper, 
hoping, shopping, topic, toper, stooping, cooper, piper, viper. 

Before an Articulation, — Chapter, styptic, reptile, rupture, 
captain, cheapness, grapnel, shapely, haply, deeply, toppling, 
supplicate, April, apricot, cupreous, upright, napkin, pipkin, 
stopcock, upshot, upward, naphtha, knapsack, apt, strapped, wept, 
kept, whipped, shipped, popped, cupped, shaped, steeped, piped, 
hoped, cooped, steps, whips, mops, pipes, grapes, hopes, hoops. 

Final, — Sleep, peep, weep, dip, ship, pip, shape, escape, step, 
cap, sap, flap, trap, clasp, carp, chirp, bishop, stirrup, cup, sup, 
shop, lop, fop, hope, rope, elope, scope, soap, stoop, soup, coop, 
poop, loop, dupe, croop, group, hoop, pipe, wipe,ripo, snipe. 



Observations. — This articulation dififers from the precediug in no de- 
gree, extent, or continuance of labial pressure, (as has been erroneously sup- 
posed,) but in the employment of an apparatus unused for P,-^i. e. the vocal 
organ^^u addition to all the action, compression of breath, and explosive force 
of P. The external action of both letters being the very same, our remarks on 
the formation of P, will equally apply to this articulation. If the junction of 
the lips be too feeble to intercept the breath, the letter will sound like V ; and 
if their action be heavy and sluggish, pouting, or unsteady, the same faults 
and difficulties will be produced which were noticed under the head of P. While 
the Hps are in contact for P, there is 710 sound produced ; the prolongation of 
the contact only prolongs silence ; bnt in B there is a sound heard while the 
lips are closed. The glottis is put into the vocalizing position, and the breath 
in passing through it creates sonorous vibration ; during the continuance of which, 
the nedc, at its junction with the chin, will be observed to distend. This arises 
from the swellmg out of tlie pharynx, an extensible cavity at the back of tlie 
month, into which the stream of air from the glottis, unable to escape by the 
mouth or nares, forces itself. The muffled vocal sound which is heard during 
the distension of the pharynx ceases as soon as that compartment is fnlly in- 
flated, and can only be renewed when the pharyngeal muscles have been allowed 
to contract. Many persons are deficient in phaiyngefd power, and conse- 
quently unable to produce the shut voice in these elements ; so that B, D, and 
G are hardly distinguishable from P, T, and K. This whispering of the Voice 
Articulations is a remarkable characteristic of Welsh speakers. But afler a 
little practice the power of vocalizing the obstructive formations will be perfectly 
acquired. Let the student dwell on the articulation as long as posable m its 
various situations ; and though, at first, he may only be able to produce but a 
momentary stroke of voice, he will soon develop a power in the pharynx which 
will enable him }o continue the sound for a couple of seconds. There must be 
no sHent pressure as in P ; the vocal murmur must be heard, or he is not prac- 
tising B. It is necessary to guard against the slightest nasal sound in this 
exercise. The nasal tubes open fi^m the pharynx, and if they are not perfectly 
dosed by their natural valve — the soft palate, — the pharynx wiU not distend ; 
it is then a Uaky hag^ and cannot be inflated. 

In forming B, and indeed the Obstructiye articulations generally, the com- 
pression of breath must not cease until the external contact terminates, or the 
explosiveness will be lost. It is a peculiar characteristic of some varieties of 
Stammering, that the vocal part of B, D, and G, will be heard perfectly, whilo 
die letters toiU not out. The Stammerer repeats the articulation again and 
again with the phaiyngeal murmur distinct, yet without the least explosion fol- 
lowing. He is oonsequentiy unable to connect the initial letter with the suc- 
ceeding vowel. In this case, the muscles which constitute the sides of the 
pharynx contract too soon ; the instant they yield to the pressure of air, they 
again collapse, — either from a want of power in the muscles themselves, or 
from the Stammcrcr*s inability to continue |hc effort. Whatever be tlie cause 


of the impediment, energetic practice will soon remove it, and develop the ne- 
oessaiy power. 
B'initial combines with Z, r, and y, Bw — ^whioh is a frequent French com- 


hinaHon, as in boire (pr. bwar) — ^is heard in English in Bvoy^ Buoyant^ &c. 

In the Jinal combinations^ mb and bt^ b is silent^ as in dum&, bom&, doudt, 
de5t, &c. 

B before M in the same word^ as in cabman^ is not finished by a separation 
of the lips ; but before N, the explosive finish of the B should be clearly heard. 
The following Exercise should be practised until its combinations can be thrown off 
with distinctness, grace, and lightness. The combinations should be pronounced 
as words with the accent sometimes on the 1st and sometimes on the 2nd 

abe-tay abe-kay abe-day abe-gay abe-nay — with e, T, 6, 6o. 
ab-tab ab-kab ab-dab ab-gab ab-nab — with S, I, 6, d. 

The combination BB in the same word sounds like single B ; but when one 
ends with B, and the next be^ns with that letter or with M, — unless the words 
form an unimportant phrase, — the lips should be separated between the articu- 

abe-bay ? with e, T. ab-bab \with g, t. 

abe-may J — o, oo. ab-mab / — 6, ii. 


Initial, — Be, beef, beaver, beast, beech, bead, beak, biblical, 
bivouac, biscuit, business, bitter, bicker, bigamy, bay, babe, bathe, 
basis, baize, bait, bane, baker, beverage, bet, bedlam, bend, belt, 
bury, beckon, beggar, bearing, barely, baptism, babble, bamboo, 
baffle, bavin, bastion, bashful, badge, ballast, barrel, back, bag, 
bank, bangle, baboon, batoon, bateau, bar, barb, barm, bars, barge, 
barter, bard, barnacle, bark, bargain, berth, birch, bird, bergamot, 
birgander, bubble, bomb, bump, buffalo, bust, buzz, budge, bunch, 
bulge, bulk, burden, buckle, bug, bungle, bauble, bought, balk, 
bob, bobbin, bombyx, 

BL — Blab, black, bladder, blade, blame, blanch, blank, bland, 
blaspheme, blatant, bleach, bleak, bleed, bleb, bled, blemish, 
blench, blend, blight, blink, blithe, bloat, blobber, block, blood, 
bloom, blossom, blotch, blote, blubber, bludgeon, bluff, blunder, 
blunt, blurt, blush, bluster. 

Br, — Brabble, brach, brachygraphy, bracket, brad, brag, braid, 
brait, brake, brangle, bramble, branch, brave, breach, bread, 



breadth, break, bream, breast, breath, breathe, breed, breeze, 
brethren, breve, brief, bribe, brick, bridge, bridle, brigand, bril- 
liant, brinded, British, brittle, britzska, broach, broad, brought, 
brogue, broke, broil, brooch, brood, brook, broom, broth, brother, 
brown, bruise, brumal, brush, brustle, brute, bryony. 

By, — Beauty, bucolic, bugle, buhl, bulimy, bureau, burine. 

Bw, — Buoy, buoyant, buoyancy. 

Between vowels. — Feeble, agreeable, bibber, jibber, dibble, 
nibble, liberty, gibberish, fable, affable, lovable, stable, sable, 
passable, table, neighbour, label, labour, cable, gable, ebbing, 
pebble, treble, debit, babble, shabby, jabber, tabard, dabble, 
crabbed, cabinet, gabardine, haberdasher, bubble, stubble, suburb, 
shrubbery, lubber, trouble, rubber, hubbub, bauble, dauber, 
glauber, hauberk, sobbing, jobber, knobby, lobby, probable, 
robber, cobble, gobble, hobble, sober, noble, cobalt, puberty, 
booby, ruble, tuber, dubious, nubilous, piebald, bible, libel. 

Before an articulation. — Feebly, zebra, bibulous, glibly, 
February, celebrity, tablet, abracadabra, babbler, fabricate, 
kerb-stone, troublous, snubnose, warbler, nobly, lubricate, tubular, 
fibrous, library, eyebrow. 

Final. — Glebe, crib, rib, nib, astrolabe, babe, ebb, web| bleb, 
stab, dab, knab, cab, barb, rhubarb, garb, verb, kerb, herb, cub, 
hubbub, tub, dub, rub, grub, club, disturb, daub, bedaub, mob, 
fob, sob, job, knob, rob, cob, bob, absorb, orb, globe, probe, tube, 
cube, imbibe, jibe, bribe, kibe. 


Observations.-- >This letter has the same orally obstructive formation as 
P and B, but the nasal passages are uncovered, and the air, instead of ooUect- 
ing within the mouth and phaiynx, flows continuously through the nostrils. 
The soft palate is the valve which covers or uncovers the nares ; its action in 
doing so is extremely limited, as may be seen by forming G and ng before a 
glass : the sound may be intercepted and nasalized at pleasure, by a very laUght 
but perceptible motion of the upper part of the velurriy while the contact of its 
edges with the tongue remams undisturbed. This contact is the necessary for- 
mation of G, of which ng is the nasal form. We have said that the stream of 
breath cannot be directed entirely through the nostrils, unless it be obstructed 



ill the mouth. It ifl a common mistake, however, to thuik that tlie soft palate 
must, in order to open the nares, lie on the tongue for all nasal sounds. If the 
breath were thus uniformly intercepted at the posterior articulating part of the 
month for all the nasal elements, there oould be no difference between M, N, 
and ng. The contact of the anterior organs would not influence the sound, un- 
less the vocal current reached those organs. The formation of the English 
Nasals requires that the oral aperture be dosed, — it matters not how, — and the 
breath directed against the obstructing organs ; while the withdrawal from the 
nares of that part of the soft palate which lies opposite to them, gives the breath 
a passage through the nostrils ; and the articulation is not finished until the 
organs which dose the oral passage are separated. If the obstructing organs 
be not disjoined, the element loses its artictdative quality, and is merely a nasal 
voweL Great indistinctness arises from the want of this action when m, n, and ng 
are final. The French seldcmi sound the nasal articulations when final, or when 
before another articulation ; they give, instead, a nasal quality to the preceding 
vowel, making the voice issue partly by the mouth and portly by the nose. 
There are no such sounds m English. (See French Semi-Nasal Vowels, page 
36). The English nasals are all purely vocal. They are often faultily formed 
in this respect : — sometimes the voice is breathy and ill-formed in the glottis; 
and sometimes its sonorous quality is ii^nred by some contraction of the nos- 
trils. In order to remove this great blemish, let the nasal dements be practised 
by themsdves — ^beginning them with the same coup de la ghtte which was 
recommended for vowd-practioe, (page 15) and continuing them with one 
breath as long as possible, in two ways, — ^namely, in one unbroken effusion of 
sonnd, and in a number of dear, sharp, and separate strokes of voice. When 
the vocalizing of the nasals has been perfected by this cxcrdse, they should be 
practised with the requisite articulative actions, and in their various combina- 

The nasal elements, and also the letter L, are often called Semi-vowels, be- 
cause they are perfectly sonorous, and are capable of separate and prolonged 
enunciation, like vowels. The semi- vowels may each separately form a syllable ; 
L and N often do so in English, as in castle^ fasten , Sfc, The letters of this 
dass are also called Liquids, because they flow into other articulations, and 
seem to be absorbed by them. This peculiar quality might perhaps be better 
understood, were we to call it transparency ; they show through them the na- 
ture of proximate articulations. When the Liquids occur before voicdess arti- 
culations, they are so short as scarcely to add any appredable quantity to the 
sjdlable ; wiU^ bent, brinks lamp, jrc. have thus but very little more duration 
than wit, bet, bricks lap, Sfc. The liquid or transparent letters in this situation 
cannot be prolonged without produdng drawling, and an un-English pronun- 
ciation of the words. When tliese letters, however, come before Voice Articu- 
lations, they form the longest syllables in the language, — as in willed, bend, 
tongues, lambs, flm, hehn, ^c. which have as long quantity as any syllables 


OQntaimng the same voweb can have. The liquids before vowels have tlie 
same quantity as other Yoice Articulations. They are, however, longer when 
final ; and it is one of the greatest beanties of good speaking, to give them, 
then, then* ^^ fiur proportion." Their fiqmd qoality should not extend to proxi- 
mate words^ bnt only to letters in the same word, 

M before/, v, or u?, presents a difficult combination, and one which is seldom 
heard with distinctness from ordinary speakers. M is espedally awkward be- 
fore/, which, behig voiceless, shortens the liquid, and renders nudity of action 
neoewary. Let the following Exercise be practised, taking care that hoth lips 
meet for the m, — ^that, from that position, the lower lip falls down a very 
little for w ; and that, for/, the lower lip makes a quick downward and in- 
ward movement to the edges of the upper teeth, while the upper lip remains 
steady. At first, there will be felt a strong tendency to pout and push the lips 
fix>m position to position ; but a little practice will remove tins deformity. 

Aim fay, I Am fam, 1 

Aim vay, > w?i*i^ e, I, o, oo. Am vam, > toith S, i, 6, ii. 

Aim way, ) Am wam, J 

M generally presents a serious difficnlty to the Stammerer. Yoice feeble and 
fU-formed,— coUapdng chest, — adhesive lips, — motion in the nostrils, — descent 
of the upper lip, — ^upward pressure of the lower jaw, — ascent of the chin, — 
twisting and protrusion of the lips ;— and the very smoothness of the letter which 
will not bear such rough antagonistic treatment, — all combine to render M one 
of the greatest difficulties, and the Liquids generally, the greatest obstacles to 
fluency, that the Stammerer meets with. The explosive letters will bear a good 
deal of harshness, but these delicate articulations are impracticable amid such 
violence of effort. 

Careful and patient practice, with the aid of a glass, and sometimes with the 
temporary assistance of durect appliances to check the convulsive actions, will, 
however, surmount even these apparentiy impassable barriers to speech. 

M initial combines with y^ but with no other articnlation in English. It is 
written^ but rilent, before N, as in mnemonics. Mw is a common French 
combination, as in mot, pronounced mw&h. 


Initial, — Mere, mien, meal, meagre, mimic, mimetic, mytho- 
logy, mystic, mistletoe, mission, mitigate, midnight, minister, 
militate, miracle, maple, mane, mail, member, meditate, mend, 
mellow, merry, map, mab, mammiferous, mammon, maffle, ma- 
thematics, mad, mandate, malleable, maritime, mackerel, maggot, 


match, master, mamma, mathesis, marble, marmoset, marmalade, 
marvel, marl, myrmidon, mirth, mercy, mermaid, mummery, 
mmnming, muffler, mundane, mull, murmur, maudlin, maul, 
m(Mrbid, morphia, morn, malkin, mop, mob, modem, monad, 
molUfy, mope, moat, mode, moan, mole, move, moot, moose, mood, 
moon, moor, mine, mile, migrate, my. 

ify, — Mews, mewl, music, mute, mural, muleteer, muniment, 
mucttlent, mucus. 

Between vowels, — Aimer, dreamy, beaming, imitate, inimical, 
gaming, emery, emanate, femoral, hammer, amability, amethyst, 
cameirate, somerset, rummage, gummous, homage, vomit, com- 
merce> momus, foamy, gnomon, roaming, coma, booming, con- 
sumeri Kumic, looming, roomy, primate, climate, rhymer. 

Before a breath articulation. — Lymph, nymph, lymphatic, em- 
phatic, amphibrach, emphasis, camphor, comfort, comfortable, 
omphacine, triumph, pamphlet, samphor ; impotent, imp. improve, 
empire, emperor, employ, lamp, ample, amputate, umpire, lump, 
thump ; dreamt, tempt, exempt, contempt, prompt, sumptuous ; 
tamper, stamp, rump, cramp, hamper, temper, champ, whimper, 
gimp, pomp, romp, pump, crumple, hump ; sempstress. 

Before a voice articulation. — Imbecile, thimble, timber, nimble, 
embers, embassy, November, remember, semblance, amber, 
ambient, namby-pamby, bramble, scramble, tambour, ramble, 
gamble, umber, humble, umbrage, stumble, tumbler, adumbrate, 
ntlmber, lumber, rumble, gumboil ; triumvirate ; dimmed, 
limned, rimnled, hynmed, seemed, dreamed, beamed, aimed, 
blamed, maimed, tamed, famed, stemmed, contemned, con- 
demned, shammed, jammed, lambed, rammed, armed, farmed, 
alarmed, harmed, summed, numbed, thumbed, gummed, warmed, 
formed, stormed^ roamed, combed, boomed, doomed, loomed. 

M final. — Seem, dream, disme ; hynm, dim, grim ; aim, dame, 
claim ; them, stem, contemn ; ham, sham, jam, am, drachm, 
slam ; arm, barm, palm, calm ; firm, term ; dumb, come, thumb, 
some, gum, hum ; awm, shawm, form, warm ; form, (seat) ; home, 
roam, dome, comb ; boom, womb, doom, loom, room ; I'm, prime, 
time, lime, rhyme, chime. 

M a Syllable. — Chasm, spasm, sarcasm, schism, prism, rhythm. 



Observations. — This element is a whispered fonn of W. In its fonnation 
the lips are closely approximaied^ and then rapidly separated : the breath is 
not obstmcted. Sometimes a slight degree of vocality is added to the action : 
bat there must always be a dear distinction maintained between Wh and W. 
If the action be confined to the lips, and the breathing be softly managed, it is bet- 
ter to keep TFA— analogously to P, and the other Breath Articulations — entirely 
without voice. The action is often not confined to the lips, but thrown back to 
the soft palate also ; and the breath is thus modified at once into ch (German) 
and toh. This is a Scottish peculiarity, heard very coarsely from Highlanders, 
and with varying degrees of guttural force in all districts of Scotland. Avoiding 
this ungraceful mechanism, Wh will be found to be so unexceptionable and 
delicate in its articnlative effect, that even tlie €k)cknies, who, in then: incon- 
sistent horror of aspirations, confound it with W, need not reject it as uncouth. 

This element is not heard before o or oo. On account of the difficulty the 
combination would present, the vowel is simply breathed without the articulative 
action : this gives H instead of Wh before these vowels, as in wliole, whose, 
&c. pronounced hole, hooze, &c. 

Wh and W should be contrasted in practice till the ear and organs recognise 
and execute the diff^^nce satisfisictorily. The fi>llowing will be a usefiil Exercise. 

wha wa 

wa wha 

wa wha 

wha wa 

whe we 

we whe 

we whe 

whe we 

whi wi 

wi whi 

wi whi 

whi wi 

whap wap 
whep wep 
whip wip 
whop wop 
whup wup 

wap whap 
wep whep 
wip whip 
wop whop 
wup whup 

wap whap 
wep whep 
wip whip 
wop whop 
wup whup 

whap wap 
whep wep 
whip wip 
whop wop 
whup wup 

These syllables should be accentuated into words— dissyllables and quadri- 
syllables — ^with the seat of the accent varied. 

Exercises on Wh. 

Whale, whally, whame, wharf, what, wheel, wheat, wheedle, 
wheeze, whelm, whelp, when, whence, where, wherry, whet, 
whether, whey, which, whiflf, whifiSe, whig, while, whilst, whim, 
whimsey, whimbrel, whimper, whimwham, whin, whine, whinny, 
whip, whir, whirl, whirlwind, whisk, whisper, whist, whistle, whit, 
white, whither, whitlow, whizz, why. 



Distinguish Wh from W in the following words :— 

whej whale wheel when where which whether 
way wail weal wen ware witch weather 

whig while whin whine whit white whither 
wig wile win wine wit wight wither 


Obseryations. — ^This letter has been called a vowel by some orthoepists — 
by others a consonant, and bj others both. When before a vowel, it is unques- 
tionably an Articulation ; and when in other situations, it is either a redundant 
letter, as in flo fi?, or merely an auxiliary mark to make up the writing of some 
sound which has no fixed simple symbol. The combination aw^ for instance, 
sounds 10 ; ew sounds 12, as in sew^ 13 as in grew ; and ow sounds 12 in 
Jlow, aiid 7-13 in now. The only regular sound of W is that of the initial 

In forming W, the lips are very closely approximated, — but not closed or 
projected — ^and an effort of voice made, which will produce the sound of oo^ 
rather closely formed to be pure ; and the articulation is finished by the smart 
recoil of the lips, to ^ve egress to the succeeding vowel. 

W, before <h>, is rather difficult of utterance from the little scope the organs 
have for action, and the tf' is in consequence often omitted by careless speakers ; 
wool h&ng pronounced ool, woman, ooman, &c. A little practice will enable 
any person to articulate the combination distinctly. Sound the vowel oo — 
taking care that the lips are not projected or unnecessarily contracted — and 
with the thumb and forefinger sli^tly approximate the middle of the lips dur- 
ing the continuance of the sound, and the word v)oo will be reiterated. This 
will dearly show what the formation of W really is, and, with a little exercise, 
the Hps will be able to originate the necessary action, and perform it neatly and 
rapidly. Any habit of mal-formation which may have been acquired will readi- 
ly be thrown off in this way. 

Wr is a digraph retained in our orthography, but the w is not sounded. It 
is, however, a perfectly practicable combination^ and may probably have been ar- 
ticulated in the earlier ages of our language. In the Scottish dialect, both letters 
are still often heard in such words as wretch, wright, &g. 

Wand wh occasion many a difficulty to the Stammerer. Sometimes the seat 
of t^ impediment lies in the production of voice m the w ; sometimes in the 
juncdOQ of the articulation with the succeeding vowel. The Stammerer, blind to 
the principle that articulations are made by disjunctive actions, jeriLS his chin 
forcibly iipwards to make this element : the lips meet and grasp each other, 
in struggle**-as if each strove to push the other from the face ; while the head, 
eyes, and whole body partake of the effort, and undergo a paroxysm of distort- 
ing convulsive actions : and it is not until the face is reddened with the strain- 


ing effort, and the chest almost collapsed, that the sound ungovernably rushes 

The means of cure of this piunful impediment must be founded on the dear 
conviction that the lips cannot produce the sound—^iYidX they only modify it^ 
and that gently and instantaneously ; and that, consequently, any effort 
thrown into them is unnatural, and must be the cause of difficulty. Let the 
Stammei*^ but observe the mechanism of W from the vowel oo in the way above 
described, and the hold of the impediment will be at once greatly loosened. 
Guarded practice and careM application of the right principles of its articulation 
will soon perfectly obviate the difficulty which this element presents. 

The 7th vowel is never heard after W in English. The contracted labial 
aperture for the articulation would render its combination ynih so open a vowel 
harsh ; and the more congenial formation 10 is used instead. All the other 
vowels occur after W ; no articulation ever follows it. 

W combmes with the initial articulations, B, D, 6, T, E Th, S, as in huoy^ 
dwindle^ guava, twice^ qtieen, thwart, sway. Lists will be found under the 
initial elements. 

In the French language, W follows almost all the articulations : it is heard after 
B in m, aftier F in/ots, L in loin, M in moi, N in noir, P in poid, Y in voir, &c. 


Initial, — We, weep, weave, weevil, weasel, weed, ween, weal, 
we're, weak, weird, wield, weasand, weary ; women, with, wistful, 
wizard, wisdom, wish, wisp, witness, witch, widow, width, window, 
winter, will, wilt, wilder, willow, wick, wicked, wicket, widgeon, 
wig, wigwam, weechelm, wing, wink ; way, wafer, wave, waste, 
wage, wait, wade, wain, wail, wake, wager; weapon, wept, web, 
west, weft, wedge, wet, wedding, wainscot, Wednesday, well, welt, 
weld, welkin, welfare, wealth, Welsh, wear, wary ; waggish, waggon, 
wax, waft, wafture; worm, worth, worthy, worse, word, wonder, 
won, wontj world, worldly, work ; warp, warble, warm, wars, was, 
wash, wasp, wast, wart, wadding, ward, wan, warn, wall, war, 
warlike, walk, watch ; wore, worn ; woe, woes, woad, wofiil, wold, 
woke ; woop, w5man, womb, woo, woof, woos, woots, w56d, wooed, 
wooer, w551 ; wipe, wife, wive, withe, wise, wight, wide, wine, wile, 
wily, wild, wire. 

Between Vowels, — Away, awake, beware, bewitch, bewilder, 
reward, froward, pewet, prewam, seaward. 


Obsbkvatioxs. — ^F is formed by the apposition of the middle of the lowe 
lip to the edges of the upper teeth, and by the rapid withdrawal of the lip by a 


downward and backwai'd action to finish the articolation. The breath must 
not be altogether intercepted daring the organic contact. The obstruction 
offered by the lip, however, gives the breath sufficient compression in the mouth 
to produce a degree of explosiveness when the lip is removed. We have already 
^ken of the necessity of attending careiully to the labial action, so as to avoid 
redundancy or ungracefulness. An awkward formation of F and Y is so common 
as to render a repetition of the caution here necessary. The lip ts frequently 
rolled outwards^ so as to bring its interior surface against the front of the teeth ; 
and the upper lip is twitched up towards the nostrils, to avoid collision with the 
clumsy usurper from below. The mouth is sadly deformed by these ungainly 
actions, and the wriggling lips look in profile like a^uple of " uneasie worms,^* 
tossing and twining in agony. There is nothing in^his, or in any articulation, 
nor in any combination of sounds in speech, that requires these loose, irregular, 
and propulsive actions of the lips ; they are purely gratuitous, and should be 
studiously avoided by every person of taste. The lips should, as nearly as 
possible, retain the form of the dental ranges in all th&i actions. For F the 
upper lip should have no motion ; and the under lip should merdy rise suffi- 
ciently to bring its edge agsdnst the tips of the upper teeth. A too labial for- 
mation of the vowels aw, o, oo, will create a difficulty in articulating F neatly 
in syllables containing these vowels in combmation with it ;-7-as in awful, 
wolfish, uvula, over, &c. In this case the vowel formation must first be rectified. 
A little practice — ^the grand improver — ^will suffice. 

, This labial mal-action, aggravated by the heaving upward pressure of the jaw, 
creates a trying difficulty to the Stammerer. F, properly continuous, becomes 
perfectly obstructive, and acquires all the difficulty of P, with a more awkward 
position of the lips : for the lower lip frequently forces its ascent to the upper 
gum, and wedges itself in between tliat and the upper lip. — ^But £rror is too various 
to be traced in all its vagaries ; — and the erroneous actions of Stammering are so 
eccentric as to present new features in almost every case. Let the true principles 
of articulation be investigated, and brought in contrast with any error, and, if 
the source of the error be not at once made apparent, the means of removing it 
will, at least, be so. Stammerers have been by some advisers told to study all 
the phases of their impediments, and to practise the opposite of their faulty 
tendencies, as if the reverse of every wrong must needs be right : but our more 
rational advice is — study, and thoroughly master the simplicity of true principles^ 
for if the practical acquisition of them do not effect a cure, no other means will 
be successful. 

F is sometimes formed by the dose approximation of both lips instead of the 
lower lip and upper teeth : but the tension of the lips necessary for this formation 
is as ungraoefrd as it is fettering to the general maxillary action. 

A loosdy formed P sounds like F, by the breatli not bemg perfectly intercepted. 

The following Exerdses will give distinctiveness to the labial actions : — 
apfa, epfe, ipfi, opfo, upfoo ; — afpa, efpe, &q, 
pa& pafa pafa pa& pafa, &c. ; fapa fapa fapa fapa fapa, &c. ; — with e, i, o, oo. 
pafafapa, pafafapa, &c. ; fapapafa, fapapafa, &c. ;—^mth e, i, o, oo. 




F aod Tb sound very mach alike, if their respective actions are noi firmly 
and sharply performed. They are both semi-dental articulations : F is lahio- 
dental, and Th Ztit^ua-dental ; — and there is a dose resemblance in the manner 
of their formation, which is a continuous breathing between the apposed organ 
and the teeth, followed by the qniok removal of the articulating organ, which 
produces an audible percussion of breath. Contrast these articulations in the 
following Exercise : — 

fatha fatha fatha, &c. > -.r . 
thafa thafa thafa, &c. j "'"'^ ^ ^' 

fatha thafa.&tha thafa, &c. \ vi ^ • ^ 
tliafo fathyhafe fatha, &c. j ^^^'^ ®' ^' ^' ^• 

There is a tendency to vocalize the Breath Articulations before Vocal ones, 
and between vowels : thus, ph=f^ in nqihew^ Stephen^ &c. is sounded v : and 
careless speakers pronounce t/likc iv in such situations. Of is always pro- 
nounced with 17 instead of/, ov or uv ; but this change has perhaps been sanc- 
tioned for the purpose of distinguishing the word from off, 

F initial combines with Z, r, and y in English, as in fliglit^ fright^ fury. 
In French it combines also with w^ as mfois, F unites witii no initial articu- 
lation, except S, as in sphere. 


Initial. — Feeble, feasible, feet, feed, fiend, field, fear; fib, 
fifth, fifty, fissure, fidget, finical, fillj, filter, film, filial, fixture, 
figure, fiction, fitch, finch ; fable, fame, favour, faith, face, fate, 
fade, faint, feigned, fakir; February, feminine, feof^ feather, 
fender, felt, ferry, fairy, ferula, fecund, fetch ; fabricate, famish, 
fathom, fasces, fascinate, fEicund, faction, fagot, fang ; fast, 
Justness, fasten ; farm, farce, farthing, fardel ; ferment, firm, 
fervour, first, firs, fern, fir, fertile, firkin ; fuss, fuzz, fund, 
fulminate, fulcrum, fulgid, ftir, ftirze, furtive, furbish, fungus; 
faucet, fisiwn, fall, faldiug, false, falchion, falcon, form, forfeit, 
fortune, forward, fork, fop, fob, fond, font, follow, foUj, fox ; fore, 
fourpence, form, forth, force, fort, ford ; foeman, focus ; food, foot, 
fool, full ; fife, five, fine, file, fire ; found, fount, fountain ; foist, 

Fl — Flee, fieece, fleet, fleer ; flippant, flimsy, flitch, flit, 
flint, flicker, fling ; flame, flavour, flail, flake, flagrant ; flemish, 
flesh, fledge, flexible ; flap, flabby, flambeau, flash, flatten, flax, 
flag, flang, flank ; flask ; flaunt ; flirt, ; flummery, fluster, flush, 
flutter, flood, flurry, flung; flaw, floss, flock ; floor, floral ; flow? 

AE'nCULAT10N&-V. 147 

flows, float, flowed, flown ; flew, flues, fluke ; flies, flight; flout, 
flounce, flounder, flower. 

Fr, — Freeman, frieze, frequent ; frippery, frith, fritter, friction, 
frigate ; frame, phrase, frail ; fresh, fret, friend, frenzy, phrenic, 
freckle ; frantic, franchise, fractious, fragment, frank ; fraternal ; 
front, frustrate ; froth, frost, fraudulent, from, frontal, frontis- 
piece, frolic, frock, frog ; frore ; fro, froward, froze ; fruit, frugal, 
frutez, fruition ; fry, fried ; frow, frowzy, frown. 

Fy, — Few, fue, fuel, fugitive, fugleman, fume, funambulist, 
funeral, funicle, fury, fuse, fusee, fusion, futile, future, feud. 

Between vowels, — Reefer ; whiffle, stiffen, different, diffidence, 
sniffle ; Sapphic, daffodil, raffle, gaffer, chaffer ; zephyr, deference, 
heifer ; wafer, safer, chafer ; puffing, buffet, muffle, suffer, 
toughish, roughen ; awful, scoffer, coffin, coffer ; sofa ; truffle, 
roofing ; fifer, stifle, trifle, rifle. 

Before an articulation, — Caftan, abaft, waft, weft, theft, bereft, 
thrift, sifter, shift, softly, doffed, puffed, rebuffed, muffed, reefed, 
chafed, laughed, roofed ; skiffs, chiefs, safes, laughs, serfs, ruffs, 
coughs, oafs, roofs ; fifth, twelfth ; baffling, stifling, trifler ; 
roughness, toughness, stiffhecked. 

F final, — Beef, thief, sheaf, leaf, chief, reef; if, stiff, whiff, 
tiff, skiff; safe, chafe; feof^ deaf ; gaff; chaff, laugh, calf, half; 
serf; puff, buff, muff, snuff, tough, enough, luff, rough, ciiff, huff, 
chough, siirf, turf ; wharf, off, cough ; oaf, loaf; woof, roof, hoof ; 
wife, knife, life, rife ; coif; 


Obsrrvations. — ^This artioidaticm adds to the action of F a vocal sound, 
Tlie breath which flows between the lip and teeth sets tlie gk>ttal membranes in 
vibration in its course for Y : with this difference of sonorous quality, F and 
V are in eveiy respect the same formation. Our remarks on the articulation of 
F will therefore equaUy apply to V. V is liable, however, to another kind of 
mispronunciation' in the absence or but partial presence of voice. It is a 
source of much beauty in speech to give dear vocality to the articulations of 
this class ; — the vocal vibration must not subside until the disjunctive action 
which completes the articuhitioB is made. All vocal articulations are more or 
less capable of /n/^orion,—- the continuous formations especially so,— '^uid 
much of the power of an expressive voice lies in the distinct vocality and 
skilful inflexion of these dements. Y should be practised to develop or improve 
this power with as much prolongation as possible, and with varying inflexions ; 


care being taken that the sound does not come out injerks^ but in an unbroken 
current, and that the organs remaui perfectly steady in the articulating position, 
until they are thrown apart by one effort at the end. When satisfactory vocal 
power has been thus obtained, the articulative action should be practised with 
natural rapidity and in its various combinations. 

Londoners often pronounce w mstead of v, and, with strange perversity, i; 
instead of ic. Thus we hear wessel for vessel, vater for water, werry veil for 
very well ; but this, of course, is only or mainly among the uneducated. 

Combinations of W and V are so difficult as in most cases to require a special 
exerdse. The following wiU be effective. 

vawavawavawavawa, &c. — wavawavawavawava, &c. — with e, i, o, oo. 
vawava, vawava, &c. — wavawa, wavawa, &c. — with e, i, o, oo. 

Pronounce each group of syllables as a word, changing the seat of accent, 
vawawav^awawava, &c ^wavavawawavavawa, &c — with e, i, o, oo. 

As a general exercise on the Labial Articulations, the following arrangement 
of the Three Modes of action will be useful. 

Read the whole Une as three words, changing the seat of accent as marked. 

w4 ba va, va bd wa, ba va wd, — with e, i, o, oo. 

y initial combines only with ^ as in view, Yr is a peculiar French combin- 
ation as in Vraie, 


Initial. — Veal, veer, vehement, venous, venial, vivid, vivify, 
visible, viscous, vitiate, vigilant, vitriol, vidual, vineyard, vindicate, 
vilify, vicar, vigour, veil, vein, vacant, vapour, vase, vagu^^vagrant, 
vessel, vegetable, veterinary, vetch, vend, venerable, vellum, vel- 
vet, very, vection, vapid, vamp, vascular, vaticide, vanity, van- 
guard, value, vagabond, vastly, varlet, varnish, verb, verberate, 
verdant, verjuice, vermin, vulgar, vulnerable, vulpine, vulture, 
vault, vaunt, voluble, volume, voluntary, vomit, votary, vocal, 
vogue, viper, vibrate, vine, vile, vowel, vouch, voyage, voice, void. 

Between Vowels. — Beaver, weaver, liver, river, quiver, favour, 
wavy, lava, knavish, laving, raven, ever, endeavour, bevel, seven, 
never, leveret, heaven* eleven, cadaverous, tavern, cavern, covet, 
shovel, lover, poverty, sovereign, impoverish, over, woven, oval, 
rover, mover, immovable, stiver, driver, ivy. 

Before an Articulation. — Halved, delved, saved, served, curved, 
loved, roved, moved, rived, wives, leaves, graves, curves, coves, 
knives, lovely, lively, livelong, javelin, loveknot, evening, move- 

Vy. — Vielle, view, viewless. 


Final. — Achieve, eve, thieve, weave, bereave, live, sieve, for- 
give, save, grave, behave, wave, have, carve, salve, halve, serve, 
nerve, love, curve, above, dove, wove, throve, stove, drove, grove, 
five, wive, shrive, drive, rive, hive, missive, votive. 


Observations. — ^This articulation is that which gives the most forward 
action to the tongae, the front edge of which rests equally and liglitly on the 
inner snrface of the upper teeth, while the breath escapes over the sides of the 
forepart of the tongue. The breath must not be obstruct^, or a thick aud indis- 
tinct T will be produced. The necessary mechanism of the kind of sound heard 
in Th is simply obstruction of the breath by the tip of the tongue^ and a lateral 
passage for the breath (on one side or both sides) over the fore-part of the tongue. 
The tongue may lie either between the teeth, — ^upon the upper teeth, — on the 
gum, or even on the rim of the palatal arch ; and Th will be produced if the 
issue of the breath be in the way described. 

The second of these is the proper formation, as it is that which most readily 
combines with other lingual movements. The first formation, — ^namely, the 
placing of the tongue between the teeth, — is a veiy common mode of untutored 
articulation ; and frequently the ^^ unruly member^' is fulsomely protruded, as 
if lapping the air. School-boys have a way, — often a painful one, — of ciuing 
this vice, by striking the chin upwards, and making the teeth bite the obti*u- 
sive member. ' Yet the number of speakers who continue thus to thrust their 
tongues into unnecessary observation, shows that the biting specijic is either not 
very generally adopted, or not of permanent efficacy ; and the adult organ often 
rolls in luxurious ease upon the dental pillows, and stretches itself out even to 
the softer lip, as if rejoicing in full-grown security from the terrors of " cliin- 

Another faulty formation of Th consists in an inward movement of the lower 
lip to meet the tongue. This gives so much of the character of F to the articu- 
tion, that it is often difficult to know which is the letter intended. F and Th 
are mechanically much alike. The action of the lip for F is precisely analogous 
to that of the tongue for Th. Both organs partially obstruct the breath by 
central contact with the teeth ; and the breath is in both cases emitted through 
lateral interstices. The following Exercise on the actions of F and Th will be 
found useful in imparting articulative energy, and m giving a distinctiveness to 
these elements which is seldom possessed intuitively. 

Pronounce — ^not the name, but — the articulate sound of the letters F and Th, 
without an mtervening vowel. Dwell for some seconds on the F, keeping the whole 
range of the upper teeth in sight, then quickly disengage the articulating lip, 
and place the tongue in the position for th, resting in this position with both 
ranges of teeth in siglit for a few seconds ; and then withdraw the tongue oner- 


getically, and assume the position for F, as before : and so on alternately, till 
the actions can be reiterated with rapidity, — f-th'f-th'f'th'f-th-f'th'f-ih^ SfC. 

The vowels may tlien be placed before and after the combination ; and the two 
syUables so formed should be pronounced with natural rapidity and perfect dis- 
tuictness. Thus, af-tha^ ef-the, if-thi^ &c. ; and, conversely, ath-fa^ eth-fe, &c. 

Til is sometimes sounded instead of s : this constitutes one form of what is 
called Lisping. Combmations of th and s present an articulative difficulty which 
should be mastered by careful practice. Exercises will be found under the head 

Til is not heard in French : the digraph is written, but it is pronounced t. 
Frenchmen have so great a difficulty in articulating the English Th, that it is 
a rare thing to find one of them so far naturalized to the English tongue as to 
be capable of uttering this shibboleth. The difficulty arises only from ignorance of 
the nature of the formation ; just as the Englishman's difficulty in giving the Gallic 
effect to the French semi-nasal elements is the result of a want of knowledge of 
the true mechanism of the sounds. A clear understanding of the formation of 
the peculiar elements would make their production the work of half an honr^s 

A Breath form of L is a common substitution for Th among diildren ; and 
even older tongues will sometimes be found to utter the cacophony. Nothing can 
be more simple than the cause of this error, and the means of its correction. 

To the Stammerer Th presents another source of impediment besides those 
already noticed. This lies in the action of the tongue. The heavy conjunctive 
force of the articulative action, impels the tongue with unmanageable pressure 
against the teeth, till it is either protruded fix>m the mouth, or rolled up behind 
the lower teeth, so as to occasion a complete blockade. The mere occln^on of 
the mouth would not necessarily lead to difficulty, for many of the articulations 
are perfectly obstructive ; but continued pressure creates impediment. The 
organs must In all cases start off from their articulating positions with rapidity 
and energy. The tongue in forming Th, for instance, takes its articulative posi- 
tion against the teeth, as above described ; but its articulative action, without 
which ttie element is incomplete, is a smart recoil of the tongue, so as per^tly 
to separate it from the teeth. 

It is an important general principle of lingiial articulation, that the point of 
the tongue should always be directed upwards, or at least horizontally. It 
should never touch the lower teeth : — ^it should never descend into the lower jaw. 
In practising its recoil from the various articulating positions to lighten a heavy 
impedimental action, the movements should be carefully watched before a glass ; 
and if the string of the tongue (the frsBnum) be always kept in sight, the pro- 
trusive and downward habits of heavy action will soon be subdued. The mus- 
cidar power of the tongue may be so greatly increased by exerdse, and brought 
under the power of volition, that the Stammerer will hesitate to call it, in a 
mechanical sense, an ** unruly member." We have often, in a few days dritted 
into activity and precision of action, a tongue which formerly lay lumpish and inert 
ill the mouth ; and, by the power of well directed exercise alone, we have so" 


reduced Us apparent haik^ that whereas at first it seemed altogether dispropor- 
tioned to the month, it has learned to stow itself within the ample cavity, almost 
ont of sight. Yeiy rarely does the heaviest and hugest looking tongne, need mofe 
than saoh a drilling to 'give it nimbleness and tapering elegance. When the for- 
mation of Th is from any cause imperfect, let the following means of practice be 
pursned. Place the tongue carefully in the articulating position^ and continue 
it steadily there^ the breath flowing all the time, for some seconds : then quickly 
withdraw it, by one action as far hack and down in the mouth as possible, keeping 
its under mrfojce in sight. The finger maybe placed at the angle of the neck 
and chin, and the descent of the tongue will be distinctly /e/^, when it is effec- 
tively managed. In this way let the syllables 

12 8 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 18 13 

eeih^ Wij aith, eth, ath^ ath, arth, earth, urth, (awrth, ourth, otk, ooth, 

and words ending with th be practised. Then th before vowels : the tongue 

resting steadily for an instant against the teeth, and the succeeding vowel being 

enounced with explosive fudness. Lastly, Th before w;, r, and y, should receive 

a special exercise, in the same way, — the tongue retreating with rapidity and a 

forcible propulsion of the breath, after resting for an instant in the articulating 

poation. In a short time, — short in proportion to the energy and amount of 

practice, — ^this articulation will be perfectly mastered ; and not only it, but lingiuxl 

power will be so developed, that all the elements produced by the agency of the 

tongue win be greatly improved. 

Thj though a double character, is a simple articulation, and shotdd be re- 
presented by a single letter in the alphabet. H, the sign of aspiration, is added 
to P, to represent a continuous formation by the \\p^ viz. F : it is added to T and 
S, to represent continuous formations by the tongue, viz. Th and Sh : and in some 
languages, we find other combinations with h^ In GaeHc, for instance^ Bh and 
Mh sound y ; but the latter has this peculiarity^ that it gives a nasal efiect to the 
adjoining vowel. 

The vowels exhibit a tendency to prolongation when before this element ; for 
the articulation being continuous, and its seat far advanced in the mouth, the 
vowds cannot be so readily stopped by it as by obstructive and posterior for- 

Th initial unites in English with w, r, and ^, as in thwart, throne, thurible. 
It blends with no initial articulation. It is often found in combinations where 
its proper articulation requires some littie art ; as in heaths, health/id, eighths, 
ninihs, sixthly, twelfths, depths, widths, lengthwise, &c 

Exercises on Th. 

Initial, — Thank, tliarm, thatch, thaumatrope, thaw, theatre, 
theism, theme, theocracy, theory, theriac, thermal, thesis, theurgy, 
thick, thief, thieve, thigh, thimble, thill, thin, thing, think, 
third, thirst, thirteen, thirty, thistle, thong, thorax, thorn, thought, 
thousand, thumb, thump, thunder, Thursday, thyroid, thyrse. 


rAtt?.— Thwack, thwart, thwitteD, thwaite, thwittle. 
Tkr. — Thrall, thrash, thrasonical, thread, threat, three, 
ttreshold, threw, thrice, thrive, thrift, thrill, through, throat, 
throb, throe, throre, throng, throttle, throstle, throw, thnxm, 
thmsh, thmst. 

Thy. — Thew, thurable, thnriferons, thnrification, enthusiasm. 

Between Votoels, — Ether, pithy, mythology, cithern, lithograph, 
lithic, lithophyte, bathos, pathos, mathematics, lathy, mothy, 
frothy, nothing, toothache, ethics, atheist, catholic, dithyramb, 
method, plethora, apothecary, spathic, rhythm, logarithm, lethal, 

Before an artiadation. — Ethnic, ethmoid, ethnology, athletic, 
athwart, deathful, deathwatch, deathlike, earthly, earthquake, 
earthworm, &ithfiil, scathless, pathless, pathway, plethrom, 
truthful, ruthless, sheath-winged, slothful, worthless, months, 
girths, moths, (truths, cloths.*) 

Final, — Sheath, teeth, wreath, heath ; pith, plinth, frith, sith, 
£Eiith ; saith, death, health, wealth, stealth ; hath ; path, bath, 
lath ; birth, mirth* earth, dearth, girth ; doth, worth ; broth, 
cloth, moth, froth, wrath ; oath, both, loth ; sooth, tooth, truth, 
ruth ; mouth, south. 

Th, (tocal.) 

Observations. — ^This is the same articnlalion as the preceding, but with 
the addition of yocality daring its formation. There is no distinction made 
in our Orthography of these elements, bat the difierence between their soands 
is the same as between F and Y, P and B, &c. Thus not only is our alphabet 
deficient of simple characters to represent this and the preceding element, bat 
we oonfoand the two, by using for both the same digraph. To be consistent 
we should write this sound 2>A. 

Our remarks on the formation of Th (breath), and on the difficulties and 
peculiarities of its articulation, equally apply to this vocal Th ; and the same 
sort of praxis recommended for the former will, with voice added, be found 
effective for the correction of faults in the latter. In prolonging this element, 
the voice should be heard, not in abrupt jets, but in one unbroken ^ow: from 
the mterstitial nature of the apertures through which the breath paaaes, a 
degree of hissing will at the same time be produced. The retraction of the 

* These two words are often pronounced with th vocal^^clothz, truthz. 


tongue which Buishes the artioulatioii should not be followed by any effort of 
voice, — the sound must cease at the instant of lingual separation. This is a 
general principle of articulation ; for, if a vocal sound escape after the articulating 
organs are disjoined, it must evidently be a vowel; and such an addition, — by 
no means uncommon, — gives a drawling, ^* hunmiing and liawing " effect to 
speech, which fidgets the listener into impatience. 

Custom has vocalized the th in the plural of a few words which have its 
breath-form in the singular : as in path — pat^, oath — oAths^ mouth — montha^ 
bath — baMs, lath — la/As. The reason of this change does not seem veiy ob- 
vious ; for it is just as easy to pronounce ths in these cases as thz. A similar 
change, however, takes place in F, which is vocalized from calf to calt7es, loaf 
to loaves, &c. We have explained the analogy between the mechanisms of F 
and Th, (page 145,) which may account for these elements being thus cor- 
respondently influenced. 


Initial, — Than, that, those, the, thee, their, them, then, 
thence, there, these, thej, thine, this, thither, though, thou, 
thus, thy, thjine. 

Between voiveU. — Wither, whither, thither, hither, heathen, 
either, teething, bathing, tether, nether, leather, heather, lather, 
fiitthom, gather, rather, father, mother, t'other, other, fother, 
bother, southern, clothing, loatheth, soothing, mouthing, writhing. 

Before an articulation, — Litheness, lithesome, blithely, blithe- 
ness, blithesome, loathsome, clothes, wreaths, lathes, baths, 
booths, mouths, paths, oaths, sheathed, loathed, bathed, writhed, 
mouthed, swathed, smoothed. 

Final, — Seethe, sheath, teeth, (v.) neath, beneath, wreathe, 
with ; bathe, lathe, spathe, swathe ; loathe, clothe ; booth, soothe, 
smooth ; withe, scythe, tithe, writhe, lithe ; mouth, (v.) 


Observations. — The peculiar mechanism requisite to produce the clear 
hissing sound heard in this letter, is a single and very contracted aperture for 
the emission of the breath over the centre of the fore-part (not the tip) of the 
tongue^ when, without much elevation from the bed of the lower jaw, it is 
dosdiy i^proximated to the upper gum. The tongue is otherwise in contact 
with the teeth and gum, so as to obstruct the breath at all parts but the point, 
which is sufficiently squared to prevent its touching the front teeth. The 
^lightest projection of the tip brings it against tl)« teeth, and, by partially 



interccptiog the breath at that point, modifies the soand into that o€ th; and 
the least retraction of the tongue fi:om the predse point of the trne formatioa, 
causes the middle of the tongne to ascend towards the ardi of the palate, and 
modifies the current of breath mto the sound of sh. No element of speedi is ao 
often and so variously faulty as S, and yet there is rarely much tnynble 
required to correct its irregularities. Among the most common imperfections 
of this sound, we may note four leading varieties^ which are sometinieB foond 
as mailed and separate blemishes, and often in some degree of oomlMimtioo, 
which renders the precise nature of the peculiarity less evident, at the same 
time that the existence of a defect is manifest and unquestionable. 

The first fault of S which we would notice, is that caused by the contact of 
the tip of the tongne with the teethy or its projection between the teeth. This 
produces the sound of Th. Some people reckon this a fascinating charni^ — 
especially in maiden mouths, — a mark of gnfleless innocence and simi^oty ; 
because, forsooth, the ^Uhame thweet thort ofthound" is often heard in the 
innocent prattle of childhood. There can be but one opinion as to its pnerifity ; 
it must therefore be an unbecoming habit in those who have outgrown die 
years of childishness. 

Another form of defect arises fix>m the^a^ expansion of the tongue over ike 
lower teeth. Tins is a lazy -looking and peculiarly unprepossesang fiudt. It 
is too much allied to the aspect of imbecility to be tolerable fix>m anj other 

In a third form, the point of the tongue is depressed behind ike lower teeih^ 
and the breath hisses between the elevated middle of the tongue and the palate. 
In this case, the teeth are too much apart to allow of suffident sharpness in the 
sound ; and the lower lip is therefore firequently employed to direct the stream 
into a narrower channel, by rising upwards, or folding itself inwards, to 
meet the upper teeth. By these means a very dose resemblance to the sound 
of S is produced ; and if we could not see its mechanism, we might often be 
inclined to pass it without notice, but it is so conspicuously deforming to the 
mouth that we are glad to turn our eyes from the speaker^s face. These 
defects are commonly called, indiscriminatdy, by the general name. Lisping. 

Another cacophonic substitution for S is a hissing over the sides of the hack 
. of the tongue^ something like, but with less free apertures than, the breath form 
of L, which is heard in Welsh, represented in that language by li. This is a 
duttering disagreeable sound ; and it is generally accompanied bj other fiiolts 
of lingual action. The inarticulate confusion of speech which results, is com- 
monly called " thickness.^'' 

With reference to the method of correcting these and other imperfections, we 
would be less careful to mark out the exact cause of the defect, than to Slnstrate 
and clearly point out the true mechanism of the sound which is defective ; and, 
by varied experiments, and exercises on analogous and kindred formations^ 
to induce the organs to &I1 into the unaccustomed position, perhaps uncon- 
sciously and unexpectedly at first on the part of the pupQ. In this waj, the 
aseodation between the letter and the malformation will gradually be broken, 


and the new form of articulation may in a veiy short time be fixed into 
a habit. 

The analogy between the articulative actions of R and S is generally of 
much service in leading the tongue to the position for the latter element. A 
whispered R may be modified into S, by bringing the teeth as close as posable 
without actual contact, and depressing the tip of the tongue to a horizontal 
position, during the flow of the breath. Sometimes mechanical assistance 
facilitates the acquisition of the S : a paper cutter held between the teeth 
furnishes a convenient ledge on which the point of the tongue may lie until it 
acquires the power of moulding itself to the required shape. 

We have hitherto described only the articulating position of S, — but the 
element is not finished without the retraction of the tongue firom that position. 
The forcible practice of this part of the articulation will greatly tend to give 
ease and rapidity in executing the S, and in mana^ng the tongue in the 
various evolutions of general speech. Let the S, when the sound is tolerably 
correct, be prolonged to the limit of expiration, and by this exercise its 
sharpness will be increased, and any wasteful issue of breath checked. Each 
prolonged hiss should have the articulative Jinish, by abruptly drawing in the 
tongue. The breath compressed within the mouth will then be emitted 
explosively; but it must be altogether voiceless. 

Another highly improving exercise consists in stopping the hissing sound of 
S, by repeated. appulses of the tongue against the palate — producing the com- 
bination St-St-St, &c. The action of the tongue from S to T should be back- 
wards and upwards: — a common heaviness of speech arises from striking the 
tongaQ forward to the gum or teeth, or from simply pressing it upwai'd, without 
a change of position. In the combmation st (and sts, which the quick reite- 
ration of St produces also) there are few persons who exhibit distinctness and 
lightness of articulation. A little practice of the lingual exercises prescribed in 
our pages will give facility to all who desire that their speech shall be something 
more than a *^ mere brute instinct, by which,^* as Dr Rush remarks, '^ some 
persons only bleat, bark, bray, whinny, and mew, — a little better than others." 

Some difficulty may be found at first in managing these alternations of s and 
t, from the little space within which the tongue has to make so decided an 
action. The student will be inclined to a most destructive waste of breath in 
the effort to give T its articulative finish ; but let liim patiently persevere, 
uttering as long a series as he can, with each expiration, and he will insensibly, 
yet steadily, improve. 

St is common in English, both as a fnal and as an initial combination. 
Such awkward dustera of consonants as in the following words are. thei'efore, 
of fi:eqttent occurrence i—fts and starts, tastes and distastes, states, statists, 

To enable him to enounce these clearly, and without any harsh intcnniption 
of continuity, the student should practise the following Table : — 

Est-ste, ist-stist, ast-sta, est<stest, ast-stast, ust-stust, ost-stost, ost-sto, 


Similar combinations of S with P and K are likewise very common ; bat they 
do not present so great a difficulty as the preceding, because the obstructive 
element is produced by the action of a di£ferent part of the mouth from that 
which forms the S. 

The following also should be practised until fluency is obtained : — 

Ast, est, ist, ost, ust ; asp, esp, isp, oep, usp ; ask, esk, isk, osk, nsk. 

Note, — ^In this exercise the explosive finish of the T, P, and E must not be 
allowed to coalesce with the next vowel. In the most rapid iteration, the 
syllables must be ast^ ast, asty &c. and not astastcut, &c. 

Esp-spe, isp-spisp, asp-spa, esp-spesp, asp-spasp, usp-spusp, osp-sposp, 
osp-spo, oosp-spoo. 

Esk-ske, isk-skisk, ask-ska, esk-skesk, ask-skask, usk-skusk, osk-skosk, 
osk-sko, oofik-skoo. 

S and Th present an articulative difficulty when they meet without an inter- 
vening vowel. The action of the tongue from one to the other is exceedingly 
limited — but it must be firm and decided, to render the combination distinct. 
The change firom the position of S to that of Th, consbts in tapering and ad- 
vancing the tip of the tongue. The whole tongue must not be pushed con- 
tinuously forward^ but the mere tip should just touch the teeth — as high as 
possible — by a rapid and distinct motion ; the change from the one position to 
the other being accompanied by the audible^ articulative finish of the first 
element. Let the student endeavour to produce a long series of these articula- 
tions — thus: s-th-s-th-8-th-s-th-s-th-s-th-s-th, 8fc, 

Then let him prefix and subjoin a vowel to the combinations — ^thus : 

ace tha, ece the, ice thi, oce tho, 60s tboo, 
aith sa, eeth see, ithe si, oath sd, ooth soo, 

&s th&s, Ss th^s, 18 this, 58 thSs, Xi& thiis, 

&th 8&th, Sth sSth, ith 81th, 5th sSth, Hth stith. 

When these have been sufficientiy practised, the following arrangement of 
syllables containing S and Th alternately initial, should be mastered. The 
perplexing difficulty they present, renders them well worthy of the student's 
care : for in overcoming this difficulty a great degree of organic power is 
gained, which must produce a beneficial effect upon articulation generally. 

Pronounce the combinations as words, with varying accents; and repeat 
each of them several times with the same expiration. 

tha sa, tha sa tha, tha sa sa tha, \ va - r - - 

saUia, satiiasa, sa tha tiia sa, J "'»^'*e^oo^- 

When S final comes before S initial, as in ^^ The Alp.<; ^blime,'' the neat 

articulation of the double consonant requires a little art. Practise the following. 

ace say, ece see, ice sigh, oce so, 00s soo, 
ass sass, ess cess, iss sis, oss soss, us sus. 

The difficulty of doubling articulative actions without awkward hiatus has 

led many Elocutionists to advise the omission of one in such combinations. 

Whoever could rest satisfied with saying " the Ethiopian's ^*tV« and the leopard's 


pots^^^ when he meant ** the Ethiopian's skin and the leopard's spots^^^ may 
follow the tasteless counsel ; but we trust all others will rather spend an hour 
or two in drilling their organs into the necessary lightness of action, or else- 
be distinct, even at the expense of hiatus. 

S is an extremely difficult articulation to Stammerers. In general, they have 
no difficulty in producing the hisdng sound ; they can take the articulative 
position^ but they cannot add to that the necessary action which must finish 
the element. The hissing is thus continued till the lungs are almost exhausted ; 
— and the Stanunerer cannot stop the destructive waste. The fault here lies 
mainly with the glottis, which, in a non-vibrating position for the S, will not 
take the vocalizing posture for the succeeding vowel with sufficient readiness ; 
and the chest aggravates the impediment which this occasions, by bearing down 
heavily upon the lungs, while probably the ungovernable jaw adds its share 
also to the difficulty. General practice on the actions of the various organs 
implicated in the stammer, is the only sure ground of cure. When the power 
of government ovQr these has been in some degree acquired, exercises on the 
difficult articulation will be of much service ; but until the chest and glottis — 
or, as we may call them^ the producing organs^ are brought under voluntary 
control, it will be of little use to practise the merely modifying actions of arti- 
culation. Partial and temporary relief may be obtained by simple articulative 
practice, but to give a rational ground of hope for permanent benefit, the exer- 
dses qmst begin with the deeper and more occult principles of respiratory and 
vocal government. 

The Stammerer should practise the prolonged S, as before described, till he 
can form the sound with a very economical expenditure of breath. He should 
then give out a long series of very short articulated hisses— drawing the 
tongue smartly and completely back in the mouth, to finish each of them. 
Then let him stop the S by the various articulative actions which combine with 
it, adding the vowels to them for a subsequent exercise. By patient practice, 
difficulty afler difficulty in execution will graduaUy give way, and he will be 
able to enounce this element with easy fluency. 

The English language has been called the ^^ hissing tongue,'* as if it, much 
more than its neighbour languages, abounded with this serpent sound. The 
removal of S from some of our combinations might certainly add to the euphony 
of our speech ; but a comparison either of its letters or its sounds with those 
of the French, Italian, and Spanish languages, will show that the English is far 
from having the unenvied distinction. We have taken the trouble to compare 
some passages of equal length in these four languages, to ascertaia the number, 
of the hissing elements S and Z, actually pronounced in them, and the following, 
b the result. In a French, Spanish, and English translation of the same 
passage— there were found to be in the French, 60 ) of these sibi- 

" " English, 66 > lants actually 
" " Spanish, 110 ) sounded. 

In the French paragrapli there were 93 sibilant letters, while in the 
English one there were only 77. 


Still further to test this, we took a passage in Italian, containing the same 
number of words as in the Spanish portion, and found, even in this smooth 
euphonic tongue, a preponderance of 5 of these sibilants over the number con- 
tained in our decried English : which is thus proved to be " more hissed at 
than hissing I" 

S initial combmes with P, T, K, F, M, N, L, W, T, as in sport, store, scope, 
sketch, square, sphere, smile, snow, slow, swear, sue. It enters into combi- 
nation with no initial articulation in English utterance. In such words as 
psalm, psychology, Sfc. ihepia therefore silent. 


Initial — Sea, sebacious, seethe, seize, cease, seat, seed, scene, 
seal, sear, seek* sipi sibilant, symbol, symmetry, sift, sieve, 
sister, scissors, scission, sit, sinew, scintillate, since» silly, silk, sickle, 
signify, sink, single, say, sapient, sable, same, safe, saviour, sage, 
sane, sail, saleable, sake, sago saint, salient, separate, semblance, 
seminary, cemetery, cephalalgy, seven, saith, sessile, says, session, 
sedge, settle, saidf send, sentence) sense, sensual, celery, serry, 
serrated, second, segregate, sect, segment, sash, sarcasm, sardonyx, 
sarse, salve, saunter, sir, serpent, sermon, serf, servant, sirst search, 
serge, circle, circuit, certaini sup^ suburbs subtile> somet suffer, 
southern, sustenance, subtle, suttler, sudden, sun, sully, surd, surge, 
surly, surrogate, surf, surcle, suck, suggest, saw, sauce, saws, salt, 
solder, sawed, sawn, sop, sob, somnolent, soft, sot, sod, sonnet, sole- 
cism, sorrel, sorrow, soften, sorcery, sore, sword, source, sores, sow, 
soap, sober, sofa, sown, soul, soldier, sojourn, soho, soup, soothe, 
soot, soon, sigh, cipher, scythe, size, sight, side, sign, silent, 
sire, sow, south, souse> sowst sound, soun soy, soiL samphire* saf&on, 
sapphire, savage* sassafras, saginate, Saturday, saddle, sanative, 
salad, salique, saraband, sacrament, sagamore, sagathy, satchel. 

Sp. — Speak, speech, speed, spear, spit, spin, spill, spirit, spathe, 
space, spade, spake, sped, spend, spell, spelt, speck, spasm, spatter, 
span, sparrow, sparse, spark, sperm, spirt, disperse, sputter, sponge, 
spurs, spurge, spurn, spawn, sport, spoke, spoon, spy, spice, spite, 
spied, spine, spire, spike, spouse, spout, spoil. 

Spr, — Sprain, sprat, sprawl, spray, spread, sprig, spright, 
spring, sprinkle, sprit, sprout, spruce, sprung, express, disprove. 

Spl. — Splash, splay, spleen, splenetic, splendent, splice, splint, 
splutter, displease, explain. 


Spy, — spume, spurious, spumescence, dispute. 

8m, — Smear, smith, smelly smatter, smash, smart, smirk, 
smirch, smuggle, smother, small, smalt, smoke, smote, smoulder^ 
smooth, smile, smite. 

8w. — Suasiye^ assuage, suavity, swab, swaddle^ swag, swagger, 
swain, swallow, swamp, swan, swap, sward, swarm, swart, swarth, 
swash, swath, swathe, sway, swear, sweat, sweet, sweep, swell, 
swept, swerve, swift, swig, swill, swim, swindle, swine, swing, 
swinge, swiss, switch, swivel, swoon, swoop, swore, swung, dissuade, 
desuetude, persuasion. 

8f, — Sphere, sphinx, sphacelus, sphagnum, spheric, sphincter. 

8t, — Steep, steam^ steed, steel, steer^ stipulate, stimulate, stiff, 
stitch, still, «tick, stickle, sting, stays, stage, state, staid, 
stain, stale, steak, step, stem, steady, stellar, stab, static, stadt- 
holder, stand, stanza, stallion, stack, stagger, stang, staff, statis- 
tic, stalactite, starve, stars, starch, start, stark, stir, stem, sterling, 
stubborn, stumble, stuff, stud, stutter, stun, stunt, stuck, stung, 
stop, stock, storm, stork, stalk, stall, store, story, stored, stow, 
stowed, stole, stone, stoker, stoop, stood, stool, sty, stipend, stifle, 
stiver, style, stout, stound. 

Sir, — Strabism, straggle, straddle, straight, strain, strand^ 
strange, strangle, strap, strategy, strath, stratum, straw, stray, 
streak, stream, street, strength, strenuous, stress, stretch, strew, 
striae, stricken, strict, stride, stridulous, strike, struck, string, 
strung, strip, stripe, strobil, strokal, stroll, strong, strontian, strop, 
strophe, strove, structure, struggle, struma, strut, strychnia. 

/(^^^....Studious, stupe, stupor, stupid, stew, steward, astute. 

8y, — Sue, subah, sudatory, suet, suicide, suit, suitable, sumach, 
superable, superb, supine, supreme, sural, sutile, suture, superior, 
assume, consume, disuse, pursuit. 

8n, — Sneeze, sneak, snip, snack, snaffle, snag> snail, snake, 
snap, snare, snarl, snatch, sneer, sniff, snipe, snivel, snore, snout, 
snow, snub, snuff, snudge, snug. 

81, — Slab, slam, slack, slag, slain, slake, slander, slang, slant, 
slap, slash, slate, slattern, slaughter, slave, slaver, Slavonic, slag, 
sleeve, sleezy, sled, sledge, sleek, sleep, sleet, slept, sleight, slender, 
slice, slide, slight, slily, slime, sling, slung, slink, slip, slit, sliver, 
Bloat, sloe, sloop, slop, slope, slothi slouch, slough, (uf) slough,(7-l 3) 


Sk, — Scale, scab, skate, scheme, sky, scope, Scotch, score, 
scoop, scuffle, sculk, scuUerj, sculpture, scum, scupper, scurf, 
scurvy, scurrile, scut, scuttle. 

Ski, — Sclavonian, Sclavonic, sclerotic. 

8kr, — Scrabble, scrag, scramble, scrap^ scrape^ scratch, 
scrawL scream, screech, screen, screw, scribble, scribe, scripture, 
scrivener, scrip, scrofula, scroll, scrub, scruple, scrutable, scruze, 

Sky, — Skew, skewer, scutellated^ excuse. 

Skw, — Squab, squabble, squadron, squalid, squalor, squall, 
squamous, squander, squarot squash, squat, squaw, squeak, 
squeal, squeamish, squeeze, squelch, squib, squill, squinancy, 
squint, squire, squirrel, squirt. 

Before a vowel, — (Esophagus, unceasing, thesis, missile, viscid, 
whistle, thistle, scissile, dissonant, listen, glisten, gristle, basin, 
mason, phasis> tacit, casing, pestle, message, vessel, sesame, 
sessile, jessamine, tessellate, desultory, necessary, lesson, wrestle, 
crescent, progressive, essence, essay, assident, assassin, acid, 
acetate, passable, massive, fascinate, vacillate, tacit, lassitude, 
veracity, cassowary, crassitude, glacis, (ece) glacier, glassy 
.grassy, fSacile, bustle, throstle, faucet, saucer, possible, mossy, 
fossil, wassail, jostle, docile, tossing, Cossack, crossing, glos- 
sary, closer, grocer, looser, excuses, (s.) producer, juicy, pussy, 
mucilage, spicy, vices, enticing, dicer, crisis, sousing, rejoic- 

Before an ariAculation, — East, easterly, beast, feasts, yeast, 
ceased, least, creased, priest ; pristine, blister, mist, fist, vista, 
wist, whist, sister, systole, gist, distaff, list, wist, kissed. Christian, 
grist, glister, hist ; paste, baste, waist, taster, laced, cased, graced, 
hasty, chaste, pester, west, fester, vestry, westerly, zest, jesting, 
attest, destitute, nest, lest, dressed, rest, wrested, yesterday, crest, 
behest, chest ; past, repast, pasture, pastime, bastard, mastiff, fast, 
vastness, last, lastly, caste, classed ; pustule, busts, mustard, fusty, 
justice, dost, lust, rust, custom, gust, crust, cluster, pursed, burst, 
worst, durst, nursed, cursed ; posture, foster, wast, tossed, lost, cross- 
ed, costs, glossed, accost, hostage ; post, boast, most, toast, roast, 
coast, engrossed, ghost, host ; spliced, iced, enticed ; moisture, foist, 
hoist ; lisp, wisps, crisp, clasps, rasp, gasp, grasp^ hasp, asps, waspi, 


whisper, vesper, despicable, respite, aspect, jasper, grasping, 
prosper, auspicate, hospital, hospitable : episcopal, biscuit, fiscal, 
viscous, whisker, disc, frisk, risk, fescue, desks, grotesque, bur- 
lesque, rescue, ask, bask, masks, flasks, tasks, casks, rascal, busk, 
buskin, musk, musket, tusks, dusk, dusky, rusks, husky, bosky, 
Moscow, sixth sixths. 

S final, — Piece, cease, lease, crease, grease, miss, thesis, bodice, 
analysis, kiss, hiss, pace, bass, mace, face, lace, race, case, chase, 
purchase, mess, chess, less, graceless, linkless, gas, mass, lass, 
pass, parse, farce, carse, amerse, erse, verse, terse, hearse, us, 
fuss, courageous, righteous, purse, disburse, worse, nurse, curse, 
sauce, morse, gorse, horse, boss, moss, foss, toss, loss, cross, gloss, 
force, source, course, coarse, hoarse, gross, close, (a.) noose, loose, 
moose, abuse, (s.) diffuse, (a.) puss, spruce, juice, goose, mice, 
vice, thrice, entice, paradise, dice, nice, rice, mouse, souse, grouse, 
house, voice, rejoice, choice. 


Observations. — ^This element unites a vocal sonnd with the his^ng of S. 
Its articnlatiYe position and action are in every respect the same as those of S. 
It is consequently liable to the same kind of defects, in lisping, &c ; and the 
exercises prescribed for S, will, with voice added, be equally effective in 
perfecting Z. Thus, 

thaza ; tha za tha ; tha za za tha \ vi ^ • 
zatha; za tha za; za tha tha za ]" ^^^'^ ®' '♦ ^' ^^• 

In the following arrangements V is added for the sake of contrast with Th, 
(see page 146.) 

za va tha tha za va va tha za > .., « ; o oo 
za tha va tha va za va za tha ) ) f > • 

Z is not so difficult to the Stammerer as S ; for if he can produce the vocal 
sound in the articulation, he can have no difficulty, except what is merely 
articulative, in connecting it with a following vowel. But often the voice pro- 
duced in Z is a mere murmur^ — a momentary, feeble, breathy sound, which is 
as ineffectual as none. In this case all the difficulty of S will be experienced. 
To overcome this impediment, glottal power must first be acquired m the 
formation of clear ringing vocality, and the chest exercised to restrain any 
undue pressure in expiration. The buzzmg sound of Z may be produced in a 
long continuous current, and finished by the quick retraction of the tongue, 
before described. Naturally abrupt articulations of the same element should 



then be practifledf separately, and with vowels sabjoiDed; the teeth opening 
freely after the articaladve action, that the sucoeeding vowel may be enutted in 
a full energetic volume. 

Z initial combines only with Y ; and but in the few words given in our list. 
It joins with no initial articulation. 


Initial, — Zaccho, zaffire, zany, zarnich, zea, zeine, zeal, zealous, 
zebra, zebu, zedoary, Zend, zenith, zeolite, zephyr, zero, zest, zig- 
zag, zimome, zinc, zircon, zocle, zodaic, zone, zoography, zoology, 
zoophyte, zufolo, zymology, zygomatic, zygodactylous, 

Zif, — zumic, zumate, zumology, zeugma. 

Between vowels. — Besom^ easy, wheezing, weasel, reason, busy, 
busily, mistletoe, physiognomy, visit, wizard, dizzy, risen, gizzard, 
grizzle, mazy, daisy, nasal, laziness, razor, brazen, crasy, gazer, 
grazing^ glazer, hazy, Jezebel, desert, resignation, resin> hesitate, 
azimuth, azote, basilisk, mazard, gaseous, hazardous, puzzle, 
dozen, nuzzle, muzzle, cousin, halser, pausing, causative, gauzy, 
positive, nozzle, lozenge, rosin, closet, posy, frozen, disposer, 
dozing, rosiness, closing, glozer, hosanna, oozing, losel, cruiser, 
choosing, despiser, miser, wiseacre, supervisor, sizar, rising, spousal, 
drowsy, mouser, rousing, housing, noisy, noisome, schism, spasm. 

Before an articulation, — Spasmodic, jasmine, phantasmagoria, 
pismire, bismuth, dismal, prismatic, chrismal, cosmetic, cosmical, 
husband, wisdom, prismoid, osraazome* Osnaburg, grisly, guzzler, 
fizgig, vizier, Jesuit. 

i^tnaZ.*— Ease, breeze, freeze, wheeze, these, seize, tease, sneeze, 
please, keys, agrees, grease, (v.) cheese, is, phiz, worthies, 'tis, 
ladies, carries, quiz, orgies, his, pays, baize, maize, fays, vase, 
ways, chaise, craze, glaze, haze ; says, bars, mars, jars, tars, cars, 
iiirs, firs, hers, buzz, furze, slurs, curs, pause, flaws, thaws> saws, 
jaws, laws, clause, gauze, oars, pores, boars, fours, sores, stores, 
shores, doors, roars, cores, owes, poze, beaus, mows, foes, woes, 
those, sews, toes, doze, nose, rose, close, (v.) goes, gloze, grows, 
hose, chose, pews, imbues, mews, views, thews, sues, shoes, Jews, 
contuse* dues, news, lose^ ruse, cooes, glues, hues, choose, eyes, 
pies, buys, surmise, suffice, vies, wise, thighs, sighs, ties, dies, lies, 
rise, cries, guise, vows, sows, allows, rows, cows, poise, boys, joys, 
toys, noise, alloys, destroys, cloys. 



Observatioks. — ^This element is produced when the breath is directed over 
the aptumed tip of the tongue, so as to cause some degree of lingual vibration. 
In order to effect this, the breath must be perfectly obstructed at all other points^ 
that the whole force of the stream maj be concentrated on the tip ; and the 
tongue must be held loosely, to enable it to vibrate readily. The vibration may 
be produced in every degree from the soft tremor of the English R, which merely 
vibrates the edge of the tongue, to the harsh rolling of the Spanish Rr, which 
shakes the whole organ. The trilled or strongly vibrated R is never used in 
English ; but there are various degrees of vibration which characterize the Eng- 
lish R in different situations. 

Between vowels, as in merit^t the R is strongest, but it has only a momentary 
tremor ; for articulations between vowels are always short in Englisfau R is 
never, like n or Z, prolonged when two articulations meet in a compound word ; 
as in meanness^ foully^ ^c, ; the reason is, that R final is differently formed &om 
R initial. Both letters have their regular formation in this position ; as In 

7-1-8 19 1-8 ft 

m»re-wroiLght^ rear-rank, &c. 

R initial has an articulative vibration ; but it is merely of the edge of the 
tongue, just enough to constitute the sound an articulation. 

When the tongue is so placed as just to feel the passing stream of air not 
yield to it^ we have the condition of the ^naZ R. The aperture for the amission 
of the voiee is so free, that the vowel qnahty of the sound is scarcely, — if at all, 
— affected. When the succeeding word, however, begins with a vowel, ike 
final r has generally the eSeet of medial r, to avoid hiatus. 

Exercises on Filial E (the Sth vowel) will be found aipage 107. 

No letter is mor€ fi%quently faulty than this. The extremes of error sate to 
throw the articulation back to ike uvvla^ or icxrward to the Ups ; but these ave 
found in all degrees of modificatioa and oomhinatioa. The sovad of the iEbrmer 
R, when roughly executed, as we often bear it, is like the siuurliiig ofii cur:-**- 
the latter formation fffoduces the «ffect of W, with geaeraily an additioDal gut- 
tund modification. 

The uvular vi6ra/ian constitutes what is called ^ttrrtii^—- 4 faidt ikEooBtwur 
veraal in some of the northern divisions of Ea^iid. Ask a person wko burre 
to open his mouth, and you mil see the little uvula dancang and leaping ia tke 
channd of the tongue. To cure this &ult, the first oaro must be 40 keep this 
restless little organ out of the way. There would be but little diffienlty in get- 
ting sufficient vibration of the point of ihe tongue fixun a ifew vmj simple exer- 
cises ; but we should still have the ^tt^uraZefieot i^naaining. The Bnrrer leiiould 
tlierefore exercise hhnself m separadng the uvula and soft palate from the tongve 
as for as pos^ble. After a little praotioe, he will generally foe able ib do Ik&s 
so effectually, that the uvula will shrink to a point, and the soft palate will form 


bat one ardi instead of two.* When he can retain the organs in this podtioo 
at win, let him oommenoe his practice to acquiie the new articolatioDy by very 
slowly raising the point of the tongue during the prolonged utterance of the open 
▼owds ah and air, tiQ it comes npon the palate obstructively, and so forms the 
letter D. If the under jaw be kept down, it wiD be almost impossible to do 
this without sounding an R during the progress of the tongue to the palate. 
Then endeavour to stop the tongue at various intermediate devations, continu- 
ing the vcMoe at each, and keeping the teeth and lips perfectly motionless. When 
some power of action in the tongue has been thus acquired, strike it upwards 
quickly and repeatedly during the flow of voice ; and, probably, a very Uderable 
R win be at once produced. Further improvement wiU then be gained by thefol- 
lowing exercise. Sound Z with the thickness of an ivory paper-cutter betweoi 
the teeth ; and, during the continuance of the sound, graduany open the teeth 
tin they admit the breadth of the paper-cutter between them. The effort to oon- 
tinne something like the buzadng sound of Z, while the teeth come apart, win 
draw the pc»nt of the tongue backwards and upwards almost to the position for 
R initial ; and the sound thus produced may therefOTe be used as initial R in 
practising words beginning with that letter. At first it may be necessary to 
give the subsequent vowel a separate commencement, by a momentary occlusion 
€€ the glottis after the R, — ^thus, r-each, r-ide, &c. to prevent the possibifity 
of habit foisting in a little of the old guttural vibration between the new R and 
the vowel. Fluency of conneidon wiU very soon be gained, and the roughest 
Burr may be, by these means, perfectly cured ! 

R is a harsh letter in the mouth of a Scotchman. It is one of the pcHuts by 
which a Northern utterance is most readfly detected in England ; for few Scotch- 
men get over their vernacular habits in forming this letter. Yet, there is no rea- 
son why they should not. If the true formation of the English R be understood, 
and the difference between it and the Scottish R dearly apprehended, any one 
may soften a rough R almost at the first effort. There is not the slightest diffi- 
culty when the principle of f<mnation is known. There is a difficulty, however, 
to unaccustomed organs, in producing a rolling or vibrated R. Many persons 
cannot, fiiom want of lingual power, attain it. . If the tongue is too much tied 
to the bed of the jaw, burring win arise fiiom the effort to make the roug^ R ; 
and a labial modiJicaHon of sound, something like tr, wiU be produced by the 
attempt at the smoother sound. This latter peculiarity would almost seem to 
be cultivated among affected English speakers : — ^it is too common to be acci- 
dental. " The umffness of the auwdinawy ahw^^^ say these sonorous re- 
formers, " wendews its ewadication fwom wefined uttewance desiwable and 
weaUy necessatoyy 

An easy method of developing vibratory power on the point of the tongue, is 
to repeat, with open mouth, and with the utmost softness and rapidity^ articu- 
lations of the letter D. Thus, de-de-de'de-de-de'de-de-de'de-de^ ^, ; or, 
didididldididididididididididididididididididididididididididididididtd^ Sfc. 

• Sw the Mouth. 


K is difficult— often peculiarlj so — ^to the Stammerer. The breath pours out 
from the open and valveless channel with destructive impetuosity, and the 
waste of the material of speech induces a series of efforts in head, and chest, 
and limbs, to supply the place of the ungovernable agents of utterance. When 
the Stammerer has brought his valve — ^the glottis — ^under due control, he will 
have but little difficulty in restraming the pressure of the chest, and completely 
obviating all the distressing distortion of the impediment. He must carefully 
study the mechanism of the R, and enounce it, if necessary, separately at first, 
to break the association between it and the stammering paroxysm. A little 
practice will render this expedient unnecessary, and enable him to effect its 
combination with fluency. 

R final is, we have said, so purely vocal, that we do not reckon it an arti- 
culation. The student, desirous of acquiring the smooth pronunciation of this 
English element, should practise the lists of words terminating in R, (pages 107-8) 
giving to the R and re the vowel-sound of i in sir. Let him at first sit before 
a glass, and, while he sounds this vowel, observe his tongue rise very gently ; 
but not so much as to create a his^g of the breath, or vibration of the tongue. 
If aA be sounded for R-final, with an observed elevation of the point of the tongue^ 
the English element will be very speedily perfected. Uneducated Cockneys 
sound ah, toithout this lingual elevation^ — sah for «r, heah for here, Sfc, 

An English peculiarity, not confined to Cockneys, or to the uneducated, is 
the insertion of an R between vowels. Thus, when one word ends with a 
vowel, and the next begins with one, the tongue strikes glibly up on the palate, 
and gracdessly obviates hiatus, by interposing an r. ^'' Is papa r at home f ' 
^^ I saw r aunt,'''* " What an idea r it isT^ This obtrusion is only heard 
after the open vowels 69 7, and 10 ; the formative apertures of which are but little 
different from the aperture of the English r(8). Thus we never hear " (ro r 
away,'*'' " / see r it now,^"* because the R in English is never sounded without 
its vowel effect in connexion with long close vowels. This is one of the most 
inveterate of all habits of speech. The only cure is to finish the first vowel by 
a smart momentary occlusion of the glottis ; and give the subsequent one thus a 
separate commencement. Children may easily be prevented from falling into 
this habit, and it is surely worth the little attention and care it requires. 

R and L are very liable to be confounded when they occur in proximate 
syllables. The vocal aperture for the former is over the point of the tongue, and 
for the latter over the sides at the back of the tongue ; and there is a difficulty 
in passing quickly from one to the other of these positions : thus in the sentence, 
" Little Richard wrote a letter; yes, a letter little Richard wrote,^^ — or in 
the quick reiteration of the Scotch nursery-rhyme, "i2o6 Low^s lum reeks,^^ few 
persons will avoid some confusion of the R and L. A similar difficulty presents 
itself in such words as literally, literary, literarily, Sfc, 

This is an organic difficulty, and on all such, highly useftd exercises may be 
arranged. The following will be found extremely beneficial in giving power 
and precision of action to the tongue. 


Repeat the oombinations tiequentlj, and with verbal accentuations. 
rala, rele, liH) rdo, xxx^oo, 
lara, iere, liri, loro, looroo, 

ralalani, relel^«, riliHri, rololoio, rooloolooroo, 
lararala, ]a:erel6, liririli, lororolo, looroorooloo. 

R initial receiyes no articulation in combination with it in Rnglinh. In 
French we find rw^ as in roi, roideur, ^. 

R unites with the initial articulations P, B, F, Th, Sh, T, D, K, G, as in 
pretty, bride, freeze, three, shrink, try, dry, crime, grief, 

W seems to have been at one time sonnded before R ; it is still written, and 
in Scotland we frequently hear it pronounced by old people in such oommon 
words as wretch, wrong, wrUe^ wright, ^, It has been noticed that w is 
dlen sounded instead of R as an affectation. 


Initial, — Reap« reef, wreath, wreak, ream, reave, rebus, wreathe, 
read, reel, rear, reason, regal, reach, regenerate, ripple, riffc, 
rhjthm, risk, rickets, writ, ribbons, rim, riyet, risen, riddance, 
rinse, rigour, rill, rich, ridge, raj, rapier, wraith, race, ratio, rake, 
rate, raiment, raye, raze, radiate, rain, rail, rage, reprimand, re- 
fluent, rest, reckless, retinue, rebel, (s.) remnant, reverie, reser- 
voir, red, render, regular, relegate, wretch, rap, raffle, rascal, 
rash, rack, rat, rabble, ramble, ravage, radical, ransom, rag, 
ratch, raillery, rasp, rather, ruption, ruffian, rustic, rush, ruck, rub, 
rumble, ruddy, run, rug, raw, wrought, wrath, rostrum, rock, 
rotten, robber, romp, rosin, rod, rondeau, roar, roe, rope, road, 
robe, roam, rover, rose, rote, roan, roll, rogue, roach, rue, rufous, 
ruth, Tockerjf route, rutilant, ruby, room, roost, ruse, rouge, rude, 
ruin, runic, rule, rye, ripe, rifle, rice, ride, rhyme, rive, writhe, 
rise, write, rowel, rout, rouse, round, royal. 

Between vowels, — Eyry, ear-ache, leering, peeress, mirror, 
miracle^ spirit, lyric, Pyrrhic, herring, berry, burial, sterile, 
merit, airy, variable, garish, unwary, fairy, parish, arid, carriage, 
tarry, harrow, marrow, tarry, (ad.) starry, hurry, aurist, oracle, 
sorry, torrid, horrible, borrow, tomorrow, warrior, tory, soariag, 
borer, gory, poorer, curer, lurid, moorish, jury, alluring, ironj, 
pirate, fiery, wiry, showery, oowering, towering, dowery. 


Observations. — ^This is the most clearly sonorous of all the articulations. 
It is formed by a uninterrupted current of pure voice, flowing over the sides of 
the back of the tongue— and little if it all affected by vibrations of the apertures 
through which it passes. The fore-part of the tongue is in contact with the rim 
of the palatal arch, and laterally with the teeth. This is the articulating j7o^'^n 
of L, and were there no subsequent action necessary to complete the element, 
L would be simply a vowel. But the oral aperture is changed by the removal 
of the fore-part of the tongue ; and this action constitutes the letter an articular' 
tion. The nasal elements, we have noticed, (page 179) have a similar vowel- 
vocality ; — ^with them as with L, it is the removal of the apposed organs which 
constitutes them Articulations. This accounts for the syllabic fdnction which 
these letters perform in such words as saddle, sadden, &c., where / and n 
without any vowel sounded in connexion, form distinct syllables. 

The formation of L is very often faulty — sometimes jfrom the apertures 
through which the voice flows, being contracted so as to cause a degree of vi- 
bration on the sides of the tongue ; sometimes from the breath not being per- 
fectly intercepted by the point of the tongue ; — sometimes from the tongue being 
too thickly pointed-^and not sufficiently spread out in front — so that the breath 
escapes too far forward, and by too elongated openings ; — often from the 
tongue habitually taking the unfavourable position of turning its tip downwards 
to the bed of the jaw, — ^thus causing the rounded back of the tongue to rise into 
the palatal arch — and depriving the articulation of the clear, sharp, and per- 
cussive effect of the removal of the obstructing fore-part of the tongue ; — some- 
tunes from rounding the lips — either with or without the lingual action — so 
as to modify the voice almost into oo or W ; as " the wady is weh-oo,'*'' — (the 
lady is well .*) and, in not a few cases, from making the articulative position 
perfectly obstructive, and passing the sound through the nose — with the effect 
of ng, or a modification of nasal quality, between that of ng and n. These and 
other minor diversities of mal-formation of this most mellifluous element, are 
remarkably common. A Scotch peculiarity, is the superaddition of a vowel 
sound, — nearly that of n(9) ; the / being thus made to sound almost like ul in 
ultimate. This is not when initial, but when a vowel precedes the / as in ale, 
sell, &c. pronounced a-)ll, seh-iil, &c. When L should make a separate syllable, 
the same sort of sound is frequently heard. There is a greater tendency to this 
faxHt when L follows the dose, than when it follows the open vowels. There 
is indeed an organic preference for the mterposition of some open vowel between 
e(l) and I, arising from the difficulty of shifting the tongue ragidfy from ita 
lumpish position at ee to the very different sharp attitude of L ; as 'm/eel, field, &g. 
The incombinable nature of these formations is seen also in the want of fluency 
in the combination Ly. When these occur in one syllable — the tongue would 
fain pass over the y and pronounce lure, and lute, simply loor, and loot; but 


polite usage forbids tlib, yet authorizes a compromise of the difficulty ; and^ insteatl 
of requiring both articulations to have their full formation by the removal of 
the point of the tongue between them, allows the tip to remain on the palate, 
while the middle of the tongue rises a little : a softened effect of Y is thus pro- 
duced as the succeeding vowel opens from the described position. This half- 
formed T is represented in some pronouncing dictionaries by an apostrophe : — 
thus, to represent the sound of the words lure and lute^ the notation in Smart^s 
excellent Dictionary, is Voor^ I'oot^ &c. When the / and y are not in the same 
syllable — as in value^ volume ^ &c. — both may be correctly articulated. 

To perfect the articulation of L, let the student adopt the various means of 
practice subjoined, and, whatever the nature of his mal-articulation, it will very 
speedily be removed. 

Adjust the mouth carefully to the position for L, — the tongue spread out, 
elevated to the edge of the palatal arch, and pressing firmly against it, — the 
lips drawn hack and perfectly separated at the comers, so as to permit the 
sound to pass out uninfluenced by the lips. Let the arrangement of the 
tongue against the palate in front — (by no means touching the front teeth) — 
and laterally against the inside of the teeth, be perfectly obstructive. Produce 
as clear a vocal sound as possible, — its vowel quality will be something like 
the French u — and continue it for some time with the articulating organs per- 
fectly steady ; then, by a rapid backward action of the whole tongue, modify the 
sound to that of the vowel aw. The under surface of the tongue should be 
kept in sight throughout. Repeat this with increasing rapidity, till the syllables 
produced are shortened to lollolloUoll, &c. In the same way, proceed with the 
other vowels till the formation of L with the vowels is perfected. Then take 
the combinations, Im, In, Ir, Ig, lb, Iv, Iz, Id, ly, and practise them with 
vowels before and after them, — at first prolonging the L for some seconds, to 
be assured of its correct formation and pure vocality, and gradually giving it 
the natural duration. The tongue must not leave its position for L till the 
instant of the formation of the succeeding element. Many persons are unable 
to produce L in combination with M, as in «/m, hdm, &c., without interpoinng 
a vowel. There is no difficulty in the combination when the mechanism is 
clearly understood. After these letters, followed by vowels, can be fluently 
articulated, practise them without a final vowel, — ^thus : 

aim alv alb alz aln aid alg,— zc^i^^ ^^ i, 5, u. 

L is so short before the breath articulations, that its prolongation, as in the 
previous exercise, would be unnatural and a useless means of practice. Let 
the student form L in the following combmations, by striking the tongue in- 
stantaneously to its position, — stopping the vowel and the sound of L together, 
but retaining the tongue silently for some seconds in its place, before pro- 
ceeding to the next articulation, — ^which must be formed without any interven* 
turn of sound or breathing, — ^thus : 

il p el p al p ul p ol p. 

al f al th al s al sh al t al V^-^wilh S, i, 5, ti. 


h final also should be separately practised. After the long vowels^ let it be 
quickly articulated, — eel, ail, arl, url, awl, oal, 561, — and after the s^or^ vowels^ 
let it be a little more prolonged — ^^, gll, lU, 511, til. But in every instance it 
must be definitely finished by a smart recoil of the tongue from the palate. 

L, like the nasal liquid N, is a very difficult letter to the Stammerer. The 
exercises above prescribed will be found sufficient to perfect the articulation — 
when, by a preliminary course of practice, he has mastered the fimdamental 
processes of speech. When he can govern the chest and glottis, and keep 
the tongue and jaw steady during the continuous flow of the vocality of /, he 
may safely proceed to these exercises ; but we must here again remark, that it 
will be hopeless to attempt to correct any individual fault, till the organs and 
processes employed by the defective element have been first brought under 
perfect control. 

The Stammerer will find it a useM exercise at first to give a distinct '•*' coup 
de la glottet^'' (see page 15) to the commencement of the sound of ?, and pro- 
nounce it as a distinct syllable, even when initial ; but he must gradually wear 
out of this : for the stress of every word should be on the vowel only. 

L, like N, is most difficult with the close lingual vowels, 1, 2, 3. Such 
words as little^ lily, literal, &c. are severe stumbling-blocks : the little scope 
for action which the vowel allows, the abruptness of the vowel, and the subse- 
quent articulation requiring the same organs as the /, so disincline the tongue 
to exertion, that it remains glued to the palate ; while the glottis, uselessly out- 
pouring breath and broken murmurs, in vain endeavours to proceed without 
the tongue; till the lungs are exhausted, and the effort of inspiration 
probably disengages the fettered organ. The Stammerer must proceed cautiously 
in his practice, and act on the preventive as much as he can ; for it is a work 
of almost unmanageable difficulty to break the connexion between the spasmodic 
actions of impediments when they once get a beginnmg. 

Repetitions of the same mode of action by different organs, or of different 
modes of action by the same organs, are difficult of articulation ; and form, 
therefore, excellent exercises. L, with R or N, presents difficulties of the latter 
class, which will be found under the letters R and N. 

L initial receives no articulation in combination with it. The softened effect 
of y, heard in lunacy, lute, lewd, ^c. has been already noticed. 

L unites with the initial articulations P, B, F, S, E, 6, as in play, blame, 
flame, slave, class, glass. 

Exercises on L. 

Initial. — Lee, leaf, leave, lethal, lease, leash, leisure, lenient, 
league, leech» liege, lip, lift, lithic, listen, liquor, little, liberty, 
limb, live, lizard, lid, linnet, ligament, Uly, lichen, lace, lake, late, 
label, lame> lave* lathe, lazar, leopard, left, lethargy* less, lecture, 



levitj, leather, led, leg, lexicoD, ledger, lassitude, lacquer« lattice, 
labefy, lambf layisb, laniate, landlord, latch, lax, lath* last, lass, 
laths, laugh, launch^ laundress, larceny, larmier, larva, lard, largo, 
larch, large, learn, learning, luff^ lustre, lumber, love, lunch^ 
longe, lull, lawful^ laud, lawn^ lop, lofty, loss, lottery^ laurel, 
longitude, logarithm, loD, loricate, lodge, lord, lorn, lore, lo, 
loaf, loath, locust, lotion, loath, load lonely* logography, logician, 
loo, loop, loof « loose* look, looby, loom, lose, loon, lool, lie, lion, 
life, lively, like, light, library* lime, lithe, lies, line, ligure> lyre, 
lout, loud, lounge> lower, loyal* loiter, loin. 

L\ — lucid, lute, lewd, lunacy, lunatic, lunar, lune, lure, lurid, 
leucine, lubric, luce, lucifer, lucre, lucubrate* ludicrous, lukewarm, 
Inmachel, luminous, lusory* lutist, luthem. 

Between vowels. — Feeling,mealy, pillow, silly, miller, sailor^tailor, 
railing, gaoler, teller, pellet) cellar* bellows, zealoti fallow, sallow, 
tallow, ballot, mallet, dally, rally, gallon, sully, gullet, mullet, 
appalling, tallish, drawling, galling, lawless, apology, dollar, folly, 
collar, hollow, jolly, polar, solar, bowling, molar, roller, lowland, 
holy, foolish, cooling, ruler, pulley, fuller, bullet, woollen, filing, 
silex, tiler, mileage, reviling, wily, beguiling, owlet, howling, 
oily, toilet, boiler. 

Before a breath articulation, — Scalp, whelp, help, pulp, culpable, 
culprit, pali&ey, self, shelf, pilfer, sylph, dolphin, gulph, wolf, stealth, 
wealth, health, filth/ also, false, pulse, dulcet, talc, calx, whilk, 
elk, silk, bilk, milk, bulk, mulct, hulk, altitude, spilt, filter, milter, 
wilt, guilty, lilt, jilt, pel,t, belt, welt, welter, deltoid, knelt, paltry, 
falter, salt^ vault, waltz, sultry, culture, multitude, vulture, belch, 
filch, milch. 

Before a voice articulation, — Filbert, bulb* Talmud, palmated, 
psalmody, whelms realm, helm, film, holm, fulminate, culminate, 
elvesi salvo, alveary, valve, salvable* galvanism, selves, shelving, 
twelve, delve, silver, solve, evolve, resolve, pulverize, culverin, 
almost, almoner, alnage, always, railway, palsy, pails, feels, 
whiles, tholes, stools, squalls, ills, dells, holes, bales, oils, boils, 
scowls, bowls, balls, mules, veils, wales, wiles, walls, dolls, galls, 
lolls, lulls, reels, rolls, rules, rills, sealed, wild, wold, old, ruled, 
cooled, scald) bald* seldom, weld, guildry, wilderness? shoulder, 
hold) balderdash) mulled, world, pulled, failure, million, filial, 
steelyard, guillotine, stallion, collier, bullion, scullion, algor, algua- 
zil, Elgin, vulgar, amalgamate, palely, wheelless, saiUess, solely. 


coallike, coolly, molelike, vilelj, fuUj, foully, ill-looking, soullike, 
railroad, wheelrigbt, bulrush, algid, bilge, bulge, fulgent. 

L a Syllable, — Steeple, people, ripple, nipple, maple, staple, 
apple, couple, topple, sniffle, whiffle, shuffle, scuffle, ruffle, 
trifle, rifle, stifle, castle, pestle, wrestle, thistle, bristle, throstle, 
bustle, nestle, shackle, tackle, freckle, speckle, stickle, pickle, 
cockle, chuckle, huckle, battle, cattle, nettle, kettle, tittle, little, 
pottle, bottle, scuttle, able, sable, table, feeble, bible, ruble, babble, 
rabble, nibble, dribble, cobble, hobble, stubble, bubble, evil, bevel, 
devil, hazel, easel, bamboozle, dazzle, embezzle, drizzle, grizzle, 
nosle, puzzle, muzzle, ladle, needle, beadle, sidle, bridle, saddle, 
peddle, middle, riddle, fiddle, toddle, puddle, eagle, ogle, bugle, 
haggle, angle, wrangle, higgle, wriggle, single, tingle, goggle, 

Note. — ^Always sound the vowel between n and /, as in tunnel^ Jlannel^ {fc, 

L /naZ.— -Ell, peal, feel, wheel, ciel, heel, keel, reveal, weal, 
zeal, congeal, hill, ill, pill, fill, thrill, thill, sill, kiln, will, chill, 
ail, pale, fail, whale, sail, inhale, kail, tale, mail, avail, wail, theyll, 
flail, rail, ell, propel, fell, sell, shell, tell, rebel, (v.) mell, well 
knell, yell, shall, snarl, carl, marl,, pearl, whirl, girl, cuU, mull, 
dull, gull, lull, purl, furl, curl, hurl, churl, awl, appal, fall, thrall, 
instal, shawl, recal, tall, ball, maul, waul, drawl, gall, haul, extol, 
doll, loll, foal, poll, total, soul, shoal, coal, toll, troll, whole, boU, 
mole, dole, goal, roll, jole, pool, pull, fool, full, stool, cool, tool, 
bull, wool, yule, rule, isle, pile, file, while, style, chyle, tile, bile, 
mile, revile, wile, beguile, owl, foul, cowl, howl, growl, oil, spoil, 
foil, soil, coil, toil, boil. 


Observations.— Previous remarks (pages 40 — 42) will have sufficiently 
explained the nature of the Obstructive Formations, of which this is one. 
We may therefore confine our observations here to the mechanism and individual 
characteristics of the articulation T, referring to the above-noted pages for 
information regarding its principle of explosiveness. In forming T, the edge 
of the whole tongue b laid against the front and sides of the mouth, so as per- 
fectly to obstruct the breath. While the tongue is in this position, there must 
be a continued pressure of breath against it ; and whenevei* an aperture is made 
by the removal of any part of the obstructing edge, the confined breath will be 


emitted with a degree of explosiveness more or less strong, in proportion to the 
degree of its previous compression behind the tongue, and also in proportion to. 
the abraptness with which the aperture is made. Among the numerous defects 
of speech which come under the notice of one extensively engaged in the wwk 
of correcting mal-articulations, the breath will be found to escape from the 
obstructive position T, through apertures of every possible variety, both of 
position, shape, and size. Sometimes from the very back part of the mouth, 
with a cluttering sound, it will issue through apertures over one or both sides of 
the tongue ; sometimes through lateral apertures at all anterior points ; and 
correctly, through one front central aperture, by the complete disengagement of 
the whole tongue from the palate. Another mode of emitting the compressed 
breath from the articulative position T, is by the nares or nostrils, — a faulty 
mechanism more common than perhaps most persons are aware of. The correct 
articulative action is, we have said, the removal of the whole tongue from the 
palate. Let the student practice this action by articulating the following 
syllables in rapid reiteration till he can perfectly disengage the tongue in this 
way with considerable explosive force and abruptness : — 

ate, ete, ite, ote, oot: at, et, it, ot, ut. 
The syllables should be kept severally distinct, thus, — at, at, at, at, at, 
&c. ; and not atatatat, &c. Such must be the mechanism, in all cases, of T 
initial or final : but when the liquids / or n follow T in the same word, the 
lateral explosion before /, and the nasal before n, are not only admissible, 
but they are the regular and necessary formations of T in such cases. 
Thus \n fitly and fitness, &c. ; battle, nettle, little, &c., and batten, bitten, 
button, &c., the point of the tongue is kept in contact with the front of the 
palate, in forming the tl ; and the whole tongue is retained in its obstmotive 
position during the utterance of the tn. The reason of this will be evident after 
a moment^s reflection on the formative actions of I and n : it will be found to 
be impossible to articulate t independently of these actions, with sufficient fluency 
for consecutive syllables of one word. The same combinations, however, in 
proximate words, when the letters have not a syllabic relationship, must not be 
articulated thus by one action, unless in common colloquial phrases. Correct 
reading requires the final element of every word to be finished independently of 
the letter which may begin the next word. The student should therefore prac- 
tise the articulations 1 1 and t n'm this separate way — ^till he can produce them 
lightly and clearly without coalescence. 

ate nay at nal ate lay at Ian — with e, i, o, u. 
T beforeP,K,B,G, — which otherwise completely obstruct the breath, — ^is liable 
to be reduced to the character of a mere stop without any audibility : and 
before m, which also occludes the mouth, it is liable to be nasally finished. To 
obviate tiiese sources of indistinctness, let the following Table of these combin- 
ations be practised. 

ate pa ateka ateba atega ate ma f ... . ti 
at pat at kat at bat at gat at mat \ ^' *' ^' 66. 


T is a very ^fficuit articulation to the Stammerer. It has all the heaviness 
arising from the downward pressure of the chest — the strong conjunctive or 
upward bearing of the jaw — the muscular laxity of the mouth— the elements 
of impediment in the obstructive articulations generally; in addition to which 
it has another source of difficulty in its own articulative action. Often the ex- 
plosion of the T will be distinctly lieard, yet there the Stammerer sticks fast, 
imable to combine the next sound with the t This sort of difficulty may be 
caused by want oi glottal power ; but it will frequently be found to be merely 
articulative. Only the point of the tongue is disengaged— *-it is turned downwards 
so as to allow the breath to escape — but at all other points, the tongue remains 
in contact. The effect of throwing down the point of the tongue is to elevate 
the middle of it; and the very worst position for speech is thus assumed. Let 
the Stammerer practise syllables and words endmg with T, and observe, by 
looking in a glass, or placing his finger in the angle of the neck and chin (as 
directed at page 151), that the whole bulk of the tongue recedes m the mouth to 
finish this articulation. When iSm final action is mastered, let him practise T 
initial; at first, if necessary, separating tlie T firom the next element, by its own 
backward action, bat restraining any unnecessary waste of breath ; (page 40) 
and by degrees he will be able to unite them with natural spontaneity. 

A not uncommon fault of articulation is the substitution of tl for cZ, and dl for 
gl\ as in clean^ glean, &c., which are thus mispronounced ilean, dleati, &c. 
The difference in the effect of this unwarranted combination is so little, that it 
might readily escape observation, except from ears accustomed to vocal analysis. 
In the north and west of England this peculiarity is especially common. 

T initial combines in English with w, r, sh, and ^, as in twine, true, chain, 
tune, S is the only articulation with which t unites, as in stay, stray, &c. 
Th is a common English digraph, but it represents a simple sound. 

The combination Tsh is of very frequent occurrence, though we in no 
instance write it. It is one of the simplest possible combinations ; for the T 
merely gives an obstructive commencement to the Sh. Tsh is the breath form of 
J=dzh ; and while the latter is reckoned an Alphabetic element, and represented 
by a single letter, the former— which is the very same articulation->is written, 
inconsistently enough, ch, 

Ts, which does not occur initial in English, but is common in the German 
and other languages, is another equally nmple form of double articulation : 
from the position T, the tongue is advanced a little, and the breath exploded 
hissingly through the aperture of « ; as for tsh, the tongue is slightly retracted, 
so as to explode the breath through the aperture of sh, 

Ty is liable to be mispronounced Tsh, firom the cause explained at page 184 ; 
but after a few of our lingual exercises have been mastered, the tongue should 
have acquired sufficient neatness and precision of action to contradistinguish 
these combinations without effort or ambiguity. 



Initial, — Teothe, tease, tedious, teal, tear, teach, 'tis, tissue, 
titular, titillate, tint, tilt, phthisic, ticket, tingle, tinkle, tinge, 
taste, ta'en, tail, temporal, tempt, tetter, tessellated, tetrical, 
tent, telegraph, ten-ible, technical, tegument, techj, text, tap, 
tassel, tatter, tattle, tadpole, tangible, tantalize, talisman, 
Talmud, tariff, tactic, tag, tangle, tank, tax, task, tars, targe, 
tartan, tardj, tarn, target, teiminate, terse, ternary, twopence, 
tuft, tother, *tusk, tush, tut, tunnel, turpitude, turtle, turgid, 
turnkey, turkey, tuck, tug, tongue, touch, taught, tawdry, tawny, 
tall, talk, torch, torse, torsion, tortoise, top, tomahawk, toft, toss, 
totter, toddle, tensile, tolerable, torrid, tocsin, tongs, tore, torn, 
toper, tome, toast, toes, total, towed, tone, toU, token, toga, 
tooth, toot, tool, tour, took, tithe, ties, tight, tidy, tine, tile, tire, 
tiger, town, towel, towers, toy, toise, toil, toilet. 

Tw, — Twang, twain, twattle, twaddle, tweak, tweedle, tweezers, 
twelve, twelfth, twenty, twig, twilight, twill, twin, twine, twinge, 
twinkle, twirl, twist, twit, twitch, twitter, twixt, twice. 

TV. — Treason, treat, treacle, trip, tribune, trim, trivial, trist, 
trinity, trill, trick, trigger, trinket, tringle, tract, traipse, trace, 
trays, trade, train, trail, treble, tremble, trespass, tressel, tret, 
trench, trellis, treasure, treachery, trap, tramp, traffic, traverse, 
trash, traditive, transit, tragedy, track, tranquil, trance, trouble, 
trump, truss, trudge, trundle, truckle, trunk, troth, trot, trod, 
traulism, trollop, tropical, trope, trophy, trover, troll, trochee, 
treat, true, troop, truffle, truth, truce, truculent, tripod, tribe, 
trifle, trice, tries, trite, trident, trine, trigraph, trowel, trout, 
trowsers, troy. 

Tsk — Cheap, chief, chieftain, cheese, cheat, cheer, cheek, 
chip, chimney, chivy, chisel, chit-chat, chid, chin, chilly, chicken, 
chink, chafe, chase, chaste, chain, cheverel, chess, chest, chair, 
cherry, cheque, chap, chaffinch, chastisement, chat, chariot, 
chaff, charm, charge, chart, chirp, churn, churl, chough, chuckle, 
chop, chalk, chose, choke, chew, choose, chime, chide, chine, 
chouse, choice. 

Ty, — Tew, tewel, tube, Tuesday, tuition, Teutonic, tulip, 
tumid, tumult, tune, tunic, tureen, tutor. 

Between vowels, — Veto, sheeting, eatable, metre, heater, iterate, 


pity, bittern, mitten, fitting, wittj, whittle, citizen, titter, dittj, 
knitting, little, pretty, kitten, fritty, yictuals, eighty, mated, fated, 
waiter, sated^ dated, later, rating, gaiter, grater, hated, potatoe, 
petted, etiquette, better, fetter, setting, jetty, debtor, letting, netted, 
reticule, kettle, attic^ pattern^ battle> mattock, fatten, shatter, 
tatting, latter, clatter, hatter^ chatty^ utter, button, mutton, 
subtle, shuttle, jutting, stutter, nutting, clutter, gutter, daughter, 
naughty, haughty, haughtiness, pottage, bottle, motto, sottish, 
shotten, jotting, totter, knotted, lottery, rotten, cottage, grotto, 
gotten, Hottentot, otter, oaten, potable, boating, yotary, dotage, 
notary, lotus, coating, gloating, booty, footing, suiter, imputed, 
beauty, sooty, shooting, duty, tutor, neuter, lutist, rooted, cuticle, 
hooting, plighted, biter, mighty, fighting, cited, indicted, benighted, 
lighter, writer, flighty, frighten, triton, outer, shouter, shouting, 
undoubted, routed, moiety, loiter. 

Before an articulation. — Sweetmeat, vitriol, vitreous, gateway, 
pastry, etching, Etna, wetnurse, settler, detriment, retrograde, 
platform, catcall, thatching, fastness, vastly, pasture, disastrous, 
lastly, ghastly, artful, artless, partner, partly, partridge, parch- 
ment, martlet, marching, tartlet, carthorse, pertly, virtue, 
utmost, butler, suttler, curtly, cutler, culture, vulture, paltry, 
watchman, botcher, motley, courtly, sportsman, boatman, note- 
book, boathooks, nightcap, sprightly, nightly, rightly, outmost, 
outward, voucher, outrage, adroitly. 

Final, — Peat, beet, meat, complete, feet, seat, sheet, neat, 
leet, greet, heat, priest, yeast, list, wrist, pit, bit, emit, fit, whit, 
wit, knit, lit, it, kit, grit, hit, eight, pate, bait, mate, fate, wait, 
innate, elate, crate, great, hate, pet, bet, met, whet, wet, fret, 
jet, debt, quartett, net, let, regret, yet, pat, bat, mat, fat, vat, 
that, sat, gnat, rat, cat, hat, hast, chat, past, mast, fast, vast, 
last, art, start, tart, dart, cart, heart, chart, squirt, flirt, avert, 
shirt, dirt, skirt, but, put, shut, jut, nut, hut, hurt, ought, bought, 
thought, sought, taught, nought, wrought, caught, wart, sort, 
distort, short, tort, snort, pot, what, sot, shot, jot, tot> dot, not, 
lot, rot, cot, yacht, got, grot, hot, sport, port, court, oat, boat, 
moat, note, coat, goat, put, boot, moot, foot, soot, shoot, newt, 
impute, mute, suit, lute, root, cute, coot, hoot, argute, spite, bite, 
mite, fight, white, wright, site, tight, indite, night, light, write, 
kite, height, pout, spout, bout, devout, stout, shout, doubt, lout, 
rout, clout, gout, out. 



Observations. — ^This articulation bears the same rdation to the preoeding, 
tliat B does to P, Y to F, Z to S, &c. Its articulative position and action are the 
same as those of T ; but while the tongue is in contact with the palate, the vdce 
is exerted, and is heard with a muffled murmur — ^the breath which produces the 
glottal vibration, dilating the pharynx. Distinctness veiy much depends on the 
audibiUty of this sound. The student should therefore practise this and the other 
vocal obstructives, till he can give their vocalitj as much duration as it is cap- 
able of, (see page 137.) Our remarks on the formation of T apply equally to 
this element, which is liable to the same faults of articulation, defects, &c The 
exercises given for t may therefore be practised with D substituted, (to give 
distinctness to its combinations ;) thus — 

ade nay, ad nad ; ade pay, ad pad ; &c. 

The Stammerer must study the general mechanism of the vocal obstructives, 
(page 43), and acquire power over their formation, by prolongation of the 
pharyngeal murmur — and strong, yet not wasteful explosions, before he sets to 
work to battle with his difficulties on this articulation. He must be able to 
retain the articulative position steadily — to perform the articulative action 
rapidly and independently of all other positions and actions — and, lastly, to pass 
trippingly from one position to another, without attempts at impractible coal- 
escence, and without losing any one of the peculiar effects of each articulation. 
His cure, thus founded on power over the organs and operations of speech, wOl 
progressively advance with rapidity, in proportion to his energy and watchful- 
ness. Having gone through this training, the Stammerer will not only feel 
himself relieved from the oppressive incubus which tormented his whole ^^ dream 
of life," but he may rejoice in a freer possession, and more conscious enjoyment 
of the crowning faculty of man, than the best of merely instinctive speakers 
who never felt the sore deprivation, and who know not the value to their social 
happiness of that power of speech which they ignorantly exercise. 

D initial, like T, unites with W, R, and Y ; and with the vocal form of 
Sh — as in dwarf, drew, due, and Jew, It combines with no initial articu- 
lation : we write Bd in bdellium, but the B is silent. Dy is apt to be con- 
founded with Dzh, as Ty is slurred into Tsh, by careless tongues. 

The combination dzh=J is one of the simplest forms of double articulatioii — 
in this respect analogous to the French Bw and Pw, and the German Ts or 
Dz. The same articulating agents are used for both elements of the combin- 
ations : the continuous elements being merely explosively commenced by the 
momentary oral occlusion of the obstructive element. This obvious simplicity 
of the combination dzh may be the reason why it is denoted by a single charac- 
ter in our language. 

Initial. — Deep, deem, deify, devious, deed, deal, dear, dip, 
dibble, diffluent, dividend, dithyramb, dissipate, distance, dismal. 


ditto, did, dinner, diligence, dig, ditch, day, dace, daisy, date, 
deign, dale, deprecate, debit, deference, death, desk, desuetude, 
desert, debt, dead, dense, denizen, dell, deck, dapper, dabble, 
damp, damask, daffodil, daggle, dash, dandle, dangle, dance, 
dapatical^ da-capo^ darken, dam, darling, dart, dearth, dirt, dirk, 
double, dumb* doye, doth, dust, dusk, dozen, Dutch> dudgeon, 
dungeon, dulcimer, ductile, daub, dauphin, dodge, dot, daughter, 
dodder, dawn, donatiye, doll, dock, dog, donkey, dormant, dorsal* 
door, dome* donor, doleful, douceur, doom, doodle, divers, dice, 
dies, dive, diagram, dike, doubt, dowdy, doughty, down, dowlas, 
dowager, doit, doily. 

Dr, — Drab, drachma, dram, drama, draff, draft, drag, dragon, 
dragoon, dr^in, drake, dramatic, drapery, drastic, draw, draught, 
drawl, dread, drear, dream, dredge,' dregs, drench, dress, drift, 
drill, drink, drank, drunkard, drip, dribble, drivel, drizzle, drive, 
droll, dromedary, drove, droop, dropsy, dross, drover, drown, 
drowsy, drub, drudge, drug, druggist, drum, druid, drumble, dry, 
drily, drought, dryad. 

Dy, — Dew, dual, duel, dubious, duty, duke, Dulia, duly, duo, 
dupe, duplicate, dure. 

Dv0, — Dwale, dwarf, dwell, dwelt, dwindle. 

Bzhr=^J, — ^gelid, genuine, gender, genial, genus, genius, gentile, 
gentle, geranium, German, gerund, gesture, gibbet, gibe, gigantic, 
giUy-flower, ginger, ginseng, girasole, gjYQ, jabber, jacent, jackal, 
jag.gaol, jangle, janitor, January, jargon, jaundice, jaunt, jaw, jeal- 
ous, jeer, jejune, jeopardy, jerk, jerkin, Jersey, jessamine, Jesuit, 
jetsam, Jewry, jewel, jib, jig, jilt, jingle, job, jockey, jocund, jog, 
joint, joist, joke, jole, jolt, jostle, journal, jovial, joy, jubilant, 
Judaism, judge, juggle, jugular, juice, jumble, junction, jingle, 
junior, juniper, juratory, justice. 

Between Vowels, — Eden, weedy, seedy, kneaded, leader, reader, 
bidden, middle* fiddle, avidity, widow, diddle, nidification,callidity, 
riddance, giddy, idiot, aid-de-camp, fading, shady, jaded, lady, 
ladle, radiant, cadi, eddy, peddle, wedding, steady, ready, dreaded, 
paddock, bladder, madder, sadden, saddle, caddy, gladiator, had- 
dock, puddle, muddy, sudden, shudder, ruddy, huddle, boddice, 
model, fodder, wadding, sodden, toddle, daudle, noddy, laudatory, 
gaudy, odour, modish, boding, wooded, pudding, brooding, moody, 
woody, sudatory, doodle, noodle, rudiment, hooded, bridle, widen. 


sidle, cider, tidy, rider, guidance, chiding, idle, powder, dowdy, 
cloudj* crowded, embroider, yoidance. 

Before cm Ariiculatian,^^&eed&igt needless, heedless, midnight, 
fiddler, pedlar, bedlam, medlej, sedge, bridge^ widgeon, ledger, 
ridge, page, wager, sagelj, rage, deadlight, hedger, padlock, badge, 
badness, madlj, fadge, sadness, cadger, graduate, arduous, barge- 
man, largess, margin, guardroom, commandment, worldly^ word- 
less, curdling, maudlin, urge, fondness, wondrous, tawdry, lordly, 
codling, cordwainer, gorgeous, wardrobe, bodementi loadstone* 
roadster, lewdness, gamboge, bridesmaid, bridegroom, sidling, 
guideless, proudly, loudness, voidness. 

Final — Bead, meed, feed, weed, seed, indeed, keyed, lid, rid, 
kid| hid, chid, obeyed, fade, inveighed, weighed, arcade, said, 
instead, shed, dead, clad, glad, had, pard, bard, retard, card, 
guard, bird, whirred, whirled, third, stirred, gird, world, absurd, 
occurred, bud, fund, bestud, annulled, culled, gulled, odd, awed, 
pod, pawed, sod, sawed, yond, yawned, cod, cawed, called, galled, 
poured, board, ignored, implored, sword, abode, mode, flowed, 
woad, wold, sewed, sold, code, goad, hoed, hold, food, mewed, feud, 
viewed, wooed, wood, prude, brood, could, good, endured, lured, 
cured, I'd, bide, confide, vied, wide, tied, died, denied, bride, 
pride, complied, mind, mild, hide, hind, filed, find, defiled, bowed, 
bound, wound, scowled, crowd, cloud, allowed, employed, yoid, 
soiled, toiled, alloyed, cloyed. 


ObsKbyations. — ^The difibrenoe between this ardcnlation and the preceding 
(D) 18 precisely the same as that between B and M, explained at page 138. 
While the organs are placed in the orally obstmctive portion, the soft palate is 
removed from the nasal openings, and the current of vmoe which would tlse 
dilate the pharynx, flows continnonsly through the nose. If these passages are 
not immediately opened, or if the breath is altogether intercepted for an instant, 
it will pass into the pharynx, and the effect of dn^ as in miiMight, will be pro- 
duced. D and N being the same lingual ardcnlation, the tongue must make 
two strokes on the same part of the palate in order to articulate them separately ; 
and when d comes before n in the same word, such separate articulation would 
create a hiatus incompatible with the closeness of syllabic connexion. D and T, 
therefore, before N in the same word, merely give an explosive oommenoteent 
to the N» Many persons habitually give the nasals M and N, this initial ob- 


Btiuction ; and ih% oonTene fiEmlt, namelj, that of oommenciiig the explosives 
nasally , b equally, if not more oommon. The tbree nasals an also r&j often 
faxd^j ^nisked explosively, from a momentaiy oodnsion of the nares before 
the articulative action is finished. We have noticed the peculiar liability of NG 
to be thns terminated by 6. (See page 47). The voice, in forming N, most 
be pure and onmixed with aspiration. The least contraction of the noetii]% or 
their partial obstractioh from any cause, will create sniffling. If the nostrils are 
pinched while fonmng N, the explosive effect of D with a nasal resonance will 
be prodvoed. This sort of sound is caused by cM in the head, — ^wfaen tike 
voice enters the nostrils, but meeting with dbstruoUons to its egressy the breath 
ooUeets in the phaiynx, and the removal of the tongue from the palate is at- 
tended by a degree of the explosiveness of D. If the nostrils are altogeAer 
dogged up, it will be impossible to avdid this ambiguous effect, but a pure for- 
mation of voice, and an effort of expansion in the nasal passages, will, in a greai 
measure, obviate the sniffling which so oommonly results from this troublesome 
cause. Many persons haUtually form the nasals with mudi of the character 
of these cold-obstructed sounds. This peculiarity impresses the utterance very 
strongly ; it is altogether incompatible with effective speaking. It may arise 
from some organic defect, — from polypi,*— from excessive snuff*taking,— -or from 
habit growing out of frequent liability to colds. Except where it originates in 
structural affections, it may be entirely removed by careful practice of the im- 
perfect elements. 

N is almost invariably a source of great difflculty to the Stammerer, He 
will generally have perfected the explosives, and nearly all the other articula- 
tions, before he can master this letter, and perhaps L. The impediment on N 
may be of a fourfold nature,— combining the difficulties which arise from mis- 
management of the chest and organs of respiration,— of the glottis and sonorous 
agents,— of the tongue and articulative organs, — and of the lower jaw. Without 
further indicating the nature of the difficulties this element may present, we 
may at once prescribe a means of practice for the acquirement of its true 
formation, independently of all previously existing faults. Let the Stammerer 
exercise himself with persevering hopefrd energy in the way we recommend, 
above all, endeavouring to understand the principles on which he b workmg, 
and he will not be long in attaining command over all the processes at fault ii| 
hb impeded utterance of N. 

Let him, with a glass before him, open hb mouth as widely as he can, and 
retam it at its greatest opening, while he places the tongue on the palate, as 
for D. Here let it rest steadily for some time :— it b in the position for adier 
T, D, or N. Let him now produce a continuous sound, without the slightest 
motion in any visible part of the mouth. Tins sound — ^if the tongue has been 
obstructively placed on the paUte^^must necessarily pass through the nose. 
While the organs remain in the podtion assumed, this sound b a nasal vowel ; 
it b as clearly a vowel as €, o, or any of the recognised oral qualities of vowel 
sound. The Stammerer will by thb exercise at once effectively counteract, the 
dbturbing tendendes of the tongue and jaw ; and by strengthening and purify- 


iDg the voice, he will gaiD glottal power ; while, by giving the wdl formed sound 
as long continnanoe as possible, with the chest elevated, he wHl check the 
heavy pressure on the longs, and acquire ease, steadiness, and power of re- 

The voice may also be exercised in the production of short and qui<&ly uttered 
explosive jets of N-sonnd — as well as of the continuous stream — but, through- 
out, keeping the tongue, lips, and teeth perfectly motionless. 

These exercises will perfect the articulative position of N. Let the Stammerer, 
when these have been sufficiently practised, add to them the action whiofa 
completes the articulation,^i)y rapidly removing the tongue from all points of 
upward contact. If the current of voice be continued, the removal of the tongue 
will admit the breath into the mouth, and some vowel will be produced. Those 
vowels which are formed with the tongue Jmchwards^ present less difficulty 
with N and the other lingua-palatal articulations, than the vowels which 
require the approximation of the tongue to the palate,— on account of the greater 
scope which they afford to the articulative action. Thus no, (g)nat&, &c. are 
much more easily uttered than (k)n66, (k)mV, nay^ &c. Let the Stammerer 
therefore in adding the vowels to N, begin with the least difficult, — ^rdterating 
each syllable frequentiy without any break in the continuous flow of glottal 
sound. Thus 

noo, noo, noo, &c. ; no, no, no, &c. ; naw, naw, naw, &c. ; 

nah, nah, nah, &c. ; nay, nay, nay, &c. ; ne, ne, ne, &c. 
nonononon, &c. ; nunununim, &c. ; nanananan, &c. 
nenenenen, &c. ; ninininin, &c. 

At this stage he must carefully t&atoA that no unnecessary action — especially 
of the jaw— accompanj^ that of the tongue. The teeth should remain as steady 
as if the jaw were hingeless, till the tongue can perform its office independently^ 
and with satisfactory rapidity and energy. This exercise should be followed 
up by reading words with N initial ; and then by practising the combinations 
in which N occurs, or any exercises containing the elements- which present a 

N, like the other liquids, (see page 139) presents several marked varieties of 
quantity. It is extremely short when followed by a breath articulation, as in 
paint — ^longer when before a vocal articulation, as in pained — ^and longest 
when final or before another liquid, as in pain and painless. 

N initial combines only with Y. N unites with no initial articulation but iS, 
as in snow. It occurs, however, before nearly all articulations in separate 
syllables ; as in rain&ow, en/oy, en^fure, un/old, iri^titude, enhance, in^nue, 
enclose, U9il:ennel, inlet^ inmost, unknown, unpardoned inroad, inralt, intact, 
int;alid, unu;ise, intnre, irenzj^ en^Arine, panMer, meanu^Aile. iV^ is found also 
in the following final combinations : — with d as in hend^ dzh as in hinge^ 9 as in 
hence^ ^ as in bent, z as in lens, tsh as in bench, th as in plinth. The nasal 
articulations are very liable to be exchanged in some combinations, so as organ- 
ically to correspond to, and fluently combine with, the articulations with which they 


stand connected. Thus n before a labial articnlation in the same syllable, will 
be changed to m ; and before kor g into ii^,-— as in Banff ^ pronounced Bamff^ 
vnht hanh^ &c. pronounced ingk^ bangk^ &c. A similar tendency is manifested 
in the vulgar pronunciation of such words as lengthy strength^ &c., where the 
ng before the lingua-dental articulation th is changed into n. This, however, 
is to be avoided— because not sanctioned by the best usage. 

Combinations of N and L present an articulative difficulty ; in overcoming 
which, considerable lingual power must be acquired. The following arrange- 
ments should be practised in rapid iterations. Pronounce each group of syl- 
lables with the accent of a word. (See page of accents). 

na la la na na la na la na la na la la na la na na hr^with e, i, o, oo. 

The other lingual continuous formations may be added. Thus: 

la na ra za tha la ra tha za na > -^ e i o oo 
tha ra na la za za la tha na ra ) * i f * 

The following will be found extremely difficult. 

111 nin 

nin^lil nin 
lilnin lil 

nin lil lil nm 
lil nin nin lil 



Initial. — Knee, neap, neither, niece, knees, neat, knead, kneel, 
near, nip, nibble, nimble, niveous, knit, ninnj, niggard, niche, naj, 
nape, neighbour, name, knave, nasal, nature, nadir, nail, nepotism, 
nebula, nemorous, nephew, nether, nest, net, knell, neck, negli- 
gent, nap, navigate, nascent, nathless, gnash, gnat, narrow, knack, 
nag, natch, nasty, nard, narcotic, nerve, number, nothing, nuzzle, 
nudge, nut, none, null, nurse, nurture, gnaw, nausea, nautical, 
naufrage, naumachj, normal, north, knob, nominate, novice, 
nostril, nosle, knotty, nodule, nonage, nor, noxious, notch, know- 
ledge, no, noble, gnomon, note, node, nones, knoll, noon, nook, 
noodle, noose, nigh, knife, knives, nice, knight, nidor, nine, nigrin, 
nous, noun, noy, noyance. 

Ny. — New, newspaper, newt, neuter, neurology, nubile, nucleus, 
nudity, nugatory, nuisance, numerate, numismatic, nutation^ nu- 
triment, nubilous. 

Between Vowels, — Venial, arena, penal^ verbena, pinnace, mi- 
nister, finical, dinner, linnet, guinea, feigning, lanated, zany, rain- 
ing, energy, penny, benison, menace, fennel, venerable, senator, 
zenith, tenor, denizen, lenity, rennet, kennel, annals, pannel, 
banish, manacle, flannel> vanity, sanative, janitor, tanner, inani- 
mate, laniate, canister, hanaper, channel, panado, punning, money, 
funnel, sunny, runnel, cunning, gunner, honey, brawny, fawning, 


tawny, dawuing, bonnet, monastery, sonnet, astonish, donatiTe, 
nonage, chronicle, honour, honest, owner, ponent, donor, moonish, 
sooner, tuner, lunar, lunatic, pining, briny, miner, refiner, shining, 
china, clownish, crowning, poignant, joinery, coinage. 

Before a Breath Articulation. — Plinth, terebinth, anthelmin- 
thic, synthesis, Corinthian, tenth, panther, cantharides, canthus, 
month ; expanse, manse, advance, stance, chance, dance, Iance» 
rancid, handsome, pensiye, commence, fence, whence, thence, 
tense, dense, against, hence, prince, mince, evince, wince, since, 
linseed, rinse, responsive, monstrous, sccmce, once, dunce, runci- 
nate ; bunting, afl&ont, wont, stunted, frontispiece, vaunt, want, 
print, mint, flint, wintry, stinted, tint, dint, lint, hiut, chintz, 
penthouse, bent, meant, eventful, went, scent, gentleman, tent, 
lent, rent, pantry, banter, mantelpiece, phantasm, grant, slant, 
saunter, sha'nt, chant, jaunt, taunt, daunt, can't, gaunt, haont, 
learnt, painting, feint, attainted, mayn't, won't, pint, mounting, 
fountain, counted, accountant, pointer, jointed, anointed ; mansion, 
expansion, pension, mention, ascension, gentian, tension, dimen- 
sion, essential, hcentious, appr^ension, prevention, provincial, 
conscience, conscious ; pinch, bench, tench, wrench, stanchicm, 
branch, staunch, launch, craunch, haunch, paunch, punch, bunch, 
lonchion, hunch, munch. 

Before a Voice Articulation, — Inborn, unbosom, anvil, envious, 
invious, invoice, convict, unwell, ennui, pansy, stanza, Wednesday, 
frenzy, kinsman, bronze, dens, fins, cranes, guns, bones, pans, 
means, lines, tunes, crowns, coins, dingy, fringe, avenger, vengeance, 
injury, spongy, range, lounge, feigned, gleaned, mined, bind) 
crowned, coined, owned, surround, tuned, andiron, endless, endive, 
index, indigo, indolent, indurate, undulate, under, pander, bandy, 
manducate, jaundice, dandy, landscape, glandular, candent^ 
pendulum, fender, vendible, send, tendon, rhododendron, spindle, 
brinded, vindicate, window, thinned, rescind, tinder, kindled^ 

Na syllable, — Happen, stiffen, even, heathen, leaven, seven, 
often, hasten, fasten, listen, patten, mitten, mutton, button, 
written, cotton, lighten, oaten, madden, bidden, ridden, sodden, 
denizen, venison, benison, dozen, prison, mizen, risen, cozen, 
fettten, kitten, bitten, rotten, glutton, frighten, tighten, Ugfaten, 
heighten, hidden, ridden, trodden, hoiden. 

N Jmal, — Demesne, intervene, ravine, ween, scene, siieen^ 


nineteen, terrene, serene ; pin, bin, ermine, leyin, fin, wliin, win, 
thin, amaranthine, ursine, mountain, murine, akin, begin, ohin ; 
pain, bane, fiiin, yane, ta'en, deign, ascertain, mundane, arraign, 
murrain, when, wen, then, ten, den, again ; pan, ban, fan, yan, 
<Aan, sedan, began ; bam, tarn, dam ; fern, cayem, concern, 
leam, stem, jeam ; pun, bun, fiin, one, sun, shun, horizon, tun, 
dun, none, run, spurn, bum, adjoum, turn ; au2n, pawn, brawn, 
&wn, sawn, dawn, lawn, bom, mom, thorn, adorn, forlorn, com, 
horn, upon, wan, shone, John, don, jon, gone; bome, moum, 
worn, tom^ shorn ; own, depone, sown, shown, alone ; spoon, boon, 
moon, swoon, soon June, tune, noon, rackoon ; pine, woodbine, 
repine, mine^ nine, diyine, wine, <Aine, sign, resign, shine, tine, 
dine, kine, chine ; town, down, noun, crown, clown, gown ; loin, 
coin, groin. 


This element is heard when the pohit of the tongae, from its forward position 
at 6, is drawn inwards, so as slightlj to enlarge the aperture through which 
the breath hisses. The shape, too, of the passage, is altered by the middle of 
the tongue rising within the arch of the palate. The general appearance of the 
tongue is more thick and bulky than for S. This cannot be observed during 
the artioolation of the elements, for the teeth are not sufficiently apart, but if 
the mouth be opened after S and Sh^ without moving the tongue from the 
artionlative positions, the difference in the elevation and apparent bulk of the 
tongue will be e^ent. The observation in this way of the position of the 
tongue is of much use in facilitating the correction of faults in articulation. 
We have said that the point of the tongue is drawn inwards from its position at 
S — but the kind of sound heard in Sh may be produced with the point of the 
tongue merely depressed^ or even advanced to the lower teeth. The breath is 
then modified by the approadnuMaon of the middle of the tongue to the interior 
of the front rim of the palatal arch ; but this formation is a fimlty one, because 
it does not easily combine with other lingual articulations. The tongue, 
from its conformation, cannot pass with fruolity from one to another of its 
positions, unless it is kq;>t free from contact with the bed of the jaw. Let the 
student place the tongue in the position for S, and then, while the cnnrent of 
breath flows uninterrupted, let him gradually draw back the tongae — ^keeping 
the point at a uniform elevation — and he will modify the hiss into Sh. Let 
him practise this action till he can pass from S to Sh, thence to S, then back 
again to Sh, and so on alternately, repeatedly during one continued expiration. 

The formatioii of iS% is very generally fitulty from an unnecessaiy aooompa- 
nying projeotioii of the lips. The action of the tongue is not sufficienUy firm 


and decided to give a distmctiye character to the hiss, and the dmnsy expedient 
of fanaelling the lips is resorted to. The exercLse on S and Sh above pmodbed 
will be nsefbl in manifesting both the existence and the ^Kspenaahility of tliiB 
labial action. 

The sound of this element is seldom represented by M, except when initfalor 
final. Wherever the articolations s and y come together, as in words begimmg 
with #, followed by alphabetic u, there is a natural tendency in the <»rgaiu to 
strike sh instead of the ^. S is produced with the tongue comparatively flit 
and pointed : Y is formed with the middle of the tongue raised in dose tp- 
proximation to the roof of the palatal arch : and the position of sh bdng exadfy 
intermediate,— the tongue somewhat retracted, and its bulk somewhat elevated, 
—we see in the mechanism of the elements the reason why sh will very naturally 
take the place of syia rapid utterance. This tendency is jdelded to in some 
instances, but opposed by correct usage in others. In sure^ assure, insure^ 
Jissure, tissue^ kc., universal custom has authorised the exchange of sy for M; 
but in suit^ sue, superior, &c., it imperatively forbids it. In these, and all 
words containing this combination, we see the natural tendency strongly illaa- 
trated in the pronunciation of the uneducated. 

A tailor was threatening a debtor to shoe (sue). 
Says he, needy witling, ^^ Kind sir, at your pleasure ;— - 

But 1^11 thank you as much, and Hwere easier for you ^ 

Just to shoot (suit) me, — and now I can stand for my measure.** 

The pronun(nation of the word sewer (a drain) illustrates the working of tids 
principle, and also of one noticed at page 119, with reference to the vowel oo 
befOTe r(8). The necessities of fluent speaking have demanded the curtailment of 
this word as one not worthy of the more emphatic and deliberate prommoiatioa 
of the double articulations ; and the identity of its sound, so shortened, with 
another word, (sure) has rendered a vou^^Z-change necessary to contradistingmsh 
them. This has been done by the substitution of o(ll) for oo; and the current 
pronunciation of the word (shore) is thus very naturally obtained. This tendency 
of anterior lingual articulations to take sh rather than the more difficult y into 
combination with them, is further manifested in words containing y after f, as 
in tune, tutor, Sfc. where vulgar pronunciation converts the y into dk. In 
unaccented syllables, this change is made by more than the vulgar, as in nature, 
feature, Sf^. whidi are too often colloquially pronounced na-tshocr, fea'tshoor, 
ffn, ; but careful speakers should articulate fy in all such cases. 

The vowel e, after « and before a vowel, is subject to be thus sunk into Sh in 
unaccented syllables, as in osseous, &c. but it is one mark of good speaking to 
be able to sound the vowel distinctiy, and without loss of fluency in such wends. 
In the terminational syllables sum, turn, cial, tiaU cious, Spc, EngKdk 
usage has fixed the sound of si, ci, ti, to sh. In IVench these qdlaUes are 
pronounced se-on, &c. 

In some words in which se or sy have become durred into sh, the ear dbes 
not seem satisfied to lose all trace of the elided sound, and a soft ^eot of y is 
heard, as in specie, tertian, Sfc, 


Shy is a very nnflaent oombination : in these cases, sh has that degree of 
prdongadon which it receives before another ardcolation ; and the tongne, before 
leaving the palate for the snoceeding vowel, makes a slight backward and up- 
ward movement, which produces a shadowy effect of y. 

The student will find a uitefol exercise on the hissing articulaUons, 2%, s, 
andsh^hy producing them m series repeatedly during the flow of one expiration, 
without any intervening vowel-sound. Thus : begin with th, and change that by 
a rapid motion of the tip of the tongue to s; then, by a farther retraction equally 
rapid, produce sh ; then back to s and th^ and thence again to s and sh ; thns, 

th-s-sh-s- th-s-sh-s- th-B-sh- s-th, &c. 

SyllaUes with these elements alternately initial form an excellent lingual ex- 
ercise. They present comparatively little difficulty when arranged in the order 
of their formation ; th^ «, sh; or sh, «, th ; but when the anterior and posterior 
formations come together, as in the following arrangement, they present a stum- 
bling-block, which probably the best articulator will not get over without practice. 

tha sha sa, sha tha sa, sa sha tha, sa tha sha, &c. — mih e, i, o, oo. 

Let the three syllables, with varpng accents, be pronounced as one word, and 
r^terated as rapidly as can be done with distinctness. Then let two of the com- 
binations be united verbally, and read with varying accents ; thns, — 

tha sha sa sha tha sa, &c. ; sa sha tha sa tha sha, &c. — with e, i, o, oo. 

To the Stammerer who has sufficiently mastered the fundamental principles on 
which his cure must be based, these perplexing combinations will be of much 
service in developing power and precision of lingual action. 

Sh initial combines only with R in English, as in shrew^ shrine^ jr. This 
combination is harsh, and somewhat difficult ; and it tends to make our speakers 
use the lips to assist them in effecting it more easily. Labial interference should, 
however, — ^for it may, — be dispensed with. 


Initial, — Sheep, sheaf, sheaye, sheath, sheather, sheet, sheen, 
sheer; ship, shibboleth, shift, shirer, shin, shingle; shape, shame, 
shave, share, shake; shepherd, shed, shell, shelf, sherry, shekel; 
shabby, sham, shadow, shall, shackle* shag; shaft; sharp, 
shard, shark; sherbet, shirt, shirk; shove, shovel, shuffle, 
shutter, shudder* shun ; shawm, shawl, shorl, short, shop, shot, 
shod^ sh6ne, shock, shog ; shore, shorn ; show, shoulder, shoal ; 
shoe, shoot, should, sure, shook ; shy, shine; shower: chaise, chag- 
rin, champaign, chandelier, charade, charlatan, chevalier, chivalry, 
chevisance, chevron, chicanery. 

Between vowels. — ^fisher, wishing, dishes, meshes^ ashes, bishop, 
blushing, bushel, cushion* cushat, dashing, echelon, fashion, 



fishify, fleshiness, toshet, motion, mission, caution, nation, passion, 
ocean, pension, possession, position, potion, precious, satiate, sus- 
picion, suspension, trashj, usher, vitiate, yicious, washing, ration, 
ambition, oppression, pressure, fissure^ issue, patient^ potential, 
precocious, special, sociaL 

Before an articulcUion. — Fishmonger, wishful, dish-cloth, ash- 
lar, bashful, blushful, fleshlj, freshness, hush-monej, Mishna, 

Before a softened sound of Y. — Asian, Ascii, Antiscii, cassia, 
caseous, facial, Grecian, justiciary, nescience, Periscii, Russian, 
specie, species, tertian. 

Final. — Leash; fish, wish, dish, whitish, blackish, radish, 
reddish ; flesh, fresh, mesh ; sash, dash, lash, gnash, rash, crash, 
clash, gash, trash, hash ; marsh, harsh ; rush, crush, gush, hush, 
blush, thrush, plush, tush ; quash, wash; push, bush : (Tsh) each, 
beech, beseech, itch, witch, ditch, etch, wretch, latch, hatch, batch, 
larch^ birch, crutch, lurch, church, botch, blotch, Scotch, porch, 


Observations. — This articulation, which is not uncommon in English, 
arising oat of the necessities of flnent utterance, instead of 2^, has no appro- 
priate symbol m our orthography. Before alphabetic uasyoo, we have it re- 
presented by s, as in measure, S^c. ; and by 2, as in seizure, Sfc. It legitimately 
occurs also in lesion, vision, SfC. ; and it is heard in transition, where the regu- 
lar sound of ti, viz. sh, is vocalised, to avoid the less euphonious combination of 
two hissing elements. Careless speakers pronounce zh instead of ^ in ^cfucate, 
ereduiova, &c., and often even in accented syllables, as duke, duel, Sfc, This 
will be carefully avoided by all who desire to speak well. In its formation, this 
element is precisely the same as the preceding, with the addition of glottal 
sound. In this simple state, it occurs initial in no Engh'sh word, but 10 inva- 
riably commenced from the obstructive position d. The combination thus |Hro- 
duced, namely, dzh, is represented by J or G, as in James, George, f^c, 

Zh final is never unaccompanied by d, except in naturalized French words, — 
such as rouge. Its English use is exemplified in yidge, cisge, &o. In the former 
word, the letter d is redundant, since g alone, as in cage, represents the com- 
bination dzh. The writmg of this redundant d is one of our orthographical 
expedients to denote that the preceding vowel is to have its '^ stopped ^ or 
*• short sound,"—- and the writing of a final e is another expedient to show 
that the ^ is to have its ^* sofl,^"* or double sound, and not its *^ hard^^ or 


flingle Bound. How much more easy and natural would it be, — how muoh per- 
^ezily would it save foreigners, — and how many weary tasks and useless 
punishments would it ward from unhappy learners, if we could only be brought 
to Qubmit our orthography to rational correction ? Here, for instance, is a 
division of this work on a sound which our acknowledged literal symbols 
furnish us with no mark to designate, — which is only recognised among the 
elements of our language as one constituent of a double alphabetic sound, — 
apparently deemed indivisible, because represented by a smgle letter ; and yet we 
are compelled to use a digraph to represent the Jialf of this alphabetic mono- 
graph, or we could not show its relation to the breath-artiottlatioQ of the same 
formation, — sh. 


Zh initial, — Giraffe, girandole. ^ adopted 

Zh final— Rouge. / French words. 

Between Vowels, — Lesion, adhesion, vision^ incision, transition, 
derision, invasion, abrasion, occasion, measure, corrosion, diffusion, 
contusion, delusion, intrusion^ illusion. 

{D)zh final, -^lAeg^, siege, midge, ridge, age, cage, wage, edge, 
ledge, pledge, hedge, badge, large, barge, serge, urge, budge, 
grudge, lodge, dodge, gamboge, gouge. 

Observations. — In forming this element, the back of the tongue is rounded 
upwards to a dose position against the palate at a point intermediate to that of 
the formations sh and ch (German.) If the effort be made to compound these 
elements by sounding both together, the effect of a whispered T will be pro- 
duced. The tongue thus placed is ahnost in the position for the vowel ee ; the 
voice in Y has therefore the character of that vowel, — just as in ti? it has the 
quality of oo, Y and W are articulated forms of the dose vowel-sounds ee and oo, 

Y is always vocal in English : a very common fault among careless 
speakers is to aspirate y in connexion with breath articulations, and often to 
convert it into the proximate form sh. Thus tune is pronounced tshoon, — 
beauteous, beautshus; righteous, rightshus; &c. This should be avoided, — it 
is mere slovenliness. 

The First Vowd, unaccented, before a vowel, as m filial, saviour, glazier, &c. 
is in many words warrantably shortened into y. After the sound of Sh or Zh, 
as in social, vision, &c. the y is often entirely sunk. 

Y before the First Vowel presents a rather difficult combination. Many 
persons entirely omit the Y in that situation : thus we hear of ** an old man 


beodrng imder a weight of ears,*" instead of '' years.'' A little pnotm wiB 
enable any one to master the oQmbination without sodi asinine alteratioDS. 

The letter Y when final is always a rowel: it has the sound of the Sod Towd 
in such words as mamf^ very^ &c and of the diphthong 7-1 in fty, fry, &e. 
The Articolation T is never heard final in English ; it oocnrs in Frendi, as in 

T initial oomlrines with no articnladon. The initial dements P, B, M, F, Y, 
Th, (Breath) 8, Z, K, 6, take Y into oomtnnatioD, bnt only before the dose 
labial yowd oo ; as in pure^ beauty, mew, feu, view, thurdde, gue, zeugma^ 
cupola, gewgaw. L, we have notioed« takes Y imperfisctly into oombmatioo, 
as in lure, lute, &c 


/ntfioZ.—- Te, yean, year, yeast, yield, yea, yarely, yell, yellow, 
yelp, yes, yesterday, yet, yam, Yankee, yard, yam, yerk, yearn, 
young, yon, yonder, yawn, yore, yolk, yokefellow, you, yew, Yule, 

Between Vowels. — Oyer, lawyer, sawyer. 


This articulation is formed by the gUent contact and audible separation of 
the badL of the tongue and the posterior part of the palate. The precise pdnts 
of contact vary before the difierent vowels. Before the close lingnal vowd ee, 
the tongue strikes the palate much forther forward than before ah or aw. The 
orgims may keep to one uniform position before all the vowels, but there is a 
natural tendency to aocomiHodate fodlity of utterance by these little changes, 
which it would require an effort to avoid. The effect of the ^^ broad'* and 
** dose'* formations (as we have seen them discriminated in a Gaelic grammar, 
but never in an English one) differs only in the vowd quality of the breathing 
emitted in the explosion that follows Uie separation of the organs. Bnt an 
English peculiarity of degant speech depends entirdy on this trivial circumstance. 
The posterior ^* broad" formation which would naturally come before the open 
vowd ah(7) is exchanged for the anterior '^ dose" formation as a enpbonism, 
in sndi words as card, carpet, kind, 8fC. 

The vocal correspondent of this articulation (G) is subject to the same pecu- 
liarity of formation, in sudi words as garb, garden, guard, guide, guUe, j*c. 
There is an extremdy graceful effect in this, which is but dumsily imitated by 
those who interpose an e or a ^ between the X; or ^ and the open vowd. 

In Smart's Pronouncing Dictionary, the student is carefully guarded against 
the affectation of sounding y in these cases, but, from the notation adi^ted, he 
will still be apt to overdo the euphonic effect; for it is ranked as a separate 
dement, represented by an apostrophe — ^tiins, c*ard, g*arment, S^c. We have 


described the organio cause of the peouUarity. The words which take this 
anterior formation of k^ before the open vowel 7, are distinguished by italicsy 
among the subsequent exercises. 

In any- case of indistinct or impeded utterance, the podtion o^ihe point of 
the tongue in this articulation must be observed. It is often thrust down into 
the bed of the lower jaw, or against the lower teeth, but this is fatal to fluency 
and deamess, and it is also offensive to the eye. The fore-part of the tongue 
must be kept as nearly horizontal as possible in the formation of K. It may 
even be folded backwards for the posterior E, but it can never be suffered to 
descend ^rithout a samfice of neatness, which' a speaker of refined taste would 
not willingly make. 

To the Stammerer the observation of the tongue is particularly necessary. He 
generally forms his k by forcing up the middle of the tongue against the top 
of the palatal arch^ while the point of the tongue luds the effort to hold it there 
by pressing down against the lower teeth or gums. The jaw, too, bears up- 
wards with force upon the tongue, which, in the paroxysm of impediment, the 
Stammerer is utterly unable to move. Sometimes the fixture of the tongue is 
less complete, and in its efforts to leave the palate, the antagonist forces throw 
the whole mouth and features into convulsive distortion. The Stammerer must 
practise this articulation with his mouth widely opened and motionless^ so 
that the tongue may be firee to strike and leave the palate unaffected by motions 
of the jaw. Let the tongue be well exerdsed in the simple action of Ar, in com- 
bination with the open vowels ah and awy until it can give off the syllables 
with rapidity, and entirely by its own action. 

ah kah kah kah kah kah kah, &c. 
aw caw caw caw caw caw caw, &c 
akakakakakak, &c. ; ockockockockockock, &c. . 
The same may then be done with all tXe vowels ; and the syllables may be 
arranged in word-dusters — dissyllabic, trissyllabic, and polysyllabic — ^with 
varying ac-cents. — ^Thns 

ickik,. eck^k, dkakak, okdkok, ukukuk, &c. 

Aftar tliis exercise the Stammerer should be able to master lists of words with 
k initial. Let him remember — ^if he find them inclined to be difiScult, that the 
k is merdy a position fix>m which to commence the succeeding vowd ; that the 
initial letter may practicaUy be considered as done, whenever the organs meet ; 
for that then he has only to exert his voice to emit the vowel : the doing which 
will open the mouth, and so finish the articulation, without his farther care. If 
he attempt to make anything more of the consonant by pressure, he must inevit- 
aUy faiL 

The following will be found a nsefiil exercise on the three breath obstructive 
formations, P, T, K. 

kati^a, kapata, pakata, pataka, tapaka, takapa ; — with e, I, o, do : 

kakpaptat, tatkakpap, papkaktat, ) . , « Y x « 
kaktatpap, tatpapkak, paptatkak ; ; "'"'^ ^ *» ®' ^' 


Not only the Stammerer, but all speakers, especially those wluMe enmiGiatioiu 
are indistinct, should cultivate this sort of oral g3rmna8tioB, as one of the most 
powerful means of improving the articulation. 

A common nngainliness of speech, and a frequent aggravation of a Stammerer's 
difficoltj, arises, in words begining with qu, from anticipating the tr, hj project- 
ing the lips while the tongue remains in the attitude of K. The mouth can do 
only one thing at a time. 

K initial combines only with tr, r, /, and y, as in quick, crime, climb, cure, 
K unites with initiab, as in scheme, scream, &c. and with no other articulatioD. 


Initial, — Keep, keen, keel, kipper, kick, kitten, kiudredy cape, 
cake, cane, kail, cage, keg, kedge, kept, kettle, ketch, captain, 
caftan, cat, cabin, cavern, caddj, canister, calumnj, cast, cask, 
calf, calm, calve, car, carbon, card, cargo, carking, carman, carnal, 
carp, carpet, cart, carve, kirtle, kerchief, cup, cof^ curse, custom, 
curfew, cutler, curt, curb, cupboard, cumber, cover, cud, cunning, 
colander, corpse, cough, cost, cocklearj, cottage, cobble, cockle, 
compromise, conic, confidence, conch, coarse, court, cope, coke, 
coat, coast, code, cove, comb, cone, coal, coach, coop, coo, cook, 
coot, coom, cool, kite, kibe, kindness, kine ; cow, cowl, cower ; 
coj, coif, coil, coin, coistreL 

Kw, — Quack, quadrate, quaff, quaggj, quail, quaint, quake, 
qualify, qualm, quantity, quarantine, quarrel, quarter, quash, 
quassia, quaver, queen, queasy, queer, quest, quell, quench, query, 
querulous, quibble, quick, quiet, quill, quilt, quinary, quincunx, 
quinsy, quintain, quire, quirk, quit, quiver, quiz, quoit, qu(mdam, 
quorum, quote, quotient, quoth, cuirass. 

Kl — Cleave, clean, clear, clip, click, cliff, claymore, clavated, 
clement, clever, cleanse, clapper, clash, clatter, clamber, clavicle, 
clad, clannish, clarify, class, clasp, clerk, clergy, cluster, clack, 
clutter, club, clumsy, clunch, clung, clutch, claw, cloth, clock, 
clot, clod, clog, clause, cloak, clothe, close, (v.) clew, climb, cloud, 
clown, cloy, cloister. 

Kr. — Crape, crake, crate, crave, craze, craber, cradle, cripple, 
crisp, cricket, critical, crib, criminal, creep, creole, crease, creak, 
cream, creed, creel, crepitate, crescent, crevice, credulous, crassi- 
tude, crash, crackle, crab, cram, cramp, cranny, crag, crank, 
crash, craunch, crupper, crush, crumble^ crunk, crutch, crop, 
croft, cross, crock, crotchet, chronicle, crow, croak, crone, crew, 
crewel, croop, crucify, crook, cruiset crude* croont cry, crisis, 
crime> crinite, crowd, crown, crouch. 


Ky. — Kew, kufic, kumia, cue, cube, cubeb, cucumber, culin- 
ary, cuneal^ cupreous, curati^e^ curule, cute^ cuticle. 

Between vowels. — Leaky, freakish, weaker, liquor, fickle, ticket, 
bieker, wickedness, acorn, shaking, baker, maker, waking, naked, 
echo, fireckle, decorate, wrei^ker, chequer, packet, focultj, sacking, 
shackle, tackle, lacquer, racket, jacket, pucker, sucker, buckle, 
bucket, knuckle, lucky, chuckle, pocket, socket, shocking, mocker, 
knocker, locket, rocket, pawky, calker, talkative, hawker, mawkish, 
gawky, chalky, poker, token, brokerage, croaking, choking, 
joking, cuckoo, bookish, rookery, lucre, diker, liking. 

K before an articulation, — Pickpocket, thick-pate» luck-penny, 
duck-pond, cockpit, rock-pigeon, sack-posset ; accident, pack-staff, 
text, tax, lax, cracks, ecstacy, excellent, six, text, vexing, dexterous, 
next, cheeks, — pyx, fixture, bricks, mixture, vixen, — ox, flocks, 
rock-salt, socks, shocks, intoxicate, box, docks, Occident, — succinct, 
huckster, buxom, dux, luxate, luxury, juxtaposition ; action, 
paction, factious, attraction^ transaction, — affection, section, vection, 
connection, lection, objection, — ^fictions, conviction, dictionary, — 
auction, decoction, obnoxious, — suction, fluxions, junction, anxious; 
act, pact, active, factory, cactus, tact, hacked, backed, lacteal, 
dactyl, — affected, ectype, sect, lecture, erect, nectar, rector, 
checked, projectile,— picture, fictile, victor, addict, dictate, lictor, — 
construct, ductile, conductor, ducked, instruct,— octave, shocked, 
concoct, mocked, doctor, proctor, noctuary, locked ; backbone, black- 
ball, sackbut, sick-bed; acme, packman, blackmail; — ^blackthorn; 
backwards, awkward, aqua, equity, requisite, liquid, ubiquity, 
equal, sequel, breakwater, colloquial, bookworm, lukewarm: — 
back-door, backbite, background, back-piece, blackbird, black-jack, 
black cock, blackleg, blacksmith, blockhead, book-binder, book- 
keeper, book-mate, crackbrained, cook-room, cookmaid, inkling, 
uncle, microscope, nictate, nictitating, nucleus, pic-nic, siccity, 
tincture, vectitation, workhouse. 

^ina{. -^Eke, pique, freak, seek, cheek, pick, kick, brick, wick, 
ache, opaque, sake, cake, take, break, make, lake, rake, peck, 
beck, deck, neck, wreck, cheque, pack, back, lac, rack, sack, tack, 
arc, park, cark, barque, bark, dark, irk, dirk, perk, kirk, jerk, 
suck, tuck, buck, duck, luck, chuck, work, lurk, murk, sturk, 
sock, shock, fork, cork, calk, talk, walk, hock, mock, dock, lock, 
rock, pork, poke, folk, coke, woke, croak, choke, puke, fluke, for- 
sook, shook, cook, took, hook, book, duke, nook, look, rook, pike, 
like, dike. 



Observatioxs.— The foniiitioa of this demoit b pROfleLj Uie stme u 
thai of the preoediiig, but whh the adifitioQ of an effort of voice daring the eon- 
tact of the aitiealating ofgans. It thus differs finom K analogpashr as B does 
from Pf and D from T. Our remaiks on the position of the tongne, &c in 
Ibrmtng K, win dieRfi»eeqaanTappljr to this letter, and the exerases arranged 
Iot K, may, with the substitution of G, be adopted to perfect the aiticalation of 

6, beloie ihe open vowds 7 and 8, and the diphthong 7-1, takes, in some 
words, the same anterior (brmation as K in the same situation, producing a soft 
eflect^-ahnost, bat not quite, — of the articulation T. The words wludi take 
this (brmation of 6, are distinguished by italics among the Exerciaes. 

A very common fault in the formation of G initial, consists in a degree of 
nasality, which, for want of sufficient energy of articulation, precedes and 
weakens the explosiveness of the letter, — good being pronounced ng-good^ jr. 
The explosive pruper ty of the letter must be foraUy practised to correct this 
habit — and, indeed, to make it manifest to ears unaccustomed to doee observa- 
tion of the sounds of speech. It is a fiiult precisely analogous to the less com- 
mon one of sounding mbefere &,orn before <2, as m-&«t for &t(<;ii-d(mV for doaV. 

The vocal sound of this letter is very often feeble, or altogether wanting. It 
cannot be continued indefimtely, but it is capable of considerable prc^ongatioa, 
and the student should have the power of lengthemng the vocality to the utmost, 
as a means of expresaveness. He should practise the following combinations of 
the three letters of this class, giving to the articulations in the accented syllables all 
the vocality he can, but carefully guarding against a nasal tone. In B, D, or 
6, the v<»ce can only be continued while the breatii may pass into the pharynx ; 
when this cavity is ftdly distended, the sound must cease, and on separating the 
organs, a distinct explosion of the compressed breath will take place! If this 
explosive effect is feeble, or if the sound is easily continued beyond a couple 
of seconds, the voice may be suspected to be passing through the nostrils. 

gabada, gadaba; badaga,bagada; dabaga,dagaba, 
with e, i, o, oo — and with varying accents. 

G, like K, is subject to the error of lateral explosiveness before L, — glove^ 
globe, 8fc. being pronounced dlove, dlobe, S^c, There is no organic necessity 
to plead for this defect. The cure consists in rousing up the tongue to activity. 

G initial combines with tr, r, Z, and y ; but very rarely with the first and 
last of these in English. G enters into combination with no initial artiodation. 


Initial — Gaj, gape, gate, gable, Gaelic, gaiter, gala, gain, gale, 
gaze, gauge, gibber, giddy, gig, guinea, gittern, gairish, guest, get, 


geek, geese, gear, gabble, gadfly, gag, galaxy, gambol, gamble, 
gamut, gaDglion, ghastly, gargarize, garb,, garble^ guard, guard- 
tcin, garden^ garland, garment, garnish, garter, garth, gird, girdle, 
girth, guerdon, girl, girlish, gudgeon, gulf, gulp, gullet, gumption, 
gun, gurgle, gush, gusset, gust, gutter, guzzle, guy, guise, guide, 
guidance, guile, guileful, gout, gown, goitre. 

Between Vowels, — Eager, eagle, leaguer, regal, piggery, higgle, 
bigger, vigour, digging, nigger, giggle, wriggle, trigger, jigger, 
plaguy, pagan, vagous, jegget, beggar, legate, agate, haggle, maga- 
zine, baggage, maggot, vagabond, waggon, dagger, gaggle, laggard, 
ragged, jagged, sluggard, tugging, hugger-mugger, smuggle, drug- 
get, rugged, juggle, maugre, augur, flogging, cogger, hoggish, boggle, 
dogged, noggin, goggle, logarithm, joggle, toga, roguish, frugal, 
gugar, bugle, tiger, bygone. 

Ow, — Guelph, (guano, guava.)* 

Gl. — Glee, glean, glebe, glede, gleek, glib, glimmer, glisten, 
glitter, glacial, glade, glaze, glave, glazier, glare, glairy, glen, 
glacier, glad, gladiate, gland, glandular, glance, glass, glut, glut- 
ton, glum, glauber, glaucoma, globule, glomerate, gloss, glossary, 
glottis, gloar, glory, glorious, glorify, glow, gloat, globe, gloze, 
glue, gluey, gluten, gloom, glucine, glide. 

Gr, — Grease, greasy, greaves, greedy, Greek, greet, gregal, 
gremial, grief, grievance, gridiron, griffon, grig, griU, grim, grin, 
grisly, gritty, gristle, grape, graceful, gracious, great, grateful, 
greyhound, gray, graybeard, grave, gradient, grain, grail, grena- 
dier, grapple, gracile, gratify, grabble, grammar, grampus, graph- 
ic, gravity, graduate, grand, granary, graUic, graft, grass, grasp, 
grub, grudge, gruff, grumble, grunt, groat, grogram, grotto, grovel, 
grow, grope, gross, grows, grove, groan, grew, gruel, group, groom, 
grumous, groove, gripe, grime, grise, grind, grouse, ground, groin. 

Gy. — Gules, gewgaw. 

Before an Articulation. — Quagmire, agminal, bagman, magpie, 
ragman, segment, pigment, flgment, sigma, enigma, rigmarole, 
dogmatise, zeugma, flags, plagues, intrigues, rogues, pegs, flgs, 
frogs, mugs, jugs, exultation, exotic, exhibit, exempt, zigzag, 
exergue, exist, hogshead, fagged, bagged, gagged, pegged, begged, 

* These words, perhaps most frequently among the educated, retain the 
Spanish sound goo^ rather than take the £nglish form gw. The distinction 
manifests the d^ereace between the Articulation W and the Vovyel oo, which 
many persons seem to have great difficulty in discriminating. 



wigged cogged flogged, hogged, leagaed, prorogafid, 
magnet, impregnate, regnant, interregnnm, agnate* ignotaneey 
igneous, ignominj, signet, signal, dignity, ligniiiy bgnnm^TitaB, 
cognisant, cognate, pngnacioos, agne, fignre, integnment* ambi- 
goons, ligore, singular, angular, regulate, aigolet, jogolsr, a^fet, 
straggler, dangling, wrangler, ganglion, giggler, singlj, ti ngling , 
jingling, o0t, gorgling, bonder, eaglet, egress, ogress, intq^ntj, 
migrate, ragrant, nigrin, negro, geography, angrj, huogiy, men- 
greL gangrene, jigj^- unguent, sanguine, languid, languor. 

Final — Teague, intrigue, league, fig, whig, wig, big, pig, dig, 
&g* "gr jig. plague, Tagoe, egg. peg, keg, kg, flag, stag, shag, 
tag, hag, wag, nag, gag, lag. rag, jag, phig, dog, tog, hog, bog; 
mog, dug, snug, lug, rug. jug, frog, cog, tog, hog, dog, agog, log, 
jog, epilogue, apologue, prologue, disemhogoe, Togoe, rogue, pro- 
rogoe, fugue, exergue. 

ThB is the mod form of the preee£ag demeot : the organic ibnnatiaB bj 
the tongue sod pdbte is preasdj that of G ; bat the re^icai or aoft palate is 
removed from the naies. snd the pharrnx bemg thns icndered inrapdhle of le- 
tjuning the hmth, the sonoroiK cnnent pAsses fireeh- out of the noatiiiB. 

Ng is never used as an imitial aiticnlatioa in Engfish ; baft it does oeeor as 
sodi in some languages : — For instance, in Wddi and in Son. Ai»nwg 
individaal caeopkomic pecohaiities, mg is soowtiraes heard instead of L This ii 
genendlv accompanied bv bmrrimg. The tongue, cither from bad liabii, or 
from inability to kave the lower jaw, lies in the bed of the mooth, and ftnns 
the Hngno-palatal artknilations bv the wuddU of the tongiw stiikii^ 
against the roof of the month. This makes the positioii fiir / neartr, or alto- 
gether oftslnti^i'tv, and the effort to give cootinooos voice to the letter, of 
coarse eaids the vocal stream through the nose. We have heard tfos glaring 
error even in the polpit. 

Softtt^ and sweet, in i^iqaid ii^vs. 
The heavenji<^ haji^eaynjahs raise ! 

In most cases, this^ Hke nine tmths of aD varieties of defective artienlation, 
is perlK'Uv curable : and e>-en where there is a stmctoral mattoniiatkiii. Art 
can do much to lessen and cover the pecnfiarxtr. 

It i» a |^^ucra) principle of articulation, that the organs employed in forming 
aivy cWuicut «Ai>N/i/ 6<r SftpankUd ta ordier to coanpUte iL We have 
at |mis« 47, Uic reason that in thus fe*i»»Kmg ji^^ ^bcre h a tcodoie 
than iu \\w ^him^ of the other nasal sounds* to give a degree nf fifmamiMMi and. 


conseqaent ezplosiveness to the breath-producing the double articulation ng g^ 
or ng k. Many persons find it difficult to finish ng by separation of the organs 
without producing some effect of G or E, and they consequently form the 
articulation imperfectly by simply stopping the sound in the glottis. When, 
however, the ng final is followed by a word beginning with a vowel, the 
organs must come apart ; and with the vowel — out comes the G, 

The best way to get out of this habit is to practise ng as an initial before 
all the vowels. This will have the efiect of at once manifesting the existence 
and the nature of the defect, and the power to give the soft terminational action 
will very soon be acquired. 

nga, nge, ngi, ngo, ngoo, 
ngang, ngeng, nging, ngong, ngung. 

Exception has been taken by some critics to the English mode oi writing i^oE 
element by ng^ because its sound contains neither an n nor a g. That the Al- 
phabet does not supply a single character to represent this sound, which is un- 
questionably simple, is undoubtedly a fault ; but until we have a distinctive 
character, we could not wish a better digraph than ng — ^which, very appro- 
riately, we think> symbolizes a na^al G, 

N before g or k, (unless when the ^ or A: is in the accented syllable^ as in un- 
godly, unkind, &c.) generally takes the sound of ng ; for the same reason that 
n before p, &, or 77?, is converted into m — namely, the greater fluency of the 
combmatiou. Thus the digraph ng oflen has correctly the sound of ng-g as in 
finger, longer, S^c. The omission of the g in these words is a Scotticism. 


Between vowels. — Hanger, hanging, banging, singer, bringing, 
wringing, gingham, ringer, longing, wronging, bunging, dunging, 
swinging, o'erhanging, singing. 

Before a breath articulation, — Length, strength, strengthen, 
lengthen, lengthwise, anchor, frank, thank, sank, shank, crank, 
tank, handkerchief, banker, vanquish, dank, lank, rank, — ink, 
pink, think, sink, kink, tinkle, minx, wink, zinc, drink, link, 
wrinkle, chink, conch, concord, donkey, trunk, sunk, monkey, 
quidnunc, junket, anxious, unction, compunction, youngker, 
youngster, banquet. 

Before a voice articulation. — Hangman, pangs, fangs, kingly, 
wrongly, tongueless, youngling, youngly, anger, angry, angle, 
spangle, sanguine, tangle, mangle, dangle, ganglion, gangrenous, 
lauguish, anguish, wrangle, — pinguid, finger, single, shingle, 
tingle, mingle, dingle, dangle, linger, jingle, longer, fungus, 
hunger, bungle, younger, youngest. 

Final. — Pang, fang, flang, sang, stang, slang, clang, hang^ 


bang, fling, thing, sing, sting, spring, string, sling, king, cUng, 
ting, bring, wing, ding, ling, wring, prong, thong, song, gong, long, 
wrong, flung, sung, sprung, slung, clung, tongue, hung, bung, 
among, dung, young, lung« wrung. 


The passages that follow contain instances, — 1st, of Double 
Articulations ; 2nd, of Difficult Articulate Combinations ; 
3rd, of ALLrrERATioNs and Difficult Sequences ; and, 4th, of 
Miscellaneous Difficulties, 

The eye is directed by italics to the leading points for practice 
in the different sentences. 

Double Articulations, 
Hear both elements distinctly, with as little hiatus as pos- 

A figure reg&l like, with solemn wiarch. 

Goes slow and stately by ; whilst thej, distill*d 

Almost to jelly with the act o//ear, 

Stan<2 c^umb, and speaAr not to him. 
Oh ! studiec? dieceit I 

Fear is a good watchman, but a bac? (defender. 
Hypocrites first cAeat the world, and at last, too, themselyes. 
One vice is more expensii^e than five virtues. 
Spenc? time in good (duties, andf treasure in good deeds. 
Time i* 50 swift of foot th&t none can overtake it. 
Trust not too far, anc^ mistrust not too fast. 
TJse soft words, but hard arguments. 
A little leaven leavenetA the whole lump, 
'^ MAke clean our hearts within us." 

In bulk as huge as whom the fables name of monstrous (size. 

Can the Ethiopian change his sldn, or the leopard his spots ? 
Vaunt-couriers of oa^cleaving thunderbolts. 
" His palsied hands seemed to waa? strong." 
In horrid climes where Ghilo6*s tempests sweep. 
Our soul hskiheth this light 6read. 
Was it a wailing bird of the gloom, 
WhicA sArieks on the house of woe all night ? 


Whose beard> descending swept his aged breast, 

^^ And on the bridge of his well-arched nose 

Sit Laughter plumed, and white-winged JoHitj" 

Learn to live as you'd desire to die. 

Idleness is an evil, — doing nought is next to doing naughtily. 

Difficult Combinations, 
Give each of the clustered elements its full separate audibility, 
without hiatus. 

" Yet the lark's shrill %fe rway come." 

*' And the floors sAall be full 0/ t^Aeat, and the fats s^all over- 
flow with wine and oil," 

^' Behold, I will do a thing in Israel, at which both the ears of 
every one that heareth it shall tingle." 

" What tho ugh eacA spark of earth-bom rapture fly ! " 

'^ In septennial parliaments, your representatives have fHx ^ears 
for offence, and hut one for atonement." 

Can the husbandman look forward with assured confidence to 
the expected increase of his fields ? 

" Now on the leafless yew it plays." 
" Long has it hung from the cold yew's spray." 
" Oft by tha< yew on the blasted field." 

Examples prevail when precej!>fs foAi 

Frequent ^ood company. 

Put ih/Q cut pMraphn in a pipibin. 

A pair of (Irish yews. 

(Irish shoes. 

'^ Then pealed the notes omnipotent to charm, 

And the loud tocsin tolled their last alarm." 

Nor yet in the cold) ground. 


My little ones kissed me a thousand times o'er. 

In praising sparing be, and &lame most sparingly. 

Malice seldom t£;ants a marA; to aim at. 

We must not &lame/ortune for our faults. 

We must hoh to time past to improi^e whskt is to come. 

Alliterations and Difficult Sequences, 
The reiteration of these sentences, as rapidly as may be done 
with distinctness, will render them most improving Exercises. 

Poor men want much, but wealthy men want more. 


Rags and liberty rather than links and riches. 

Let reason rule jour life. 

A versifier wants a very wonderful variety of words. 

Hope, open thou his eye to look on high, and his ear to hear. 

Teach thy heart the holy art of dumbly hearing truth. 

Robert loudly rebuked Richard, who ran lustily roaring around 
the lobby. 

Ruglen*s lums reek 6riskly. 

Rob Low's lum reeks. 

Twice 2, and twice 2, with two times twice 2, 2, and twice 2, 
are twenty-two. 

Thrice three, and three times 3, with three-fold threes, and 3, 
and 3, are thirty-three. 

Four times 4, and 4, with 4, and 4, and four times 4, are 

Five fives, and four fives, with five, and five, are fifty-five. 

Six times 6, and six times 6, minus 6, are sixty-six. 

Seven times 7, and thrice 7, with 7 more, are seventy-seven. 

Eight times 8, and one 8, with 8 and 8, are eighty-eight. 

Nine times 9, with 9, and 9, and no more nines, are ninety-nine. 

Geese cackle, cattle low, cats and kittens caterwaul, cocks 
crow, and crows caw. 

Sam snufPs shop snuff,— do you snuff shop snuff ? 

Fill the sieve with thistles, and sift the thistles in the sieve. 

I like white wine vinegar with veal very well. 

A man's manners, more than his merit, make or mar his for- 

Drinking may drown care, hut cannot cure it. 

Death is a direfiil debt we all are doomed to discharge. 

The fool and the philosopher, princes, potentates, and panpers 
— all must pa,&s the portals of the grave. 

Learn what you like to learn, delight in learning what you 
learn, and learn to like what is laudable. 

Find a friend in adversity. 

Godliness with contentment is great ^ain. 

Human life has to hazard the heart-aches of hot-headed 

Have hope in holiness. 

He dumbly honours the hoary head. 

Hope is the highway to happiness. 


He that swims in sin, must «oon sink in sorrow. 

Kings, as well as mean wien, must die, — the conqueror cannot 
carry his kingdom or his crown to the catacombs. 

Money ma^es many men mad. 

Diligence derides difficulties, and defies detriments. 

Passion, partiality, and prejudice, are popularly plenipotent. 

Sin and sorrow are inseparable. 

Time and tide tarry not for the tardy. 

Value virtue more than fame or fortune. 

Virtue finds favour with all, though few fully follow it. 

Yield not, you young, to useless yearnings, nor yet ye in years. 

How high her highness holds her haughty head. 

The witwal wings her weary way, where winter winds wither 
the waving woods. 

A merchant's mismanagement makes much mischief to the mer- 
cantile machine. 

Vice vainly veers in variegated velvet, — virtue veils her votaries 
in vulgar velveteen. 

False friends are far more formidable than fiercest foes. 

They thought that throughout the theological theme they were 
thwarted in their theory. 

Several sailors saw the sottish soldier stagger senselessly to his 
solitary cell. 

Great ^ains are got hy gradual gatherings. 

Many match-makers mistake the meaning of matrimony, 
mating much money with mirth or moodiness, and marrying all 
manner of minds. 

As tippling, too often, in time turns to toping, temperance, we 
are told, is not to be trusted, but the tighter tie of tee-totalism 
takes away all tendency to intoxication. 

Sunshine scatters life and loveliness around. The flowers feel 
its fertilizing fervour, and spread their sweet-scented petals to 
the beauty-bestowing pencil of their empyrean parent. All 
creation's kinds, from the crawling insect to the creature king, — 
man, monarch hj the might of mind,-— share in the sweet sensa- 
tions which the sun inspires. Sorrow is assuaged, and smiles 
supplant the streaming tears of the sunken spirit, and renovate 
the rosy ruddiness of the cheerless cheek, and the bright &rilliancy 
of the beamless eyes, while the heart heaves high with hope, and 
the whole soul is harmonized into happiness. 


Rough rolls the riyer^s rapid course through rugged rowi of 

Ba,d company makes the good &ecome bad, and the bad, at 5est, 
it Setters not. ^ 

Wickedness, as well as virtue, wins upon us bj- degrees. 

Captain Cunningham cut and come again. 

Let the soup he heated before I eat it. 

Peter Piper's peacock picked a peck of pickling pepper from a 
paper packet. Did Peter Piper's peacock pick a peck of pickling 
pepper from a paper packet ? If Peter Piper's peacock picked a 
peck of pickling pepper from a paper packet, where 's the paper 
packet whence the pretty speckled peacock picked ? 


Many of the following passages require very minute distinctive- 
ness of utterance. Attend to the italicised points. 

Be wise betimes, and warily beware. 

To be loved is less than to be beloved. 

If you be comely, behave becomingly ; if you be not, be becom- 
ing in behaviour, and you will become comely. 

Art thou afeard to be the same in thine own 1 act and valour, 
as thou art in desire ? thy known | 

Oh ! the torment of (an ever-iyieddling memory. 

(a never 

He was left in an inanimate state. 

Every concession should be made in disputable or indifferent 


" Yet half I see the panting (spirit sigh." 

< spirit's eye. 

" A warm tear gushed, — th5 wintry air 

Congealed it as it flowed away ; 

All night it lay fan ice-drop there, 

(a nice 

At mom it glittered in the ray." 

The dispute about the jewel led to a fatal dtiel. 

" A grammatist did you call that ignorant wiseling ?" " No ! 
an agrammatist I said." " What, anagrammatist ? — Why he 
could not spell the word, far less write an anagram." " You do 
not understand me, — I did not mean an anagrammatist, but 
simply an agranunatist." 


A midshipman amid shipmen. 

The alhpotent eight have over- reached the potentate. 

Anatomy could not dissect an atomy so small. 

You must abbreviate your abbreviature. 

Choose a better companion than the abettor of a bettor. 

Absurd it is to listen to such absurdities. 

Although a Count he must be brought to account for this. 

" The moon is not a crescent now, — she is gibbous." " Well, 
she is still accrescent.'' 

Look through the aisle and jou will see the island. 

Mjfriend is not a lawyer, (10-Y)— heis a?%«r(10-l)in themint. 
Already we have got all ready. 

Always try all ways to succeed, 

I see no analogy here, I should rather call it an alogy. 

A part has been laid apart. 
Apperception means simply a perception. 
The would-be-wise apposer has at last got a poser himself. 
I beg to apprize jou of the capture of a prize. 
This land greatly needs aration, and that would yield a ration 
to the starving labourers. 

I would not give a cent to see the ascent. 
I do asseverate that this is the best hay ass ever ate. 
He has gone away a way of his own. 

Dr Rush calls every vowel a fonic,— and the voiceless articu- 
lations he calls atonic. 

To what cause can I attribute a tribute so flattering ? 
Aucupation is a cruel occupation. 
The doctrines of the Aularian are said to be all Arian. 
Of what avail is a veil so thin ? 
I could get bail if the bailiff would permit me. 
You should not be droll when the beadroll is read. 
Sancho wears a plate on his breast for a breast-plate, — he calls 
it a cuirass, — ^is not Sancho a queer ass ? 

The Muses may be nine in number, — ^but benign to my numbers 
they are not. 

This bodice is large enough for two bodies. 
I saw the maniac threateningly brandish a large bran-dish. 
The armed brig aids by sea the brigades on shore. 
" Persevere /" was the order given to the chicken-hearted 

c c 


Captain P. — He read it " Percy ^ veer !" aud turned off from his 
dangerous post. 

Kate if I knew who the caitiff was, I would horsewhip him. 

A caravan sir is the travelling troop, — their resting places or 
inns are caravansaries, 

" Give the cat stale bread." " The cafs tail, mamma?" 
" SUence child." 

" How do you sell the white sheep ?" " White sheep ? — why, 

Each clansman bore a great sheaf as a harvest tribute to the 
gray chief 

" He is far from well. His wound is cicatrizing, but he, poor 
fellow, is always so himself." " Always, how ?" " Why, sick at 
rising /" 

Will you assist us to plant a cistus ? 

I never saw coctile food given to a cock till now. 

Whether he credit or no what I say, I shall let his creditor 
. know, 

A constant smirk upon the face, and a whiffling activitj of the 
body, are strong indications o//utility. 
A sad angler A sad dangler 

The same arrow The same marrow 

To obtain either To obtain neither 

Goodness enters in the heart Goodness centres in the heart 
His cry moved me His crime moved me 

He will pray to anybody He wiU prate to anybody 

The row proved long The rope proved long 

He could pay nobody He could pain nobody 

A languid aim A languid dame 

Luxurious oil Luxurious soil 

Chase tars. Chaste stars. 



In learning to write a language, it would be but natural to begin 
with a knowledge of its letters : in learning to speak one, it would 
be as natural, surelj, that we should first acquire a knowledge of 
its sounds. But this is not the custom among us. Our Abece- 
darians begin by teaching us " our letters ;" tiiat is, not their 
powers — ^the sounds for which they stand — ^though even this 
would be a weary and profitless labour — ^but their names ; the 
words by which the letters, as written symbols, are spoken of ; 
and which often bear but little or no relation to their actual 
sounds. The work of mastering the elements of reading is 
thus rendered difficult beyond conception ; and instead of every 
advancing stage being a valuable synthetical lesson, involving 
the mental processes of reflection and association, it becomes a 
mere trick of habit and memory, a work of mindless drudgery. 
As some slight assistance to the youthful student, he is perhaps 
taught the powers of the letters, but here again all is confusion 
and complexity ; for he has the same sounds to learn over and 
over again, in connexion with their various and irregular marks : 
he has to recognise, for instance, the fve alphabetic vowel cha- 
racters, as representative of not less than 30 sounds ; so that he 
can gam no clear knowledge of the simplicity of the actual 
elements of speech. And — strangely enough — at no future period 
of his scholastic course does such knowledge form any part of his 

Yet this, we maintain, should be the first thing taught. The 
reason, perhaps, why it is not so, — or, at least, why it is altogether 
neglected, — ^is, that teachers themselves are generally ignorant of 
this department of elementary knowledge. Their own education 
not only gave them none of this important knowledge, but, in a 
great measure, unfitted them for becoming observers, and ac- 
quiring it for themselves. 


The following examples famish some curious illustratious of 
the orderless condition of English orthography. The test of a 
correct representation of sounds would be, that Idl letters, in 
whatever arrangement, and however transposed, should retain 
their fixed individual sounds : as in the case of the word end ; 
the letters of which may be transposed to ned or detiy while each 
retains its own unaltered power. 

As a man's character is best known by the company he keeps, 
so the alphabetic characters are only to be sounded with certainty 
when we know the literal society in which they are found. 

Thus ; transpose the vowels in chcise, and, not unnaturally, the 
chase results in aches. The largest moat may be literally proved 
to be but an atom, — By mere disjunction of letters that which 
was nowhere is now here. — Wo to him who shall take a t from two, 
even as to him who shall dare to separate man from woman, — 
Though you remove the t from there, yet here it remains. — Put c 
before hanged — and lo ! how it is changed ! — Of all the letters in 
the alphabet e is of most rise to us; — though b and y certainly 
make us busy, — You cannot join / to o/, but it will instantly be 
off, — 8 may well be called a " sharp'' letter, when it can convert a 
word into a 5i(7ord-*-Though you take the first and last letters 
from know yet it is now, no, — " Dust we are," and even the heart 
resolves itself into earth, — We can take c from cease with ease ; 
but w cannot be removed from wart without art ; and he who 
would take v from vague will have an ague, — Take g from gown 
— it loses nothing of its own ; add g to one, and, lo ! it is gone, — 
Prefix to t£7e it becomes ewe ; unite thy and me they produce 
thyme. Add one / to our— the product is /our.— Take off the w 
from won — it remains on ; put it before hat — it is what ? try it 
before here — it is lohere J Transpose the letters in node and bring 
s to aid : — no sooner said than done. — The three letters in own 
may be arranged into won; repeat the transposition, and own 
them now, not won, B makes a salver out of salve, transforms a 
cow into a crow, and lengthens eve into ever, E changes the pro- 
noun ye into an eye, and the preposition to into a toe, and makes on 
also become one, C charms away all harms, and its absence will 
hough a chough. Give a 2? to an owl — it will become a botcl ; 
keep it from Tom, or it will send him to the tomb. Take s from 
shoes they become hoes ; if you ask how, s will promptly s?u)w it. 
By taking t, he who forges, immediately forgets. Y converts a 


colon into a colony, and makes what is ours become yours. The 
change of p into / puts |?mm in z,fuss. Write an /and you will 
have fever for ever ! 

These examples might be increased to any extent, but they are 
sufficient to show how little of rule there can be, founded on 
letters, to guide the foreigner or the youthful learner to the correct 
utterance of our written words. In further illustration of the 
incongruities of our letters, and the inconsistent way in which they 
represent our sounds, we have compiled the following Tables, 
which show, in separate'arrangements, the sounds of our vowel and 
articulation marks, and the marks of our vowel and articulate 


The figures refer to the English Vowel Scheme^ page 81. Y and W 

among the figures are Articulations, 

A has the sounA, of 2> 3> 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, as in 

2 S 4 5 6 7 10 

orange, ale, ( ^<^i ^^) P^^^) ^^i™' 5 ^"^ 

\ &iy, ( swftn. 

E " 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, Yew w 

12 4 7 8 

eve, England, < ere, clerk, err, righteous, (yus.) 
\ 8ver, 

1 2 7-18 

I " 1, 2, 7-1, 8, Y, as in pique, ill, isle, bird, million, (yun.) 
" 2, 7-13, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, CM w 

2 7-lS 9 10 11 12 IS 

women, accompt, f word, f orb, ore, ode, / dO, 

1 85n, \ 5n \ w51f. 

% i. 9 18 YIS W 

U " 2, 4, 9, 13, Y13, W, as in busy, bury, f bQm, C rule, use, persuade. 

Ibiid, \ bail, 

2 7-18 Y 

Y " 2, 7-1, 8, Y, as in hymn, by, myrrh, ye. 

4 S 

AA *^ 4, 5, as in Aaron, Isaac. 

^ " ly as in Caesar. 

1 3-1 8.4 4 4 

AE '^ 1, 3-1, 3-4, 4, as in aerie, ae'rial, Israel, aer, MichaSlmas. 

2 3 3-2 4 S 71 

AI " 2, 3, 3-2, 4, 5, 7-1, as in captain, ail, dais, f air, plaid, aisle. 

f air, I 
I e&id. 

AO " 3, 3-10, 3-12, 10, 12, as in 

3 3 10 S-IO 3-12 10 12 

gaol, chaos — aorta, Aonian, extraordinary, Pharaoh. 

3 7 10 12 

AU " 3, 7, 10, 12, as in gauge, aunt, f aught, hauteiur. 

i Ifturel, 


10 tfw 
AW kact the Hound of 10, 6W, <w in awlii], away. 

2 3 4 71 

AY " 2, 3, 4, 7-1, OA in Monday, lay, f prayer, ay. 

( fcXys, 

AOU " 13 or 7-13, <u in cooatchouc. 

AWE " 10, as in awe. 

S $-2 3 4 

AYE " 3, 3-2, 3-4, cw /« aye, gayety, gayest. 
EA " 1, 1-3, 1-5, 1-6, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, a^r in 

1 1-3 l-S l-tf S 3 4 7 8 

each, create, react, area, guineas, great, /wear, beart, earl. 


1 1-4 2 

£E ** 1, 1-4, 2, <M in bee, re-enter, breeches. 

1 4 

E'E " 1, 4, 09 in e'en, ne'er. 

I 1-2 2 3 4 71 

EI " 1, 1-2, 2, 3, 4, 7-1, as in ceil, reimburse, forteit, veil, f^^ur, height. 


EO " 1, 1-10, 1-12, 4, 9, 10, Y13, as in 

1 MO 1.12 4 9 10 Y 13 

people, theology, Creole, leopard, dungeon, George, feed, (fyood.) 

r-4 labio- 9 or 

S IiDfriwI= 4L-1 IS Y 13 

EU " 9, or (cu French, 13, Y13, as in amateur, riieum, feud. 

12 13 Tis 
EW " 12, 13, Y13, as in shew, grew, dew. 

1 2 3 4 7-1 

EY " 1, 2, 3, 4, 7-1, as in key, monkey, prey, eyre, eying. 

12 Y13 

EAU " 12, Y13, as in beau, beauty. 
EOI " 10-1, a* in burgeois. 

12 IS YlS 

EWE " 11, 12, 13, Y13, as in sewer, u or I f shore, sewed, brewed, ewe. 

13 j ~ t •~'' 

1 3 7-1 

EYE " 1, 3, 7-1, as in keyed, surveyed, eyed. 

2 1-8 1-5 7-1-3 

I A " 2, 1-3, 1-5, 7-1-3, 7-1-5, as in parliament, mediate, trivial, hiatus, 


IE " 1, 1-1, 1-4, 1-8, 2, 4, 7-1, 7-1-4, as in 

I 11 1-4 1.8 2 4 7-1 7-1-4 

field, series, veriest, earlier, sieve, friend, die, science. 
10 " 9, 1-10, 1-12, 7-1-10, 7-1-12, as in 

9 110 1-12 7-MO 7112 

motion, mediocrity, mediocre, lon-ic, vio-Ience. 
OA " 9, 10, 11, 12, 12-5, 12-6, 12-7, as in 

9 10 11 12 125 12-6 12-7 

cupboard, f broad, oar, boat, coagulate, oasis, coarct. 

10 1 12 12.1 12 2 13 

OE " 10-1 , 12, 1 2-1, 12-2, 13, as in oboe, doe, coeval poet, shoe. 


01 have the sound of 3, 9, 10-1, 12-2, 13-2, W7-1, WIO, as in 

3 9 10-1 122 13-2 7-1 WlO 

oonnoisseur, avoirdnpoise, coin, stoic, doing, choir, memoir. 
00 " 9, 11, 12, 12-10, 12-12, 13, as in 

9 11 12 12-10 12-12 13 i 

blood, door, brooch, zoo-logy, zo-o-logical, f bloom. 


OU " 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, as in 

9 10 n 12 13 

{journal, C bought, four, soul, i thrdugh. 
jotlng, \ c5ugh, \ w5uld. 

713 9 10 12 

OW " 7-13, 9, 10, 12, as in now, bellows, knowledge, know. 


OY " 10-1, as in boy. 

UA " W3, 6, W5, 7, W7, WIO, a« m 

W3 5 W5 7 W7 WIO 

persuade, piquant, quack, guard, guano, f squall. 

(Sm Note, page 193.) \ squ^t. 

UE " W1,4,W4, 8, W8, 13, 13-4,Y13,Y-18-4, fl«m 

1 4 W4 8 W8 13 13-4 Y13 Yi8-4 

queiy, guess, quell, guerdon, cuerpo, rue, cruel cue, duel. 
UI " 1, Wl, 2, W2, 7-1, W7-1, W8, 13, 13-2, Y13, Y13-2, as in 

1 Wl 2 W2 7-1 W7.1 W8 13 13.2 Yl3 

mosquito, suite, build, quill, guide, quire, squirt, fruit, fruition^ suit. 

yi8.2 i. 

UO " 10, WIO, Wll, W12, Y13-12, a5 in 

10 WlO Wll W12 Y13-12 

liquor, quondam, quorum, quote, duo. 

2 W2 7-1 

UY " 2,W2, 7-1, as in plaguy, colloquy, buy. 

WE " 8, as in answer. 

9 II 13 

WO " 9, 11, 13, as in twopence, sword, two. 

7-1 71-1 7.18 

YE " 7-1, 7-1-1, 7-1-8, as in dye, hyena, dyer. 
L^ "1-1 or Yl, as in minutisB. 

4V Y13 

lEU " 4V, Y13, as in lieutenant (=levtenant) adieu. . 

lEW " Y13, as in view. 

lEWE " Y13, 05 in viewed. 

lOU " 9, as in cautious. 

OEU " 13, as in manoeuvre. 

OOE " 13, as in wooed. 

7-13-4 12 12-4 

OWE " 7-13-4, 12, 12-4, as in vowel, owed, lowest. 

OWA " 11, as in towards. 

UAY " 1, as in quay. 

UAYE " 1, OS in quayed. 

UEA " Wl, as ?w squeak. 


£U£ *' Wl : (u tR queen. 

L'EU ** 9 (or 4 Z^^ «ir Freikdir) : «« ut fiqoeur. 

UEUE *" iri3 : «s ui qnene. 

UOI ^* ly WlO-l : «s ta tnrqiioifip, quoit. 
COY "" WlO-l ; «s fs booy. 
UOYE *• WlO-1 : af UI Unayed. 

Silent Vimd Marks. 

E t# n(ffi/ in hidden, fiuteo, BoAeD, &c., and genenUj when final. 

I '' o-fl, derfl, &c 

** rei0OD, pffison, &e. 

AI *^ Britim. 

UA ** victuals. 

UE ^ pbgne, barque, barasgne, &c. 



1 is represented ^ e, i, «, ae, ee, ee, ea, d, eo, ey, eye, ie^ ooi ; as iic 

ere, fiitigiie, murntue, aerie, bee, e'en, eat, eonoeive, people, key, keyed, 
field, tnrqiKnse. 

2 '* a, e. If 0} 119 y, ai, ay, ea, ee, ei, ev, ia, ie, m, uy ; as in, 

cabbage, pretty, fll, women, busy, hymn, moontain, Mooday, guineas, 
breeches, foifeit, monkey, pariiament, sieve, build, plagi^. 

3 ** a, ai, ao, an, ay, aye, ea, ei, ey, eye, oi ; as ui 

age, aim, gaol, gauge, pay, aye, steak, vem, obey, prey^, oonncMaseur. 

4 " a, e, u, aa, ae, ai, ay, ea, e^e, ei, eo, ey, ie, ue; at ui 

{fare, f ere, b&y, Aaron, f aer, f Sir j prmyer, 

mKny, | Sver, | MidiaSlmas, \ sSiid, \ g&ys, 

{wear, ne'er, / heir, leopard, eyre, fiiSod, gnSss. 
health, \ hSifer, 

5 " a, aa, ai ; OS in amber, Canaan, raillery. 

6 " a ; OS in ask. 

7 ** a, e, an, ea, na ; as in ardour, clerk, haunt, hearty, guardian. 

8 »' e(r), i(r), y(r), ea(r), ue(r), we(r) ; as in 

her, firmness, hyrst, earnest, guerdon, answer. 

9 " 0, u, eo, 10, oa, 01, 00, ou, ow, wo, ion, olo ; as in 

{world f furnace, dunge5n, motion, cupboard, avSIrdnpoise, blo5d, 
d8ne, I tigly, 

{j8amey, bell8ws; twSpence, cautifios, colonel. 

10 " a, 0, ao, an, aw, awe, eo, oa, ou, ow, as in 

{fall j order, extraordinary (taught, awful, awe, George 
w&nt (5ften |l]|ndanam 

(abrSad ftbOaght 

(grSat (hfiagh, kn5wledge. 

II " 0, ew, oa, 00, ou, wo, owa, orps, as in 

ore, sewer, oar, door, four, sword, towards, corps. 








0, ao, au, ew, eaa, ewe, oa, oe, oo, ou, ow, owe, as tn 

old, Pharaoh^ hauteur, shew^ beau^ sewed, oak, foe^ broocby soul, 

crow, crowed. 

0, u, eu, ew, ewe, oe, oeu, oo, ooe, ou, ue, ui, wo, as in 

jdo /lule, rheumatism, grew, brewed, shoi, manoeuvre, 
twolf XiM 

j bloom, wooed f throu;rh, rue, fruit two. 
iL5ak \ woilld. 


7-1 is represented by i, y, ju, ay, ei, ey, eye, ie, ui, uy, ye ; as in 
isle, by, niuvete, ay, height, eying, eye, lie, guide> buy, dye. 
7-13 " 0, ou, ow ; as in accomptant, thou, bow. 
10-1 '' oe, 01, oy, eoi j as in oboe, coin, boy, burgeois. 


B is sounded as in babe. 

H k tsh Csh 

cell, cake, vermicelli, special, 
sacrifice, (verb). 

t dsh 

deed, stopped, soldier. 


feoff, of. 

dsh Bh 

gig, gem, rouge, 
he, hky, high, hoe, hue, &c. 
(the vowel /orma^wwj modify- 
ing unvocsdized breath,) and 


dsh 7 sh 










jay, hallelujah, jambeaux. 







lull, colonel. 




ng m 



noon, an-ger, Banff. 










B sh zh 



this, as, sugar, lesion. 

sh Bh 



tight, action, transition. 






wag, (this letter is also a 
vowel mark. 

ks gB 8 



expect, exist, xystus. 



y^, (this letter is also a 
vowel mark.) 



sounded as in zeal, azure. 



b bb 
dubbist, dub-book. - 

d bd 

bdellium, obdurate. 



t bt 
debt, subtend. 

k ks 

tobacco, accede. 



tsh k sh 

chapter, character, chaise, 



m km 

drachm, drachma. 

sh ks 

fuchsia, stomachs. 











b k b 

Gockbum, cock-boat. 








t ksh kt 
indict, diction, active. 





d dd 
haddock, head-dress. 



dsh dg 

judgment, Edgar. 




n dn 

dn sounded as in Wednesday^ madness. 

I dt 

Windsor^ winds. 

f f f 

raffle, half-fee. 

f ft 

soften, softer. 

p k g ' 

hiocoogby hoagb> ghostylaugh. 























































seraglio, ugly. 
phlegm> phlegmatic. 

n gn 

gnomon^ signet. 





d 1 Id 

wonld^ guUdfordj buQder. 

half, self. 


walk, elk. 

1 u 

falling, soulless. 

m Im 

psakn, ehn. 

1 In 

kiln, ftdness. 


m mb 

dumb> rhumb, 


m n mn 

hymn, mnemonics, amnesty. 

m n mp 

CampbeU, compter, lahip. 

ne nd 

handkerchief^ hand. 

ngg n-g ndsh 

sing, single, ingraft^ fringes. 

n nn 

minnow, meanness. 

b pb 

cupboard, cupbearer. 

V f p 

nephew, philter, diphthong, 



t ^ th 

phthisical, apophthegm, 

n ^ pn 

pneumatics, cheapness. 

p PP 

supple, soap-pan. 

pph sounded as in sapphire, 
ps *^ psahn, perhaps. 

•h pnh 

psh " pshaw, upshot. 
t pt 

pt '* receipt apt. 

kw k 
qu ** qaake> quay. 

r rh 

rh " rhetoric> perhaps. 

r r r 

rr " error, poor-rates. 


rrh ^* catanh. 

n nh n 

rs " person, Persian, bars. 

r rt 

rt '' mortgage^ heart 

k ■ s 

sc *' yisoount, science, discern, 

■h ak 

conscience, sceptic. 

■ ah stab 

8ch ** schism, sdiedole, mischief, 

■b .1 sh 

ah '^ shi^ dishononr, mishap. 

1 al 
si " isle, asleep. 

n an 

an " puisne, (p'*--puny,) snare. 

a aa ■ ah 

ss ^' loss, missent* sdssors, mission, 

a at 

St " castlej history. 

str '^ mistress, (colloq.misas) stress. 


8v " Grosvenor. 

a aw iw 

sw " sword, sward, BosweU, 

b tb 

tb " hautboy, potboy. 

t-h t 

th " thigh, thy, pothouse, thyme, 



1 ti 

tl *' bristly, ghastly. 

t 1 1 

tt " hatter, boot-tree. 


tth " Matthew. 

t tw 
tw " two, twain. 

tzs ^' britzska. 
wh " what, who. 


wl sounded as in knowledge. 

wr " write. 

S 8 

ws " bellows, bellows (verb). 

zv sounded as in rendezvous. 

8 t8 

zz ^^ buzzing, mezzotint. 


Or various ways of representing nothing. 

B is silent in bdellium, dumb, debt. 

science. Czar, muscle, black, acquiesce, indict, schedule. 

Wednesday, handkerchief. 


bagnio, seragUo, phlegm. 

heir, thjme, rheum, khan, John, ghastly, diphthong, character. 

know, wreck. 

alms, salmon, would, half. 


hymn, kiln. 

cupboard, ptarmigan, pneumatics, psalm, bumpkin, assumption, 

demesne, isle, viscount, chamois, 
fasten, soften^ trait, mortgage, hautboy, Mattliew. 
whole, who, sword, two, write, knowledge ; and when final, 
when final after a vowel, 

Double Letters are generally sounded as one ; as in cannon^ better^ mis- 
siUi pepper^ hammer^ beckon^ acquire, Sfc, One, therefore, is silent. 

Ch is silent in drachm, yacht, bacchanal, schism. 










































phthifflcal, apophthegm. 






mistress (coUoquial). 





The figures refer to the Scheme of English Articulations (page 54.) . 


1 is represented (^ c, k, q, cc, ch, ck, gh, ke, kh, equ^ qnc) och, qu, cq, Ik ; 

as in can, kill, quit, account, diaiacter, ned^, hougfa^ lake, khan, 
lacquer, pique, Bacchic, quay, acquire, walk. 

2 " g, ggi g^i gtte> ckg ; <w in leg, egg, ghost, plague, blackguard. 

3 " n, nd, ng, ngue ; as in ink) handkerchief, song, tongua. 

4 " \\\ asin hue. 

^ " e i i 11 v • fli? iw .^^^^» 5^®*"' lial^elujah, use, you. 
e, 1, J, u, y , as in ^^^^^ |railUon 




6 is represented by c, s, t, cli, chs, sc, sh, ss, sch, psh ; as in ocean, tension, 

nation, chaise, fuclisia, oonscienoe, shape, omisaon, schedale, pehaw. 

7 '* gf ge, 8, 8s, t, z/} ; as in giraffe, rouge, leisore, abscission, transition, 

azure, jambeanx. 

8 " rt\ as in — " honib)e» most horrible I'* 

9 " r, rh, rr, rh ; as in race, rhubarb, mirror, mjrrhine. 

10 *' 1, le, 11, h), si, sle, tie, gl ; as in late, tale, all, kiln, island, isle. 

thistle, seraglio. 

11 " t, te, th, tt, bt, ct, cht, pt, ght, phth, ed ; as in at, late, thyme, 

cottage, debtor, indictment, yacht, ptarmigan, siglit, phthisis, stopped. 

12 '* d, de, dd, bd, ddh. Id ; as in bad, bade, add, bdeUium, buddhism. 


13 ** n, ne, nn, dn. gn, hn, kn, mn, sn, sne, mp ; as in dnn, done, inn, 

Wednesday, sign, John, know, mnemonics, puisne, demesne, compter. 

14 " c, oe, p, sc, se, ss, ps, tzs ; as in ceD, ace, gas, scent, base, loss, 

psalm, britzska. 

15 '* ce, cz, s, se, sc, sh, ss, z, ze, zz, ds, x ; as in sacrifice, (v.) Czarina. 

as, ease, ^scem, dishonour, scissors, zeal, baize, buzz, Windsor, xystns. 

16 " h, th, tth, phth ; as in eighth, thing, Matthew, apophthegm. 

17 ** th, the ; as in this, breathe. 

18 " t fe, ff, gh, ph, pph, phe, ft. If; cwmleaf, safe, stiff, langfa, physic, 

sapphire, ouphe, soften, half. 

19 " V, re, f, ph, ZY ; as in ram, save, of, nephew, rendezroos, 

20 " wh ; as in what. 

21 " w, 0, u ; (M in way, one, quick — ^persuade. 

22 '* p, pe, pp, ph, gh, 1^ ; as in pay, tope, tippet, ophthalmia, hioooagfa, 


23 " b, be, bb, pb ; as in crab, glebe, ebb, cupboard. 

24s " m, mb, me, mm, mn, chm, gm, Im, sme ; as in aim. lamb. same. 

common, condemn, drachm, paradigm, palm, disme. 
To these we may add the common combinations ks-^z^ alphabetically repi«« 
Sented by x ; and tsh-dzh, the latter alphabetically represented by j ; the former 
being commonly denoted by ch, 

1-14 are represented by x, xc, xe, cc, chs, ks, cks, ques ; as in ox» except. 

axe, accept, stomachs, works, wrecks, barques. 
2-16 " X, gs, ggs ; <w in exalt, legs, eggs. 
11-6 '* 0, oh, tch ; 05 in vermicelli, chair, watch. 
12-7 " d, dg, dge, g, ge, gg, j, ch ; as in soldier, judgment, jadge, gem. 
range, exaggerate, jay, sandwich. 

It would really be a matter of but little difficulty to reconstruct 
our alphabet, aud furnish it with invariable marks for ovary ap- 
preciable variety of vocal and articulate sound. So few as 12 


radical letters might be made to represent all the English articu- 
lations. Thus : we have 12 forms of articulative action, most 
of which do, and all of which may, modify both voice and breath; 
so producing 24 elements of speech. Let some uniform change 
to represent breath and voice be made on each of the 12 charac- 
ters, and these 24 varieties of articulate sound may be not only 
fully represented, but with a natural analogy and consistency, 
which would explain to the eye their prganic relations. 

A further uniform change made oa those letters which have a 
nasal correspondent would complete the scheme, and, with perfect 
analogy between marks and sounds, exhibit, by 12 radical letters, 
every articulation in our language. 

Some equally simple and analogical notation might be arranged 
for the vowels, on the principle of their sequence, so that a really 
Scientific Alphabet could be easily constructed. 

A system of Phonotypes, or letters representing sounds, has re- 
cently been constructed by the Author of the Phonographic method 
of short-hand writing. In this generally excellent typography, 
several works have been published ; and from the great similarity of 
the characters to those in ordinary use, the " phonotypic*' page is 
quite readable after a mere glance at the alphabet, by those who can 
read the conunon printing. But this system of letters, though a 
great improvement on our ordinary alphabet, does not carry im- 
provement beyond supplying deficient letters, and discarding re- 
dundant ones. K ever a change in our orthography should be 
generally and authoritatively made, we should like to see it based 
on an alphabet as perfect a picture of our sounds as science and 
ingenuity could produce. We have shown a principle by means 
of which the formation of such an alphabet would be an easy 

Mr Pitman's ^phonographic scheme of marks is much more 
scientific than the alphabet of phonotypes ; but even the former 
iS) — for the purposes of accurate notation^ — &r short of what a 
more intimate knowledge of the vocal mechanisms should have 
made it. In a system of writing by sound, there must be a very 
accurate appreciation of sound, and a faultless principiation of 
language. In both these respects, this phonographic system is 
somewhat defective. 

We propose to present the reader with the elements of a new 
system of phonography, based on the analysis of speech detailed 
in the preceding pages. Our object, in the construction of this 


acbeme of wilting, has uot been to produce a riyal system for the 
sake of rivalry, but to furnish a means of fixing in the memoiy ol 
oar students the fundamental principles of speech. We use it 
mnemonically ; and we commend its study, on the same principle, 
to the reader. 

But we must, in justice, point out what we conceive td be the 
defects of Mr Pitman's Phonography, in order to show that, for 
our purpose, a new system was really necessary. This we do the 
rather that it gives opportunity for noticing some general errers 
of elementary classification, more fully than could have been ap- 
propriately done in any other section. 

The vowels are classed on a most erroneoiis theory, — i(fi) being reckoned 
the diort soand of ee(\) ; «(ll) the short sound of aQe)^ <x(n>) the shcHt soond 
of a(lm8) ; and u(p) the short sonnd of a(pe). Trae pAoTiography oannot re- 
cognise sucli longs and shorts. Quantify must have referenoe only to iderUical 
qualities of sound. But it is maintuned by the author of this system that these 
pairs of vowels, axQ" of the same quality^ differing only in iengtkJ" Tlusef 
course is a question to be decided by the ear ; and any competent ear win at 
once decide it by the experiment recommended by Mr Fitmaoy* — but with a 
veiy different result. When we read^ however, that the voweb e, a, oA, oii^ o, oo, 
with ^ the sound uh heard in the French Ui ne, &C.9*' are> ^ all the smgle voweb 
that are to be found in any language,** we may justly suspect a want of anri- 
cular aptitude on the part of the writer, as well as ignorance of the prindploi of 
vowel meohamsm.t Either such must be the case, or dse we have been dabor- 
ating a theory of shadows, — ^^ airy nothings,** and have been. groMiy abased 
by our ears into the belief that our own experiments had produced iqmaids 

* ^ There is a difficulty in convincing some persons that the vowel in 
is of the same quality as that in sick^ dmering only in kngih ; and so with all 
the long and short vowels as here placed ; but particularly is this difficnl^ tt 
with No. 5, (as m ^ cote, cttt.**) They may, however, have andible ]m)of that 
it is so, by pronouncing the words in the first column, (teeXr, pate^ peabnyUeBi^ 
cote, fool, J quickly, and they will hear the words of the second column, feick, 
petf Mam, stock-, cut,fiiU;) also if the words in the second column are spoinii 
in a 9I0W drawling tone, the words in the first c(dumn will be heard : ^Stam, 
eeek-i quickly spoken, will become side, and iSpet be uttered slowly, iiote wfil be 
produced ; and so with all the others.** — PrrMAN*s PHONOORAPnT, 8vo. 1840^ 
p. 23. Reader, if you fed that you have an ear, try this experiment I 

t In a recent, and certainly amended Edition of the work fiom which we have 
quoted in the note, we find that the theory so pertinadously laid down, has 
been given up as erroneous. The e:q>eriment seems to have been tried by 
aouter ears than those of its suggester. We read now : — 

" In all cases except the 4th and 6th, j^^eTood', *^ P<«tion fix the 

short vowel is slightly different from the position required for the correqKmding 
long vowel.** — ^Manual of Phonographt, 1848. 


of 20 Tarieties jof vowel sound, oognisable as elements of existing languages 
and dialects. 

A phonographic writer should be able to ddineate on his page the very 
peculiarities of a speaker's pronundation ; but Hm system does not enable him 
to express eren those manifest ^fferenoes that exist between the utterance of a 
correct English speaker and the yeinacular English of a Scotchman. He must, 
for instaUoe, write alike their different pronundations of such words BB/air^ 
tJierCj * more^ door^ &c. He hM no means of noting a difference between the 
sounds in er and ur,— i^which is imquestionablj a distinctiye elegance in polite 
En^ish utterance,— and so must write i^ervade and purvey^ alike,[vtrtue vir- 
tue, and ^V sur: and he has no choice between a(m) and a(]ms), for writing 
the intermediate vowel heard in ask^ fast, &c. 

The plan of writing long vowels by heavy marks, and short vowels by light 
ones, is good ; but we must have a character independent of that of quantity for 
every variety of vowel formation. A quantitative distinction is only necessary 
for two vowels in our language. 

But if there were no more serious objections to this Phonographic system 
than its errors in vowel-theory and representation, these would hardly afford 
sufficient reason for the construction of a new system, because the use of a 
merely general vowel mark to show where a vowel occurs rather than precisely 
what vowel it is, would suffice for ordinaiy short-hand notation to those who 
are acquainted with the language which they write. But the articulations also are 
arranged on false principles ; and errors in their representation are much more 
serious than those in the scheme of vowel-marks. 

The articulations are classed under the four heads of mutes, semivowels, 
liquids, and nasals. In the first dass are induded with the breath letters P, 
T, E, their voice correspondents B, D, 6, and also the combinations Ch«stsh, and 
J»=dzh. If these letters are mu/e»— our speech must be, nearly half of it, mere 
dumb show. The semi-vowel category indudes with the vocal elements V, 
ThCis), Z, Zby their breath correspondents F, Th(in), S, Sh. If the former set 
were entitled to the name ^^semi-vowd," — ^which they are not— -the hitter could 
not certainly claim anything more tlian that of ^^ demz-semi-vow€ls*^m^jor per- 
haps << semi'demi-semi-vowelSf'^ terms that would be fully as expressive of the 
real qualities of the sounds as the one appropriated to them. << What's in a 
name ?" may well be asked, if names with nothing in them serve the purposes of 
nomenclature. The dass " liquids" contains only L and R ; the letters M, N^ 
and NO, which are also liquids, if that name expresses anything, bdng separately 
classed as simply " nasals.*' 

The " mutes" and " semi-vowkls " are subdivided into " sJiarps " and 
^^Jiats,^^ — terms equally expressive with those attached to the leading divisions ; 
— ^but the student is not told to which of these classes the ^^ liquids''* and 

* The difference between the sound of a, as in mate and mare, is recognised, 
but not {Hrovided for, in a note (p. 39) in the last quoted edition of the Manual 
of Phonography, 



nasals'^ belong. He should of cotine discover ihis from the cfaanusfter bj 
which he is to represent these sounds. Bat this will mislead him ; finr tbe ex- 
cellent principle of distinction between breath and voice letters, whidi is the best 
and newest point m Hm phonographic system, is not connstentlj applied to the 
elements of the last two classes. The ^* Uquids^* and ** nasiUs'' are all voioe 
letter (" flats") ; jet only one of them, — ^namely, ng, is written in the voice 
character. N and ng are represented by the same maxk, — ^the former thin (the 
sharp notation), the latter thick (the flat notation), so that the scheme of arti- 
culate symbols misinforms the eye that as B is to P, V to F, Z to S, &c.^ so is 
n^ to N I This is one of the errors resnlting from an arintraiy arrangement of 
maiks, and the neglect of a natural principle of association. 

One of the most serious errors in Pitman's Phonography, both as regards its 
fundamental prindinataon of speech, and its stenographic sunplicity, remains to 
be noticed. 

The articulative frmction of the letters Y and W is not recognised. These 
elements are considered to be always vowels — vowels only. The result is, that 
this lack of characters to represent two articulations has to be supplied, and is 
suppliedyby no less than 40 symbols, to denote thdr combinations with difierent 
vowels. The cumbersome result of such a theory, one would have expected to 
operate to its rejection, even were it more correct ; but it is clearly ernmeoos. 
Let its author, and all who think with him in this matter, test it in the words 
ye and woo^ which^ according to this theory, are nothing else than the repeated 
vowel ee ee and oo oo. Experiment will prove, that the most rafnd utteranoe 
of two ee\ without any intermediate action of the tongue, will never produce 
the word ye ; and that without a similar action of the lips between the two oo's, 
the word woo cannot possibly be sounded. If, tlien, ye and woo cannot be pro- 
nounced with the mouth steadily maintained in the vowel positions ee and oOf 
the initial elements of the words are not vowels but articulations. 

The absence of an articulative Y leads to the writing of vulgarisms^ and the 
corruption of utterance, in such words b& future^ nature^ education^ S^c,^ which 
are written with tsh and dzh^ instead of ty and dy ; thus, ^' f uchr," *' S j uka- 
shn,'' &c. Colloquial carelessness does certainly convert the nice articula- 
tions ty and dy into the more slovenly tsh and dzh ; but the former are un- 
doubtedly the elements heard in the correct utteranoe of this class of words; 
and surely the best pronunciation should always — ^unless for imitative poiposes 
— ^be reflected in writing. 

As there is no articulation w in this system, there is of course no wh ; and 
this breath articulation is considered to be identical in sound with the word 
ti7Ao=ssA2£;=hoo. Thus, the sentence, ^' / saw the man whet the knife^ is 
phonographically (?) perverted into the rather startling assertion* ^^ / saw the 
man who ate the knifed Let the most glib upholder of this theoiy — for it 
is not confined to the system under review — ^pronounce the latter sentence as 
rapidly as he can, and see if he will ever make it express the former. Yet it 
should do so by the mere accident of abruptness, if the theory were contct. 


We should not have adverted to the errors in this generally 
excellent system, or noticed it in any terms except of commen- 
dation, but for the influence which we conceive it may exert, not 
only on writing, but on speech ; the good, if correct ; the injury — 
so far as speech is concerned, — if incorrect in its articulative bases. 

We should be glad to see a system of writing sounds popularly 
studied, and brought into general use, were it only for the benefit 
that must result to popular articulation. We look upon Pho- 
nography as a most valuable auxiliary in teaching the Art of 
Speech ; and our object in treating of it in this work is, that we 
™^J9 ^7 its aid, advance popular knowledge on the subject of 
speech. We should anticipate great good, — not to articulation 
alone, but to the general interests of language and education, — 
if every boy in our schools were a phonographer. He would then 
be capable of correctly analyzing speech ; a process which, in the 
present state of knowledge that prevails on this subject, we have 
often seen baffle the efforts of older and wiser linguists, even in 
the most simple of our verbal combinations. 

The following are the Principles on which we have constructed 
our Phonographic Scheme. The attentive perusal of them will 
enable any person, almost at once, to use our 



I. All articulations of the lips are written in a slanting direc- 
tion from right tc left 

II. All articulations of the back or root of the tongue are writ- 
ten slantingly from left to right, 

III. All articulations of the point of the tongue acting upwards, 
are written perpendicularly. 

IV. The sibilant and lisping sounds, in forming which the tongue 
lies nearly horizontal, are written horizontaUy^ 


V. All Obstructive articulations, — i,e, those formed by perfect 
contact of the organs — (the First Mode of Action) — are represented 
by straight lines. 

VI. Nasal quality is denoted by a ring; and^ as the Nasals are 
orally obstructive by the same articulative mechanisms as the pre- 
ceding elements, the nostril-ring is written with a short straight 
mark, which, by its line of direction, shows the obstructive forma- 
tion, of which the ring denotes the nasal correspondent. 

E e 



nasals'^ belong. He should of ootine disoover tlib from the character bjr 
which he is to represent these sounds. Bat this will mislead him ; for the ex- 
cellent principle of distinction between breath and voice letters, whidi is the best 
and newest pdnt in this phonographic system, is not consistently applied to the 
elements of the last two classes. The ^* liquids" and ^^ nasals" are aU voioe 
letter (" flats") ; yet only one of them, — ^namely, kg, is written in the voice 
character. N and ng are represented by the same mark, — ^the former thin (the 
sharp notation), the latter thick (the flat notation), so that the scheme of arti- 
culate symbols misinforms the eye that as B is to P, V to F, Z to S, &c, so is 
n^ to N I This is one of the errors resulting from an aiintrary arrangement of 
marks, and the neglect of a natural principle of association. 

One of the most serious errors in Pitman's Phonography, both aa regards its 
fundamental principiation of speech, and its stenographic simplicily, remains to 
be noticed. 

The artictilative function of the letters T and W is not recognised. These 
elements are considered to be always vowels — vowels only. The result is, that 
this lack of characters to represent two articulations has to be supplied, and is 
supplied^by no less than 40 symbols, to denote their combinations with different 
vowels. The cumbersome result of such a theory, one would have expected to 
operate to its rejection, even were it more correct ; but it is clearly ernmeons. 
Let its author, and all who think with him in this matter, test it in the words 
ye and woo, which^ aocordmg to this theory, are nothing else than the repeated 
vowel ee ee and oo oo. Experiment will prove, that the most rafnd utterance 
of two ee\ without any intermediate action of the tongue, will never produce 
the word ye ; and that without a similar action of the lips between the two oo's, 
the word woo cannot possibly be sounded. If, then, ye and woo cannot be pro- 
nounced with the mouth steadily maintained in the vowel positiona ee and oo, 
the initial elements of the words are not vowels but articulations. 

The absence of an articulative T leads to the writing of vulgarisms^ and the 
corruption of utterance, in such words a& future, nature, education, S^c, which 
are written witii tsh and dzh, instead of ty and dy ; thus, ^' f uchr," '^ S j uka- 
shn," &c. Colloquial carelessness does certainly convert the nice articula- 
tions ty and dy into the more slovenly tsh and dzh ; but the former are un- 
doubtedly the elements heard in the correct utterance of this class of words; 
and surely the best pronunciation should always — ^unless for imitative porposes 
— be reflected in writing. 

As there is no articulation w in this system, there is of course no wh ; and 
this breath articulation is considered to be identical in sound with the word 
who=hw^==:hoo. Thus, the sentence, ^^ / saw the man whet the hnife^^ is 
phonographically (?) perverted into the rather startling assertion, ^* / ^010 the 
man who ate the knifeJ'^ Let the most glib upholder of this the<»7 — for it 
is not confined to the system under review — ^pronounce the latter sentence as 
rapidly as he can, and see if he will ever make it express the former. Yet it 
ghonld do so by tiie mere accident of abruptness, if the theory were correct. 


We should not have adverted to the errors in this generally 
excellent system, or noticed it in any terms except of commen- 
dation, but for the influence which we conceive it may exert, not 
only on writing, but on speech ; the good, if correct ; the injury — 
so far as speech is concerned, — if incorrect in its articulative bases. 

We should be glad to see a system of toriting sounds popularly 
studied, and brought into general use, were it only for the benefit 
that must result to popular articulation. We look upon Pho- 
nography as a most valuable auxiliary in teaching the Art of 
Speech ; and our object in treating of it in this work is, that we 
™^J9 ^7 its aid, advance popular knowledge on the subject of 
speech. We should anticipate great good, — not to articulation 
alone, but to the general interests of language and education, — 
if every boy in our schools were a phonographer. He would then 
be capable of correctly analyzing speech ; a process which, in the 
present state of knowledge that prevails on this subject, we have 
often seen baffle the efforts of older and wiser linguists, even in 
the most simple of our verbal combinations. 

The following are the Principles on which we have constructed 
our Phonographic Scheme. The attentive perusal of them will 
enable any person, almost at once, to use our 



I. All articidations of the lips are written in a slanting direc- 
tion from right to left. 

II. All articulations of the hack or root of the tongue are writ- 
ten slantingly from left to right, 

III. All articulations of the point of the tongue acting upwards, 
are written perpendicularly. 

IV. The sibilant 9xA lisping sounds, in forming which the tongue 
lies nearly horizontal, are written horizontaUy^ 


V. All Obstructive articulations, — i.e. those formed by perfect 
contact of the organs — (the First Mode of Action) — are represented 
by straight lines. 

VI. Nasal quality is denoted by a ring; and, as the Nasals are 
orally obstructive by the same articulative mechanisms as the pre- 
ceding elements, the nostril-ring is written with a short straight 
mark, which, by its line of direction, shows the obstructive forma- 
tion, of which the ring denotes the nasal correspondent. 

E e 


** nasals'^ belong. He should of ootine disoover tliis from the character by 
which he is to represent these sounds. Bat ttus will mislead him ; for tlno ex- 
cellent principle of distinction between breath and voice letters, whldi is the best 
and newest pcnnt in this phonographic system, is not consistently applied to the 
elements of the last two classes. The ^* liquids" and *^ nasals" are all voioe 
letter (" flats") ; yet only one of them, — ^namely, kg, is written in the voioe 
character. N and ng are represented by the same maris, — the formw thin (the 
sharp notation), the latter thick (the flat notation), so that the scheme of arti- 
culate symbols mianforms the eye that asBistoP, VtoF^ZtoS, &c, so is 
n^ to N ! This is one of the errors resulting from an arintrary arrangement of 
marks, and the neglect of a natural principle of association. 

One of the most serious errors in Pitman's Phonography, both aa regards its 
fundamental principation of speech, and its stenographic simplicity, remains to 
be noticed. 

The articulative function of the letters T and W is not recognised. These 
elements are considered to be always vowels — vowels only. The result is, that 
this lack of characters to represent two articulations has to be supplied, and is 
supplied^by no less than 40 symbols, to denote their combinations with different 
vowels. The cumbersome result of such a theory, one would have expected to 
operate to its rejection, even were it more correct ; but it is clearly ernmeoos. 
Let its author, and all who think with him in this matter, test it in the words 
ye and t&oo, which^ aocordmg to this theory, are nothing else than the repeated 
vowel ee ee and oo oo. Experiment will prove, that the most rapid utterance 
of two ee\ without any intermediate action of the tongue, will never produce 
the word ye ; and that without a similar action of the lips between the two oo's, 
the word woo cannot possibly be sounded. If, then, ye and woo cannot be pro- 
nounced with the mouth steadily maintained in the vowel positiona ee and oo, 
the initial elements of the words are not vowels but articulations. 

The absence of an articulative T leads to the writing of vulgarisms^ and the 
corruption of utterance, in such words 2a future, nature, education, S^c,^ which 
are written with tsh and dzh, instead of ty and dy ; thus, ^^ f uchr," '^ S j uka- 
shn," &c. Ck>lloquial carelessness does certainly convert the nice artieola'' 
tions ty and dy into the more slovenly tsh and dzh ; but the former are un- 
doubtedly the elements heard in the correct utterance of this daas of words ; 
and surely the best pronunciation should always — ^unless for imitative purposes 
— ^be reflected in writing. 

As there is no articulation w in this system, there is of course no wh ; and 
this breath articulation is considered to be identical in sound with the word 
ioho=hw==^hoo. Thus, the sentence, ** I saw the man whbt the knife^^ is 
phonographically (?) perverted into the rather startling assertion, ^* / saw the 
man who ate the knifed'* Let the most glib upholder of this the<»7 — for it 
is not confined to the system under review — ^pronounce the latter sentence as 
rapidly as he can, and see if he will ever make it express the former. Yet it 
should do so by the mere accident of abruptness, if the theory were correct. 


We should not have adverted to the errors in this generally 
excellent system, or noticed it in any terms except of commen- 
dation, but for the influence which we conceive it may exert, not 
only on writing, but on speech ; the good, if correct ; the injury — 
so far as speech is concerned, — if incorrect in its articulative bases. 

We should be glad to see a system of writing sounds popularly 
studied, and brought into general use, were it only for the benefit 
that must result to popular articulation. We look upon Pho- 
nography as a most valuable auxiliary in teaching the Art of 
Speech ; and our object in treating of it in this work is, that we 
niay, by its aid, advance popular knowledge on the subject of 
speech. We should anticipate great good, — not to articulation 
alone, but to the general interests of language and education, — 
if every boy in our schools were a phonographer. He would then 
be capable of correctly analyzing speech ; a process which, in the 
present state of knowledge that prevails on this subject, we have 
often seen baffle the efforts of older and wiser linguists, even in 
the most simple of our verbal combinations. 

The following are the Principles on which we have constructed 
our Phonographic Scheme. The attentive perusal of them will 
enable any person, almost at once, to use our 



I. All articidations of the lips are written in a slanting direc- 
tion from right to left, 

II. All articulations of the hack or root of the tongue are writ- 
ten slantingly from left to right, 

III. All articulations of the j>oin« of the tongue dieting upwards, 
are written perpendicularly, 

IV. The si6i?an«and lisping sounds, in forming which the tongue 
lies nearly horizontal, are written horizontaUt^ 


V. All Obstructive articulations, — Le. those formed by perfect 
contact of the organs — (the First Mode of Action) — are represented 
by straight lines, 

VI. Nasal quality is denoted by a ring; and, as the Nasals are 
orally obstructive by the same articulative mechanisms as the pre- 
ceding elements, the nostril-ring is written with a short straight 
mark, which, by its line of direction, shows the obstructive forma- 
tion, of which the ring denotes the nasal correspondent. 

E e 


<* nasals^^ belong. He should of ootine disoover this from the character bjr 
which he is to represent these sounds. But this will mislead him ; for tlMB ex- 
cellent principle of distinction between breath and voice letters, whidi is the best 
and newest pdnt in this phonographic system, is not consistently applied to the 
elements of the last two classes. The ^^ liquids" and *^ nasals'* are aU voioe 
letter (** flats") ; yet only one of them, — ^namely, kg, is written in the voioe 
character. N and ng are represented by the same mark, — ^the former thin (the 
sharp notation), the latter thick (the flat notation), so that the scheme of arti- 
culate symbols misinforms the eye that asBistoP, VtoF, ZtoS, &c, so is 
n^ to N ! This is one of the errors resulting from an aiintrary arrangement of 
marks, and the neglect of a natural principle of association. 

One of the most serious errors in Pitman's Phonography, both aa regards its 
fundamental principation of speech, and its stenographic simplicity, remains to 
be noticed. 

The artictUative function of the letters T and W is not recognised. These 
elements are considered to be always vowels — vowels only. The result is, that 
this lack of characters to represent two articulations has to be supplied, and is 
suppliedyby no less than 40 symbols, to denote their combinations with diflferent 
vowels. The cumbersome result of such a theory, one would have expected to 
operate to its rejection, even were it more correct ; but it is clearly ernmeons. 
Let its author, and all who think with him in this matter, test it in the words 
ye and t&oo, which^ according to this theory, are nothing else than the repeated 
vowel ee ee and oo oo. Experiment will prove, that the most ra{Md utterance 
of two ee's, without any intermediate action of the tongue, will never produce 
the word ye ; and that without a similar action of the lips between the two oo's, 
the word woo cannot posdbly be sounded. If, then, ye and woo cannot be pro- 
nounced with the month steadily maintained in the vowel positiona ee and oo^ 
the initial elements of the words are not vowels but articulations. 

The absence of an articulative T leads to the writing of vulgarisms^ and the 
corruption of utterance, in such words a&future, nature, educalion, ^c, which 
are written with tsh and dzh, instead of ty and dy ; thus, *' f uchr,'' '* S j uka- 
shn," &c. Ck>lloquial carelessness does certainly convert the nice artieola- 
tions ty and dy into the more slovenly tsh and dzh ; but the farmer are un- 
doubtedly the elements heard in the correct utterance of this dasa of words ; 
and surely the best pronunciation should always — ^unless for imitative purposes 
— ^be reflected in writmg. 

As there is no articulation w in this system, there is of course no wk ; and 
this breath articulation is considered to be identical in sound with the word 
2i7^bs^t&=hoo. Thus, the sentence, " / saw the man whet the knife^^ is 
phonographically (?) perverted into the rather startling assertion, ^^ / ^010 the 
man who ate the knife,^^ Let the most glib upholder of this the<»7--fi)r it 
is not confined to the system under review — ^pronounce the latter sentence as 
rapidly as he can, and see if he will ever make it express the former. Yet it 
should do 80 by the mere accident of abruptness, if the theory were correct. 


We should not have adverted to the errors in this generally 
excellent system, or noticed it in any terms except of commen- 
dation, but for the influence which we conceive it may exert, not 
only on writing, but on speech ; the good, if correct ; the injury — 
so far as speech is concerned,— if incorrect in its articulative bases. 

We should be glad to see a system of writing sounds popularly 
studied, and brought into general use, were it only for the benefit 
that must result to popular articulation. We look upon Pho- 
nography as a most valuable auxiliary in teaching the Art of 
Speech ; and our object in treating of it in this work is, that we 
™^J9 ^J its aid, advance popular knowledge on the subject of 
speech. We should anticipate great good, — not to articulation 
alone, but to the general interests of language and education, — 
if every boy in our schools were a phonographer. He would then 
be capable of correctly analyzing speech ; a process which, in the 
present state of knowledge that prevails on this subject, we have 
often seen baffle the efforts of older and wiser linguists, even in 
the most simple of our verbal combinations. 

The following are the Principles on which we have constructed 
our Phonographic Scheme. The attentive perusal of them will 
enable any person, almost at once, to use our 



I. All articidations of the lips are written in a slanting direc- 
tion from right to left, 

II. All articulations of the hack or root of the tongtte are writ- 
ten slantingly from left to right, 

III. All articulations of the point of the tongue dieting upwards, 
are written perpendicularly, 

IV. The sibilant B,nd lisping sounds, in forming which the tongue 
lies nearly horizontal, are written horizontaUtf^ 


V. All Obstructive articulations, — t.e. those formed by perfect 
contact of the organs — (the First Mode of Action) — are represented 
by straight lines, 

VI. Nasal quality is denoted by a ring; and^ as the Nasals are 
orally obstructive by the same articulative mechanisms as the pre- 
ceding elements, the nostril-ring is written with a short straight 
mark, which, by its line of direction, shows the obstructive forma- 
tion, of which the ring denotes the nasal correspondent. 

E e 



nasals^^ belong. He should of ootine disoover thb from tlie character bjr 
which he is to represent these sounds. But this will mislead him ; for IIkb ex- 
cellent principle of distinction between breath and voice letters, whidi is the best 
and newest pdnt in this phonographic system, is not conmstently applied to the 
elements of the last two classes. The ^* liquids" and *^ nasals*' are aU voioe 
letter (*< flats*') ; yet only one of them, — ^namely, kg, is written in the voioe 
character. N and ng are represented by the same maris, — the former thin (the 
sharp notation), the latter thick (the flat notation), so that the scheme of arti- 
culate symbols misinforms the eye that as B is to P, V to F, Z to S, &c, so is 
n^ to N ! This is one of the errors resulting from an aiintrary arrangement of 
mariut, and the neglect of a natural principle <^ association. 

One of the most serious errors in Pitman's Phonography, both aa regards its 
fundamental principiation of speech, and its stenographic simplicity, remains to 
be noticed. 

The articulative function of the letters T and W is not recognised. These 
elements are considered to be always vowels — vowels only. The result is, that 
this lack of characters to represent two articulations has to be supplied, and is 
suppliedyby no less than 40 symbols, to denote their combinations with different 
vowels. The cumbersome result of such a theory, one would have expected to 
operate to its rejection, even were it more correct ; but it is clearly erroneous. 
Let its author, and all who think with him in this matter, test it in the words 
ye and woo^ which^ according to this theory, are nothing else than the repeated 
vowel ee ee and oo oo. Experiment will prove, that the most ra{Hd utterance 
of two ee\ without any intermediate action of the tongue, will never produce 
the word ye ; and that \rithout a similar action of the lips between the two oo's, 
the word woo cannot possibly be sounded. If, then, ye and woo cannot be pro- 
nounced with the mouth steadily maintained in the vowel positiona ee and oo^ 
the initial elements of the words are not vowels but articulations. 

The absence of an articulative T leads to the writing of vulgariusms^ and the 
corruption of utterance, in such words 9a future^ nature^ education^ ^c, which 
are written with tsh and dzh^ instead of ty and dy ; thus, ^' f uchr,'* '* S j iika- 
shn," &c. Colloquial carelessness does certainly convert the nice arti6o]a« 
tions ty and dy into the more slovenly tsh and dzh ; but the farmer are un- 
doubtedly the elements heard in the correct utterance of this class of words ; 
and surely the best pronunciation should always — unless for imitative purposes 
— ^be reflected in writing. 

As there is no articulation w in this system, there is of course no wh ; and 
this breath articulation is considered to be identical in sound with the word 
who^=^htiy=^oo. Thus, the sentence, " / saw the man whet the knife^^ is 
phonographicaUy (?) perverted into the rather startling assertion, ^* / saw the 
man who ate the knifed Let the most glib upholder of this the(»7 — for it 
is not confined to the system under review — ^pronounce the latter sentence as 
rapidly as he can, and see if he will ever make it express the former. Yet it 
should do so by the mere accident of abruptness, if the theory were oorreet. 


We should not have adverted to the errors in this generallj 
excellent system, or noticed it in any terms except of commen- 
dation, but for the influence which we conceive it may exert, not 
only on writing, but on speech ; the good, if correct ; the injury — 
so far as speech is concerned,— if incorrect in its articulative bases. 

We should be glad to see a system of rvriting sounds popularly 
studied, and brought into general use, were it only for the benefit 
that must result to popular articulation. We look upon Pho- 
nography as a most valuable auxiliary in teaching the Art of 
Speech ; and our object in treating of it in this work is, that we 
^^7? ^7 its aid, advance popular knowledge on the subject of 
speech. We should anticipate great good, — not to articulation 
alone, but to the general interests of language and education, — 
if every boy in our schools were a phonographer. He would then 
be capable of correctly analyzing speech ; a process which, in the 
present state of knowledge that prevails on this subject, we have 
often seen baffle the efforts of older and wiser linguists, even in 
the most simple of our verbal combinations. 

The following are the Principles on which we have constructed 
our Phonographic Scheme. The attentive perusal of them will 
enable any person, almost at once, to use our 



I. All articidations of the lips are written in a slanting direc- 
tion from fight to left, 

II. All articulations of the hack or root of the tongue are writ- 
ten slantingly from left to right, 

III. All articulations of the point of the tongue dieting upwards, 
are written perpendicularly. 

IV. The si6i^n« and lisping sounds, in forming which the tongue 
lies nearly horizontal, are written horizontaUy^ 


V. All Obstructive articulations, — t.e. those formed by perfect 
contact of the organs — (the First Mode of Action) — ^are represented 
by straight lines, 

VI. Nasal quality is denoted by a ring; and, as the Nasals are 
orally obstructive by the same articulative mechanisms as the pre- 
ceding elements, the nostril^ing is written with a short straight 
mark, which, by its line of direction, shows the obstructive forma- 
tion, of which the ring denotes the nasal correspondent. 

E e 



nasals^^ belong. He should of course disoover this from the character bjr 
which he is to represent these sounds. But this will mislead him ; for tlKB ex- 
cellent principle of distinction between breath and voice letters, whidi is the best 
and newest pcnnt in this phonographic system, is not consistently applied to the 
elements of the last two classes. The ^* liquids^^ and *^ nasals*' are aU voioe 
letter (*< flats*') ; yet only one of them, — ^namely, kg, is written in the vdoe 
character. N and ng are represented by the same mark, — the former thin (the 
sharp notation), the latter thick (the flat notation), so that the scheme of arti- 
culate symbols misinforms the eye that as B is to P, V to F, Z to S, &c., so is 
n^ to N I This is one of the errors resulting from an aiintrary arrangement of 
marks, and the neglect of a natural principle of association. 

One of the most serious errors in Pitman's Phonogn^hy, both aa regards its 
fundamental principiation of speech, and its stenographic simplicity, remains to 
be noticed. 

The articulative function of the letters T and W is not recognised. These 
elements are considered to be always vowek — ^vowels only. The result is, that 
this lack of characters to represent two articulations has to be supplied, and is 
suppliedyby no less than 40 symbols, to denote their combinations with different 
Towels. The cumbersome result of such a theory, one would have expected to 
operate to its rejection, even were it more correct ; but it is clearly erroneous. 
Let its author, and all who think with him in this matter, test it in the words 
ye and woo^ which^ aocordmg to this theory, are nothing else than the repeated 
vowel ee ee and oo oo. Experiment will prove, that the most ra{Hd utterance 
of two ee\ without any intermediate action of the tongue, will never produce 
the word ye ; and that without a sunilar action of the lips between the two oo's, 
the word woo cannot possibly be sounded. If, then, ye and woo cannot be pro- 
nounced with the mouth steadily maintained in the vowel positiona ee and oo, 
the initial elements of the words are not vowels but articulations. 

The absence of an articulative T leads to the writing of vulgarisms^ and the 
corruption of utterance, in such words as future, nature, education^ S^c^ which 
are written witli tsh and <M, instead of ty and dy ; thus, *' f uchr,'* '* S j uka- 
shn," &c. Ck>lloquial carelessness does certainly convert the nice arti6o]a« 
tions ty and dy into the more slovenly tsh and dzh ; but the former are un- 
doubtedly the elements heard in the correct utterance of this class of words ; 
and surely the best pronunciation should always — ^unless for imitative pmposes 
— ^be reflected in writing. 

As there is no articulation w in this system, there is of course no wh ; and 
this breath articulation \a considered to be identical in sound with the word 
2i7Aoss^ti;=rhoo. Thus, the sentence, ^* I saw the man whet the kni/e^ is 
phonographically (?) perverted into the rather startling assertiont ^^ / saw the 
man who ate the knife.^^ Let the most glib upholder of this theory — ^for it 
is not confined to the system under review — ^pronounce the latter sentence as 
rapidly as he can, and see if he will ever make it express the former. Yet it 
should do 80 by the mere accident of abruptness, if the theory were corr^. 


We should not have adverted to the errors ia this generallj 
excellent system, or noticed it in any terms except of commen- 
dation, but for the influence which we conceive it may exert, not 
only on writing, but on speech ; the good, if correct ; the injury — 
so far as speech is concerned, — if incorrect in its articulative bases. 

We should be glad to see a system of writing sounds popularly 
studied, and brought into general use, were it only for the benefit 
that must result to popular articulation. We look upon Pho- 
nography as a most valuable auxiliary in teaching the Art of 
Speech ; and our object in treating of it in this work is, that we 
inS'J? l>y its aid, advance popular knowledge on the subject of 
speech. We should anticipate great good, — not to articulation 
alone, but to the general interests of language and education, — 
if every boy in our schools were a phonographer. He would then 
be capable of correctly analyzing speech ; a process which, in the 
present state of knowledge that prevails on this subject, we have 
often seen baffle the efforts of older and wiser linguists, even in 
the most simple of our verbal combinations. 

The following are the Principles on which we have constructed 
our Phonographic Scheme. The attentive perusal of them will 
enable any person, almost at once, to use our 



I. All articidations of the lips are written in a slanting direc- 
tion from right to left. 

II. All articulations of the hack or root of the tongue are writ- 
ten slantingly from left to right, 

III. All articulations of the point of the tongue acting upwards, 
are written perpendicularly, 

IV. The sibilant a,nd lisping sounds, in forming which the tongue 
lies nearly horizontal, are written horizontaUy% 


V. All Obstructive articulations, — i.e. those formed by perfect 
contact of the organs ^the First Mode of Action) — are represented 
by straight lines. 

VI. Nasal quality is denoted by a ring; and^ as the Nasals are 
orally obstructive by the same articulative mechanisms as the pre- 
ceding elements, the nostril-ring is written with a short straight 
mark, which, by its line of direction, shows the obstructive forma- 
tion, of which the ring denotes the nasal correspondent. 

£ e 

328 ACCENT. 

The secondary accent is, in all the preceding instances, se- 
parated from the primary, by the intervention of one or two unac- 
cented syllables ; but there may be a secondarily accented force 
on a syllable which is not separated from the primary. The 
discriminating ear will at once detect the presence of a secondary 
accent on the negative prefixes in the following lines, if express- 
ively read : 

" He sinks into thy depths with bubbling groan, 
Without a grave, un'knelled", un'cof 'fined, and wn'known"." 
** The wretch, concentred all in self. 
Living, shall forfeit fair renown, 
And, doubly dying, shall go down 
To the vile dust from whence he sprung, 
CTh'wept, un'hon"oured, and wn'sung" ! 
In these cases, the primary accent immediately follows the 
secondary ; and such accentuation is not confined to words with 
negative prefixes, but any prefix may receive empbatical import- 
ance in the same way, — as co'-e"qual, con'join", de'hort", e'duce", 
il'le"gal, im'mense" ! pan'soph"ical, pre'mer"it, re'-ech"o, &c. We 
have the same accentuation in the common unlexiconed words, 
so' -so", tee'-to"tal, &c. ; and the word amen, which is universally 
acknowledged as a doubly accented word, has not two equal 
accents, but a secondary and primary, thus, a'men". The word 
farewell, also, has two accents in its ordinary utterance, — the 
primary accent sometimes on the first and sometimes on the 
second syllable. 

When words differing only, or chiefly, in one of their syllables, 
are antithetic, the emphasis of opposition is expressed by trans- 
position of the accent to the syllable of difference. Thus instead 
of forgiv'ing, forbear'ing, injus'tice, undone', &c., we say 

/o/giving when opposed to giving 
/or'bearing " bearing 

injustice " justice 

un'done " done, &c. 

When the opposition is between two prefixes otherwise unac- 
cented, they take the primary force, and the ordinarily accented 
syllable retains a secondary accent, — as in 

in"crease' when opposed to de"crease' 
pro"ceed' " pre"cede' 

e'Volve' " re'Volve' 

RHYTHM. 229 

pro'la'tion when opposed to pre'la'tion 
im"pul'sion " ex^pul'sion 

ex"te'rior " in^te'rior, &c. 

And so in antithetic termination we might give them the 
primary accent, and mark the ordinarily accented syllable by 
secondary force, — thus : 

prin'ciple" when opposed to prin'cipal" 
sym'bol" " Cymbal" 

When the syllable of difference happens to be under the 
secondary accent, we mark antithesis by giving it the primary, 
and transferring the secondary accent to the regular place of the 
primary. Thus, we say 

prop"osi'tion when opposed to prep"osi'tion 
al'locu'tion " er'ocu'tion 

prob"abi'Uty " plau"sibi'lity. 

In practising the foregoing tables of variously accented words, 
the student would find it useful to heat time to his utterance, by 
making a downward stroke of the hand on each accent. This 
will lead him to distinguish the more clearly, accented from un- 
accented syllables by his voice ; and it wiU serve, far better than 
any explanation we could give, to manifest the accentual differ- 
ences to those whose ears do not readily apprehend them. In this 
way the possibility — ^if it be disputed — of the secondary accent 
occurring next to the primary, will be proved, and its presence 
detected ; tor if any two consecutive syllables be uttered with a 
downward action of the same hand accompanying each, they 
must both be accented ; for it is manifest that there must be 
between them the time of an unaccented syllable, correspondent 
to the raising of the hand between its two descents. 

In order to distinguish secondary from primary accents, let the 
hand or finger make a full stroke downwards upon the table, for 
the former ; and a half stroke downwards towards the table for 
the latter. This will lead the voice, too, sympathetically, into a 
correspondently relative inflexion of the accents. 


The adjustment of the force of syllables, — of the accents, — in 
sentences, constitutes rhythm ; a subject which has been involved 
in much obscurity by the way in which writers have treated of it, 
but which is sufficiently simple to be transferred to practice, long 
before the complex theories of rhythmical writers could be fairly 

230 HUVTUM. 

studied. To express the pulsation and remission, time and rest, 
which constitute the elements of rhythm, sets of symbols have 
been invented, which are as unnecessary to the full understanding of 
the subject, as thej are clumsy and deforming to the didactic page. 

Rhythm, good or bad, is an element of all speech. In eveiy 
sentence, however uttered, or by whomsoever, there is a rhythm ; 
it may be stiff — like the action of a person on stilts ; regular and 
firm — like the march of a soldier ; irregular and weak — ^like the 
sidling progression of a simpleton ; undecided — ^like much ordinary 
walking ; limping — like the motion of a cripple ; hurried or slow ; 
leaping or creeping ; staggering or steady ; jolting or smooth ; 
gracefid or vulgar : in short, it may have every characteristic of 
action. As various as are the modes of walking, between the 
courtier's gait and the hobble of a clown, or the styles of gesticn- 
lation between the expressive elegance of an accomplished actor, 
and the thumping and jumping of a ranting preacher, so numer- 
ous and so characteristic are the kinds o( rhythm heard in the 
different departments of oratory, and in colloquial speech. 

The object of our rhythmical directions and exercises is to 
enable the student to adapt the thesis and arsis of the voice, — 
the light and shade of speech, to the full expression of the sense 
of what he utters. The regulation of rhythm so as perfectly to 
bring out the sense and expressiveness of a passage is often a very 
nice point, requiring much judgment and taste ; it affords, 
therefore, ample scope for the display of these admirable qualities 
in a public reader or speaker ; and no more useful exercise can 
occupy the attention of the elocutionary student. 

The various readings of dispul^d passages in the poets, especi- 
ally in Shakspere, which occupy critics, and afford such abundant 
exercise and opportunity for mental and vocal discrimination, are 
just so many varieties of rhythm. The pulsation of accent <m 
this syllable^ and the remission on that, are the topics of the 
most enlightened and learned disquisition and criticism. 

Every single word is not the sign of a distinct idea. Gram- 
matical words are rather, merely, syllables of what has been 
called the " oratorical word,*' which fully expresses the idea or 
completes some part of it. Words, therefore, in good utterance, 
fall into expressive groups, which are separated from each other, 
not always by a pause, but by some change of modulation, break 
of inflexion, or other appreciable variety of style, which clearly 


marks to the ear and mind, the boundaries of each group or 
Oratorical Word. 

We shall not, at once^ present the student with a perfect mode 
of grouping, but lead him oyer some preliminary stages, to 
show the mutual relations and dependencies of words ; and to 
give him opportunity of practice in the principle of grouping and 
pausing^ before arriving at the mode in which his highest ora- 
torical efforts may safely be made. 

I. Single words, we have said, do not separately express ideas, or complete 
portions of an idea. Articles, for instance, serve merely to point out the 
definiteness or indefiniteness of an object. Between them and their sabstantives 
we find the first degree of relation subsisting. Let the student then consider the 
article and the word to which it refers as one word, and enounce then accord- 
ingly. The accent^ or rhythmical force, may sometimes be on the article, 
" I did not say - a" man' - but - the" man' ;" " we should not write - an" u'nit, 

- union, or universe, but - a" u'nit, - union, or universe :" — except, however, 
in such contrasts, the article will be unaccented. The article may be united with 
the qualifying word should one intervene between it and the substantive, — as 
** a good - man, - a veiy - good - man ;" but should a parenthesis intervene, 
the article must be separated from it, as in the sentence, ''It is an- I had 
almost said - asinine affair,''^ In reading the passages illustrating the different 
stages of grouping, or in practising any of the stages, the student should accom- 
psmy each accent with an action of the hand or finger. In the following sen- 
tences the downward action will take place on every word except in the article- 
group. A secondary accent may be given to the article when it is the second 
syllable before the primary accent of the group, as *' a' respect "able - man," 
*' the' delud"ed - people," " an' incre"dible - affair." 

Examples of the First Stage. 

A contemplation - of- God's - works, - a voluntary - act - of- jus- 
tice - to - our - own - detriment, a generous - concern - for - the 
good - of - mankind, - tears - shed - in - silence - for - the misery - of - 
others, - a private - desire -of- resentment - broken - and - subdued, - 
an unfeigned - exercise - of - himiility, or - any - other - virtue ; - are - 
such - actions - as - denominate - men - great - and reputable. 

He - that - would - pass - the latter - part - of - life - with - honour - 
and - decency, - must, - when - he - is - young, - consider - that - he - 
shall - one - day- be - old ; - and - remember - when - he - is - old - that- 
he - has - once - been -young ; - in - youth - he - must - lay - up - know- 
ledge - for - his - support - when - his - powers - of - acting - shall - 
forsake - him, - and - in - age - forbear - to - animadvert - with - rigour 

- on - faults - which - experience - only - can - correct. 

232 RHYTHM. 

A cheerful - temper, - joined - with - innocence, - will - make - 
beantj - attractiye, - knowledge - delightful, - and - wit - good-na- 
tured ; - it - will - lighten - sickness, - povertj, - and - affliction ^— 
convert - ignorance - into - an amiable - simplicitj, - and - render - 
deformitj - itself- agreeable. 

Mankind - must - speak - from - the beginning, - therefore - ought 

- from - the beginning - to - be - taught - to - speak - rightlj ; - else - 
they - may - acquire - a habit -of- speaking - wrong. — And - who- 
ever - knows - the difficulty- of - breaking - through - bad - habits, 

- will - avoid - that - labour - by - prevention. 

Night, - sable - goddess ! - from - her - ebon - throne, 

In - rayless - majesty - now - stretches - forth 

Her - leaden - sceptre - o'er - a slumbering - world. 

Silence - how - dead ! - and - darkness - how - profound! 

Nor - eye - nor - listening - ear - an object - finds. 

Creation - sleeps. 'Tis - as - the general - pulse 

Of - life - stood - still, - and - nature - made - a pause, — 

An awful - pause, - prophetic - of - her - end. 

II. The next degree of relation subsists between prepositions and the noimsfto 
which they refer ; a break of any kind is seldom admissible betwixt them. The 
groups may now therefore include with articles^ all prepcsitioiis^ when they stand 
next to the words to which they relate. Should a parentheens intervene, the pre- 
position must be separated from it, as ** ItwiU come to»T know natft^at-an 
end at all events," In sudi constructions as the foDowing, the preposition 
must stand apart from the words immediately after it, to show the dBipoii^ — 
around him, above him, &c, 

" Thus while — ^around— the toave suhjeeted soil 

Impels the native to repeated toil" 
" There, while — above — the giddy tempest flies. 
And all Siroxmd-^istressful yeHs arise.^^ — 

Prepositions used as part of a verb, whether as the sign of the infinitive, to 
walk, to read, &c., or as adverbial complements to give in, to put dovm, &c, 
may in this stage be included in the rhythmical groups. 

Prepositicms — ^properly so called — are generally unaccented^ or mefdy of 
secondary force. In case of antithesis, however, the preposition takes the 
primaiy accent, as "I did not say - upon" the ta'ble, - but - un"der the ta'bk" 
" Be instant - in" sea' son, and - out" of sea' son" The agn of the infinitive 
to is always unaccented or secondary. 

Prepositions used as part of a verb are generally the emphatic syllables 
in the compound, as " Hold' off' - your hands. ^* " Rouse' up" "Jbrshame,^ 
" Shake' off'- this downy sleep^ death's counterfeit^ and look on deatk 
itself:' " Say' on", - FU hear thee.'' 

A secondary accent will fall on the preposition when it is the second or third 


syllable before the primary : as " to' remem"ber^^^ " to'- lameiU'*i," '* within' 
a month" j*^ ^^out' at thepor"Udy The prepositdoB wfll be seoondarily ' iac- 
cented, also^ when it is the second or third syllable before a secondary accent, 
as " 5y' (he rec'ommenda"tion,^^ '* through' a mis' apprehen" sum,'''' 

Examples of the Second Stage. 

Tear - steals - upon us -after year. Life - is - never - still - for 

a moment ; but - continuallj, - though - insensibly, - sliding - into 

a- n^wi- form. Infancy ^ rises up ^ fast - to childhood ; - childhood - 

to youth ; youth - passes - quickly - into manhood ; and - the grey 

- hair, - and - the fading - look, - are - not - long - in admonishing - 
us-that-old-age-is-at hand^ 

The desire - of distinction - in the world - is - a commendable - 
quality - when - it - excites - men - to the performance - of illus- 
trious - actions : but * this - ambition - is * so - seldom - directed - to 
its - proper - end, - and - is - so - little - scrupulous - in the choice - of 
the means - which - it -^ employs - for the accomplishment -< of its 

- purpose, T that - it - frequently - ruins - the morals - of those -"who 
-are'-actuated - by it : and - thus - for the pleasure - of being - 
lifted up - for a moment - above the common - level - of mankind, 

- many * a man - has - forfeited - his - character - with the wise - 
and - good, - and - inflicted - v^ounds - on his - conscience, -which - 
the balm - of flattering - dependants - can - never - heal. 

Without eloquence, - knowledge - proceeds - faintly - and - slowly, - 
like-^nnassist^ - strength -in manual -works -with much -clumsy 
-labour : oratory- we- may- compa^ - to themechanicat - arts - 
which, -by engines^ and - irell-adapted - instruments, - produce - 
the- same - effeets-with ease,- ahd - finish- with elegancy: ' 

iThe umverse - is - i^presented - in every- one - of its - particles. 
Every- thing - in ^ nature - contains - all * the' powers - of nature. 
The world- globes - itself -^in a drop - of ^ia&ir. The mi(^roscope - 
cannot - find - the aninlAlcttle, - which ^ is ^ less - perfect - fi)r being 
-little. ■' Byes, -eaiB, - taste, smell, -motion, -resistance, -appetite, 

- and - organs - of reproduction, - which - take - hold -on eternity, - 
all •* find - room -. to consist - in the smaD: - creature. 

Whence - learned - she - this ? - O - she ^ was - innocent ! 

And - to be - innocent - is - Nature's - wisdom 1 

The fledge-dove - knows - the prowlers - of the air, - 

Feared - soon - as - seen, - and - flutters - back - to shelter. 

And * the- young - steed - recoils - upon his - haunches, 

The never-yet-seen - adder's - hiss - first - heard. 

surer • than - suspicion's - hundred - eyes - 


Is - that - fiue - sense . which • to the pure - in heart - 
Bj mere - oppugDancy . of their • own • goodness - 
Reveals - the approach • of eviL 

III. Conneoted in the next degree are Pereonal PronotmB and Yerfoe. Tlie 
groups may now therefore indnde all personal prononns, whether governing the 
verb ; as — I hve^ thou lovest, he loves, or goremed by it^ as love me, I love ker^ 
They love tu. 

In sach phrases as there », was there, I did so, Sfc,<^ the words there and so, 
have no adverbial force, and may be oonodered as a kind of impenonal pvo- 
noon : they should therefore be added to the verb in this stage. 

The sense must, of course^ regulate the aooent. When the pronoun is tbe 
antecedent to a relative, it wiU be accented; as, 

** He" jests' - at scars' - who' - nev'er * felt' - a wound'." 
Also, when pronominal antitheas is expressed or implied, the pronoun will take 
the primary accent* as—" did he' - tell' you", or - did you' - tdl' him" ?" but 
otherwise the pronoun will generally be unaccented or secondary. 

When the pronoun is tbe second syllable before the verbal aooent, it receives a 
secondary accent, as — " I' acknowr'edge it." When the vexb itsdf has a se- 
condary accent on the first syUable, it will yield that accent to the pronoun when 
emphatic, unless the latter is not sufficiently emphatic to take a pause after it, 
and form a beat by itself; a£— " We' entertain" - hopes of a recovery, tkougk 
the patient does notf^ or—." We' - en'tertain" - hopes,^"* ffc. (the time of an 
unaccented syllable between the pronoun and verb.) 

Examples of the Third Stage. 
God*s - moral-laws, -the radiations -of his -being, were-designed 

- to converge - in the hiunan - heart, - and - form - there - another 
. sun, -whose - light - is - peace ; peace - irradiating - ererj - ac- 
tion - of the life - and - every - emotion - of the soul. Love - in 
the heart - of God - is - the sum - of his - infinite - attributes, — ^the 
source - of all - his - laws. Love - in the heart - of man - is - the 
fulfilling, — the confluence - of those - laws. Thus, - ** God - is - a 
Sun," and - the human - heart - a satellite, • revolving - areond 
the great - heart - of God, - and - receiving - its - rajrs, - and - re- 
flecting • its - light The royal - law - of love - is - a pencil - of 
God's - attributes, - perfusing - the human - soul - with the grand 

- generic - element - of his - being, - his - love, - and - with tihe Kght - 
of that - love, - which - is - peace. Nay, - more ; - the connexion 

- between the sun - and - its - satellite - comes - far - short - of 
illustrating - the unity - subsisting - between God - and r him - who 

- keeps - his - royal-law. Says - the apostle, ** He - that - dwelleth- 
in love, - dwelleth - in God, - and - God - in him ;" - love - merges 

- his - heart - in the heart - of God, - a tributary - to that - ocean 


- of bliss, - and - light, - and - peace, - with which . the effluence 

- of God's - being - would - fill - the universe, - were - his - rojal - 
law - obeyed - in all - worlds - as - it is - in heaven. 

If - there were - no - other - benefits - resulting - from the art - 
of reading - well, - than - the necessity - it lays us under - of pre- 
cisely - ascertaining - the meaning - of what - we read, - and - the 
habit - of doing - this - with facility, - both - when - reading - 
silently - and - aloud, - they would - constitute - a sufficient - com- 
pensation - for all - the labours - we can - bestow - on the subject. 

There is - not - an evil- incident - tb human - nature,- for which 

- the gospel - doth - not - provide - a remedy. Are you - ignorant 

- of manj - things - which - it - highlj - concerns you - to know ? 

- The gospel - offers you - instruction. Have you - deviated - 
from the path - of duty ? — The gospel - offers you - forgiveness. 
— Do - temptations - surround you? — The gospel- offers you -the 
aid - of Heaven. Are jou - exposed - to misery ? — It consoles 
you. Are you - subject - to death ? — It offers you - immortality. 

There is - a true - sublime - in delivery, - as . in the other - 
imitative - arts ; in the manner - as-well-as . in the matter - of 
what - an orator - delivers. As - in poetry, . painting, - sculpture^ 

- music, - and - the other - elegancies, - the true . sublime - con- 
sbts - in a set - of masterly, . large, • and - noble - strokes . of 
art, - superior - to florid - littleness ;. so . it is - in delivery. The 
accents . are - to be •* clear - and - articulate ; every . syllable - 
standing off - from that, which - is . next - to it, . so . that - they 
might .be - numbered - as - they proceed. The inflexions . of 
the voice - are - to be - so . distinctly - suited - to the matter, • 
that - the humour - or - passions - might - bo - known - by the 
sound - of the voice - only, . where - there could - not -be - one- 
word - heard. And - the variations - are - to be - like - the full - 
swelling • folds - of the drapery - in a fine - picture - or- statue, 

- bold, - and - free, - and - forcible, 

(X - we are - querulous - creatures ! Little - less - 
Than - nothing - can - suffice - to make us - happy ; 
And - little - less - than - nothing - is - enough - 
To make us - wretched. 

At thirty - man - suspects himself - a fool ; 
Knows it - at forty, - and - reforms - his - plan ; 
At fifty, - chides - his - infamous - delay, — 
Poshes - his ^ prudent - purpose - to resolve ; 
In all - the magnanimity - of thought. 
Resolves, - and - re-resolves, - then - dies - the same. 


IV. Adjecti?e Pfohouds may now be united to their nouns, or to the qualifying 
word inteiyening ; and Relative Pronouns to jthe ye^w.wliidi Jthej gSKi^P^fi^ 
by which they are governed^ to fomi the ne^ stage of pop^paeted utterance. 
The componnd pronominal adjectives, my otim, his otrn, S^c. may be considered 
as one, and united with their nouns ; as — ^^ Come' yotL-'-of your own' Qccor^\ 
-munis' it^-your oum' incWningf^ 

The primary accent will be on the pronoun, only when it ia antithetic to some 
othtr, ex(»essed or understood ; as-— ^^ His" woods' ^come' "/'r&m'^ Am mauAf"'- 
oMfA- 'from' our hreasi"^^'* or when it is the anteoedsnt to a jdative ; a»-r 
^ \ fiv"ery mari'^wh) un'derstauds"—^the sub'je€^'-'^ll'--'^.^y' §0,"*"* A Bd^ffi- 
daiy accent will .fall on the pronoun :when it is thfi.secoiid syllable b^biethe 
pnmary,.a^9 — ^^ His' indus"trious - hab'its;^^ but if apreppsition precede the pro- 
noun, the secondaiy accent may pass the pronoun, and give prominence to the 
preposition, according to the sense. In the following sentepce, most reaiden 
would put the secondary accent on the preposition in the first instance, and on 
the pronoun in the second. ^^ By' his indus^'trious^^Jidb'itS'^-Jie rose' — to 
his' disM'guished — station,^^' 


There is - no - music - in the life 
That sounds - with idiot-laughter - solely ; 
There's - not - a string - attuned - to inirth — 
But - has - its chord - in melancholy. 
The principal - rule - fot guiding - our choice - of words - with 
a view - to Energy, - is - to prefer - ever - those words - which are 

- the least - abstract, - and - general. Individuals - alone - hav- 
ing - a real - existence, - the terms - denoting them - caJled - by 
Logicians " singular - terms," - will, - of course, - make - the most - 
vivid - impression - on the mind, - and - exercise - most - the power 

- of conception ; and - the less - remote - any term - is - from 
these, i,e, the more - specific - or - individual, - the more - energy 

- it will - possess - in comparison - of such - as - are - more - general 
The impression - produced - on the mind - by a ** singular - 
term" - may- be - compared - to the distinct - view - taken irirby 
the eye - of any object — suppose - some particular - man - near - at 
hand - in a clear - light, - which enables us - to distinguish - 
the features -of the individual; in a fainter -light, -or -rather 
-farther ofp, -we merely -perceive -that -the object -is -a man; 
this - corresponds -with the idea - conveyed -by the name -of the 
species ; yet - further oflF, - or - in a still - feebler - light, - we 
can - distinguish - merely - some living - object; and - at, length, 

- merely - some object ; these views - corresponding - respec- 
tively - with the terms, - the genera - more - or - l6ss - remote. 
And - as - each - of these views -conveys, - as - far -jas - it goes, 


r an equally ^ correct - impression - to the mind, - though - each - 
successiveljF -is •" less - mid t^ so -in limgnage-a generic -term - 
may -be - as -clearly^ understood - as - a specific - or -asingular - 
term, - but -will - convey - a much -less - forcible - impression -to 
the hearer's - ndind. 

The boast - of heraldry, the pomp - of power. 

And r^all -that beauty, .t all ^ that ppmp - e^er - gave. 
Await,.- j^like,„-- the inevilablfi^- houTv;. . ^ --. . 

The paths - of glory - lead - but - to the grave. 

He - that has - long - cultivated - the tree, and - pleased him- 
self - with computing - how - much - every sun - and - shower - has 

- added - to its growth, - scarcely - stays - till - the fruit - has - 
reached - its maturity, - but - defeats - his own cares - by eager- 
ness - to reward them. 

Know, - Nature's - children - all - divide - her care ; 
The fur - that warms -. a monarch - warmed - a bear. 
While - man r ezclaims, .- "See, - all things-for my.use,*'- 
*' See, - man - for mine ! " - exclaims ^ a pampered ^ goose : 
And - just^- as - short •* of reason, - he must - fall. 
Who thinks -aJl -made -- for one, - not r. one - for all. 

You wrong me -^very way; you wrong me, - Brutus ; - 
I said - fui el4^ - soldier^ - not - a better. . \>- r-x . 

Did I.- say r. better ? • 

The ^^rce - of attitisde - and - looks - alone - appears - in a 
wondroiisly - striking - manner*^ in the works - of the painter - 
and - statuary, *- who have ^ the delicate - art - of nsaking - tine 
fta<) -canvas - and - rocky - marble - utter - every passion - of 
the human^^ mind, - and - touch - the soul - ^f the spectator,' •<• 
as - if •'^tlie picture - or -statue - spoke -the pathetic -laiiguage- 
of Sbakspeare. It is - no - wonder, - then, - that -masterly- action, 

- joined - with powerful - elocution, - should - be - irresistible.' 

Real - actions - Is -» in silent - moments. The epochs - of our 
life - Bre - not - in the visible - facts- of our choice- of a calling, 
" our marriage, - our aoquisitioit ^ of an office - and-- the like ; 
but- in a -silent -thought - by the wayside^- as - we walk ; "m a 
thought - which revises - our entire- manner - of life, - and - says*, -^ 
•< Thus - hast thou - done, " but- it were - better - thus/' And- 
aU - our after-years, - like - menials,^ do - serve - andr wait - on 
this, - anc^^ according vio their s^ility^ - do - execute - it» will. 


v. The N^atives no and not^ and Adverbs qnalifying adjectives oit adverbs, 
seem now least to bear separation from their respective oorrelated words, and 
they may therefore be added to the rhythmical groaps. 

The negative, and adverb of this dass, are generally unaccented, or col/ 
under the secondary accent. The negative takes the primary accent in soch a 
sentence; as— ^^^ To he'^^^or'^^not" to (eV^ because of the emphatic opposition ; 
and the adverb will take the accent when the degree of limitation rather tiian 
the fiict of linutation is to be made promment ; as in the latter part of this ses- 
tence, — " It ts'-^^igh'ly pr<>b"able-^very" prob'ahle — noih'ing'''more" jo'.** 

Examples of the Fifth Stage. 

There is - nothing - in the universe - that stands - alone, — 
nothing - solitary. No atom - of matter, - no drop - of water, - no 
vesicle - of air, - or - ray - of light - exists - in a state - of isolation. 
Everything - belongs - to some system - of society, of which - it 
is - a component - and - necessary - part. Just so - it is - in the 
moral - world. — No man - stands - alone, - nor - high - angel, - 
nor - child. All the beings - " lessening down - from Infinite - 
perfection - to the brink - of dreary - nothing," belong - to a 
system - of mutual - dependencies. All - and - each - constitute 

- and - enjoy - a part - of the world's - sum - of happiness. No 
one - liveth - to himself. The most obscure - individual - exerts 

- an influence - which must - be - felt - in the great - brotherhood 

- of mankind. As - the little - silvery - circular - ripple, - set - in 
motion - by the falling - pebble, - expands - from its inch - of 
radius - to the whole - compass - of the pool, - so - there is not- a 
child, - not - an infant - Moses - placed, - however sofUj, - in his 
bulrush - ark - upon the sea - of time, - whose exbtence - does not 

- stir - a ripple - gyrating - outward - and - on, -until - it shall - 
have - moved across - and - spanned - the whole - ocean - of Qod's 

- eternity, - stirring - even - the river -of life, - and - the fountains 

- at which - his tall - angels - drink. " To be, - or - not to be ?" 

- is that - the question? No. — We are ; - and - whether - we live 

- or - die - we are - the liOrd's ; we belong - to his eternity, - and- 
henceforth - his moral - universe - will- be - filled - with our existence. 

Because - the soul - is - progressive - it never - quite - repeats 
itself, - but - in every act - attempts - the production - of a new 

- and - fairer - whole. Thus, - in our Fine - Arts, - not imita- 
tion, - but - creation - is - the aim. In landscape, - the painter 

- should - give - the suggestion - of a fairer - creation - than - we 
know. The details, - the prose - of Nature, - he should - omit, 

- and - give us - only - the spirit - and - splendour. Valuing - 


more - the expression - of Nature - than - Nature - herself, - he 
will - exalt - in his copy - the features - that {dease him. He 
will - give - the gloom - of gloom, -and - the sunshine -of sunshine. 
With what stiff - and - pedantic - solenmitj - do - some public- 
speakers - utter - thoughts - so trifling - as - to be - hardly worth 

- uttering - at all ! and - what unnatural - and - unsuitable - 
tones - and - gesticulations - do - others - apply - in delivering - 
what, - by their manner - of delivery, - one - would be - apt - to 
question, - not only - whether - it is - their own composition, - but 

- whether - they - really - understand it. 

Methought - I saw - 
Life - swiftly - treading - over endless - space. 
And - at her foot-print - but - a bygone - pace,- 
The ocean-past - which, - with increasing - wave, 
Swallowed - her steps - like - a pursuing - grave. 

Look - how - the golden - ocean - shines - above 
Its pebbly - stones, - and - magnifies - their girth'; 
So - does - the bright - and - blessed - light - of love. 
Its own things - glorify, - and - raise - their worth. 

VI. Auxiliary Verbs may form the next addition, and be read with their princi- 
pal verbs as one oratorical word. Shoold an adverb, or any danse, intervene be- 
tween the auxiliary and principal verb, such word or clanse must stand by itself, 
and the auxiliary be separated ; as—" / shall' ^^^er'tainly — avaiV myself-^^f* 
your kind"nes8y " You may'^-I' assure" you — cal'culate — on this*,^^ 

The primary accent will always fall on the principal verb, unless when the 
circumstances of time, mode, &c. are peculiarly emphatic ; as — " Go' I mu"sV 
" / did" believe' him-once' J*^ ** I do" suspect' him-not' withstand" ing,'^'* ** It 
can"not he done'*^ 

Examples of the Sixth Stage. 
Society - never - advances. It recedes - as fast - on one side - 
as - it gains - on the other. It undergoes - continual - changes ; 
but - this change - is not - amelioration. For everything -that 
is given - something - is taken. Society - acquires - new - 
arts - and - loses - old - instincts. The civilized - man - has built 

- a coach, - but - has lost - the use - of his feet. He is supported 

- on crutches, but - loses - so much - support - of muscle. He 
has got - a fine - Geneva - watch, - but - he has lost - the skill - 
to tell - the hour - by the sun. A Greenwich - nautical-almanac - 
he has, - and - so - being - sure - of the information - when - he 
wants it. - the man - in the street - does not know - a star - in 



tlie Bkj^ The solstice - he knows - as little : and - the ^hole 
bright ^calendar -of the year -is -without a dial '-in his inind. 
' His liote-books - impair - his memory ; his libraries - oyerload - 


Next - to the bleKsing - of redemptiotf ^ and -thd graces-coh- 
se^pielit - upon it« -there is - no gift ^bestowed - *bj God -'eqmd - 
in value - to a good -'edneation-; other adyantages - are enjoyed 
«by the body, - this - belongs - entirely - to the spirit ; whatever 
is - great, - or - good, - or - glorious - in the works - of m^ - is 

- the fruit - of educated - minds. Religion - herself - loses - 
half - her beauty '- and - influence - when - not attended - or - 
assisted - by education ; and - her power - and * majesty - are- 
never - so exalted - as - when - cultivated- genius - and - refined 

- taste - become - her herald& ^ or - lier handmaids. 

On parent-knees - a naked - uew-bom - child. 
Weeping - thou sat'st, - while - all - around thee - smiled ; 
So - live, - that - sinking - on thy last - long - sleep. 
Thou - then - may *st smile - while - all - around thee - weep. 

Ah ! - must I dwell - in infinite - despair, - 
As many years - as - atoms - in the air ? - 
When - these - expire, - as many - yet - in store - 
As - grains - of sand - that crowd - the ebbing - shore ? - 
When - these - are gone, - as many - to ensue - 
As - blades - of grass - on hills - or - dales - that grew? 
When - these - pass o'er, - as many - left behind - 
As - leaves - of forests - shaken - by the wind ? 
When - these - run out, - as many - on the march - 
As - brilliant - lamps - that gild - yon azure - arch ? 
When - these - are past, - as many - many - more. 
As - moments - in the millions - past - before ? 
When - all - these dreadful - years. - are spent - in pain, 
And - multiplied - by myriads - again, 
Till - numbers - drown - the thought : could I suppose - 
That - those - my wretched - years - were - at a close, 
This - would afford - some ease ; but - ah, - I shiver 
To think - upon the dreadful - words - "for ever!" 
The burning - gulf - where - I - blaspheming - lie, ^ 
Is - time - no more, - but - vast - Eternity ! 


Nor - can - any reader - imagine - an art - could have been - in 
all free - governments - so laboriously - cultivated - by statesmen, 
- had they not found it - useful- in the state. Do we not - in our 
own times - see - the effects - produced - by it - in the British - 
Parliament ? But - if - any one - should allege - that - there is - 
nothing - in the power - of preachers - by means - of oratory, - does 
it not follow - that - then - the whole function - of preaching - 
may - as well - be laid aside ? For - if- good - speaking - will have - 
no effect - upon mankind, - surely - bad - speaking - will have none. 

Vn. A most important addition to the groups may now be made in the Ad- 
jective^ which may be indaded with its noan, or phrase eqmvalent, in the same 
oratorical word. Two adjectives cannot, of course, be so connected, for there 
is between them a necessary ellipsis of the noun. 

Noons in the Possessive case may also be added to the groups in this stage ; 
as — " The PiVgrinCs Pro" gress,'*'' '* Which* 4n heav'sn-mll show' -the best^-a 
rich' man's hon"our,-or — a poor' man's hon"esty V The student must now be 
most careftd to regulate the accents in accordance with the sense. The noun 
in the possessive will have the primary accent only in case of antithesis ; as — 
" This is a wo"man^s cloak'^-not' a man's",^^ The adjective will have the 
primary and the noun the secondary accent, when the subject of the sentence is 
rather the quality of the noun than the noun itself; or when the noun has been 
previously expressed or implied in the sentence ; but otherwise the primary accent 
will be generally demanded by the noun. 

It is a common but erroneous rule, that the chief accent should be always on 
the qualifying or limiting word. The primary accent cannot be always on 
either the one or the other, but it is more frequently on the qualified than on 
the qualifying word. In the best class of compositions, a large proportion of 
the adjectives aiid nouns vnll be found to be of equal value ; and of those that 
are not so, the nouns have most frequently the preponderance of emphasis. 
Thus in Pope's short poem of the ** Mesmah,^' we note 103 adjective clauses ; in 
39 of which the adjectives and nouns are of equal value (equally emphatic 
or equally subordinate ;) in 46 of which the nouns are of superior value to the 
adjectives ; and in only 18 of which the adjectives require to be primarily 
accented. In farther illustration, we collect the adjective-dauses from two pieces 
with which every reader must be familiar, — Lord Byron's stanzas to the Ocean, 
and the Rev. C. Wolfe's lines on the Burial of Sir John Moore. 

^^ There is a pleasure in the pathless woods ; There is a rapture on the lonely 
shore ; There is society, where none intrudes. By the deep sea^ and music in its 

roar Roll on, thou deep^ and dark, blue Ocean, — ^roll I Ten thousand fleets 

sweep over thee in vain! The armaments which thunderstrike the walls of 

rock-built cities The oak leviathans^ whose huge ribs make Their clay 

creator the vain title take of lord of thee Time' writes no wrinkles on thine 



azure brow Thou glorious mirror^ where the Almighty *s fbrm glasses 

itself," &c. 

^^ Not a dram was heard, not a funeral note Not a soldier discharged hia 

farewell shot By the struggling moon-beam's misty light. No tiseUss 

coffin enclosed his breast With his martial cZoaA; around him Few 

and short were the prayers we said We thought as we hollowed his nar- 
row bed, And smoothed down his lonely piUow Bat half of our heavy 

task was done And we heard the distant and random gun Lightly 

they'll talk of the spirit that's gone, And o'er his cold ashes upbraid him»" &c 

What reader of any judgement could subordinate the accent on the nouns to 
that of the adjectives in all these cases ? Nay, out of these twenty-four adj^- 
tive-phrases, who could, with justice to the sense, give to more than six or 
seven of the adjectives the primary accent ? 

The student will find the marking of the primary and secondary accents in the 
groups of this and the following stages, a most valuable exercise, both for the 
improvement of readmg, and the cultivation of the judgement. 

To be able to read well at sight is not the work of a day ; nor is it a power 
ever to be gained by the indolent or the unthinking, or by those who neglect 
the study of Beading as a Science, and an Art. There is a Vocal Logic ; a 
Rhetoric of Inflexion ; a Poetry of Modulation ; a Commentator's explanatoriness 
of Tone, and these are combined, in efiective reading. The musician's consum- 
mate skill, and delicacy of execution, in keeping the simple air running with a 
wavy current in the midst of a river of variations, has its counterpart in the 
reader's vocal adaptation of sound to sense. The painter's artistic excellence in 
selecting objects to be strack out with varied effects, or covered down for con- 
trast, is emulated by the skilful reader, in the due subordination and prominence 
of every thought and circumstance, according to its relative importance. A 
master of ceremonies is not more punctilious in his arrangements, than the 
voice of a tasteful and judicious reader. 

Can drawlers dream of these capabilities in connexion with reading ? Can 
they imagine the possibility of such improvements on the hum-drum, sing-song 
tmie of then- voices ; the flat, misty, effectless daubs of their vocal pictures ; 
the anarchy and orderless confusion of their grouping and emphasis ? Baneful 
habit has stopped their ears and closed their eyes, so that they are unconscious 
alike of the high possibilities of reading, and of their own low actualities. No 
man who felt his failings, and knew what might be done by the reader would 
ever open his mouth in public to deteriorate the taste of an audience by such 
gross incompetency as is but too often manifested by public readers. 

To become a good reader reqmres long practice and deep study. It requires 
more than Rules could teach, or Art principle ; yet it demands nothing which 
the mind may not discover for itself, when it has become accustomed to fix its 
attention, and concentrate its powers in reading. The voice will soon learn ex- 
pressive obedience when it habitually watches for, and can recognise the mental 
promptings. Yet, perhaps,— and this forms the value of reading-exerdees in 


educating the mind,-~the student will find, that, even in his best efforts, his 
execution will fall oonaderablj short of his conceptions. 

These remarks may seem misplaced here, — onr business being with the 7th 
stage of grouping and accentuation ; but in tlie worst reading, it is improper 
grouping and accentuation that make the reading so bad ; and the error lies 
most frequently in the management of Adjectives and qualifying phrases. So 
that, with good reason, we take occasion here to caution the student to be very 
careful, in this and the following stages, to cultivate a habit of close-thinking 
as he reads, and of careful relative accentuation. 

Examples of the Seventh Stage. 
Take - the general term, - man. We have - occasion - to apply 
it - to the denoting - of some particular. Let it be required - to 
express - this particular - as - unknown, - we say- a" man' ; - known, 

- we say - the" man' ; - indefinite, - any man ; - definite, - a certain 
man ; - present - and - near, - this man ; - present - and - distant, - 
that man ; - like - to some other, - such a man ; - an indefinite mul- 
titude, - many men ; - a definite multitude, - a thousand men ; - the 
ones - of a multitude - taken - throughout, - every man ; - the same 
ones - taken - with distinction, - each man ; - taken - in order, - first 
man, - second man, &c. ; - the whole multitude - of particulars - 
taken - collectively, - all men ; - the negation - of this multitude, - 
no man. 

I hold - our actual knowledge - very cheap. Hear - the rats - 
in the wall, - see - the lizard - on the fence, - the fungus - under 
foot, - the lichen - on the log. What - do I know - sympatheti- 
cally - morally - of either - of these worlds - of life ? As long - 
as - the Caucasian man, - perhaps longer, - these creatures - have 
kept - their council - beside him, - and - there is - no record - of 
any word - or - sign - that has passed - from one - to the other. 
Nay - what does - history - yet - record - of the metaphysical 
annals - of man ? What light - does it shed - on those mysteries - 
which we hide-- under the names - Death - and - Immortality ? 
Yet - every history - should be written - in a wisdom - which 
divined - the range - of our affinities, - and - looked - at facts - as 
symbols. I am ashamed « to see - what a shallow village-tale - 

- our so-called History - is. 

The convincing - and - irrefragable proof - that - real - and - 
important effects - might be produced - by preachers - by a proper 
application - of oratory - to the purposes - of instructing - and * 
amending - mankind - is, - that - oratory - has been - in all times 

- known - actually - to produce - great alterations - in men's ways 

- of thinking - and - acting. And - there is - no denying - facts. 


Sonnet. — Lear, 
A poor - old king - with sorrow - for my crown, - 
Throned - upon straw, - and - mantled - with the wind, - 
For pity - mj own tears - have made me - blind - 
That - 1 might • never - see - my children's frown ; 
And - may-be - madness • hke a friend - has thrown - 
A folded fillet - over my dark mind, 
So - that - unkindly speech -may sound - for kind, - 
Albeit - I know not. I am - childish - grown - 
And - have not - gold - to purchase - wit * withal. - 
I - that have - once - maintained - most royal state, 
A very bankrupt - now, - that may not call - 
My child, - my child — all beggar*d - save - in tears. 
Wherewith - 1 - daily - weep - an old man*s fate, 
Foolish, - and - blind, - and - overcome - with years ! — Hood. 

YIII. Nounfl, adjectiTCS, adverbs, or siinple equivalent phrases formiDg the 
thing or quality predicated by the verb To Be, may be united to the verb, to 
form the next stage of rhythmically compacted utterance ; as— .^' Content' 
ment - is great gain^ 

The verb seldom takes the primary accent, unless what is aflirmed is of kai 
importanoe in the sentence than the act of affirmation. Thos, when opposed to 
a negation — expressed or implied.— or when there is an antithesis of time, the 
verb will be primarily accented ; but otherwise it will be nnaooented, or will 
take only the secondary accent ; as — ^^ Is' it so" f^ (or is it otherwise ? un- 
derstood. "/*" it so'f (or is it not so? understood.) "7#" it so'?' 
(I know it was so^ understood.) 

Examples of the Eighth Stage. 
It may - perhaps - be objected, - that - sacred truth - needs - no 
ornaments - to set it off, - no art - to enforce it ; that - the 
Apostles - were artless - and - illiterate men ; and - jet - they 
gained - the great end - of their mission, - the conviction - of mul- 
titudes, - and - establishment - of their religion ; tliat - therefore - 
there is no necessity - for this attention - to delivery, - in order - to 
qualify- the preacher - for his sacred office, - or- render - his labours 

- successful. To this - the answer - is ready, - viz. - The apostles - 
were not all - artless - and - illiterate. Paul, - the greatest - and 

- most general propagator - of Christianity, - is an eminent excep- 
tion. He could be no mean orator - who confounded - the Jews - 
at Damascus ; - made - a prince, - before whom - he stood - to be 
judged, - confess - that - he had - almost - persuaded him - to bopome 


- a convert - to a religion - everywhere - spoken against ; threw 
another - into a fit - of trembling - as - he sat - upon his judgment- 
seat ; made - a defence - before the learned court - of Areopagus, 

- which gained him - for a convert - a member - of the court itself; 
struck - a whole people - with such admiration - that - thej took 
him - for the God - of Eloquence ; - and - gained him - a place - in 
Longinus' list - of famous orators. Would - the cold-served-up 
monotony- of our English sermon-readers - have produced - such 
effects - as these ? The apostles - might - very well - spare - 
human accomplishments, - having - what was worth them all, - 
the Divine gift - of working - miracles ; which - if - our preachers 

- had, - I should not have - much - to say - about their qualifying 
themselves - in elocution. But, - as it is, - public instruction - 
is the preacher's weapon - with which - he is to combat - infidelity 

- and - vice. And - what avails - a weapon - without skill - to 
wield it ? 

It is easy - in the world - to live - after the world's opinion ; 

- it is easy - in solitude - to live - after our own ; - but - the great 
man - is he - who, - in the midst - of the crowd, - keeps -with per- 
fect sweetness - the independence - of solitude. 

The material cause, — the trumpet - sounds - because -'tis made 

- of metal. The formal cause, — the trumpet - sounds - because - 
'tis long - and - hollow. The efficient cause, — the trumpet - 
sounds - because - an artist - blows it. The final cause, — the 
trumpet - sounds - that - it may raise - our courage. 

Those things - which are first - to Nature - are not first - to 
man. Nature - begins- from causes, - and - thence - descends - to 
effects. — Human perceptions - first - open - upon effects, - and - 
thence, - by slow degrees, - ascend - to causes. 
Like - to the falling - of a star, 
Or - as - the flights - of eagles - are, — 
Or - like the fresh spring's - gaudy hue, 
Or - silver drops - of morning dew ; 
Or - like a wind - that chafes - the flood. 
Or - bubbles - which - on water - stood : 
Even such - is man - whose borrowed light - 
Is - straight - called in - and - paid - to niglit ; — 
The wind - blows out, - the bubble - dies, 
The spring - entombed - in Autumn - lies, — 
The dew*s - dried up, - the star - is shot. 
The flight - is past, - and - man - forgot. 



IX. UiiimpcirUnt Conjmictiuiif.— tbote diiefly which couple woidt, or niiik 
daiues, and not leadiug seatenoes, and which are not followed by dK pro, -j mj 
DOW be iDdaded in the same rfajthmical group with the word or daoae which tkj 
precede; a»— " Whoev'er ^ is' in a kur"ry - thcw^' - that* ike tkinjf'k 
if' about"- is too' big"' for him ; ha»U' -and kur'ry - are oer> d^'finU 

When a parenthens or an emphatic advert) ibflowB the coojimction, it mart 
be kept apart ; as—'' /' shaUoaU"- atuf, - if poe"eibie, - ae'eerttM'-Jm 

- mat'ters - are' progres" sing^^' 

To thiB stage may be added, daoset eonneeted bj conjunctioaa or pRpai* 
tiooa, which are expressiTC of altematioo ; a^^*'' Now and them jT *'*' (h»\% 
one;** '' Backward and forward ;^^ ^'' Up and down^^'' Sfe. fduchmajbetakoi 
into one group. Example.—'' It was the village favourite - who was cnmui 

- with flowers^ - and - blushing and smilmg - in all the beautiful confiukm - 
of girlish diffidence - and delight,^ 

'' From hiU to hill - the nuhing host - pnraned.'* 
" From tent to tent - the impatient warrior - ffiea." 
Words or simple phrases nnited by oonjonctiona, when so doeely oonneoted is 
the sense that they are not intended separately to have tuaj foroe in the n- 
tenoe, may also be taken into the group ; as,— 

" Mount - thy good steed - and - thou and I- will meet him - oo his wi^." 
In all cases where the conjunction does not demand a separate accent, it wiH 
be unaccented or only of secondary force. 

Examples of the Ninth Stage. 
Innumerable instances - could be adduced - to proye - the nst 
importance - which belongs - to an effective enunciation. Far 
greater numbers - of our preachers - fail - for want - of this - than 

- from any other cause ; a fact - so notorious - as to need - no 
proof - beyond common observation, - and - so important - as to 
demand • the attention, - not only - of the Professors, - but of the 
Committees - of all our Colleges. It is - too generallj - the case, 

- that - no adequate culture - is bestowed - upon the speaking 
powers - of our students - from the beginning - to the end - of 
their course - of study. There is great assiduity « manifested - 
in giving them - a fulness - of matter, - but - far too little - in 
producing - an impressiveness - of manner. Every assistance -is 
granted - to make them - scholars, - philosophers, - and divines ; 
but, - as to good speaking, - for the acquisition - of this - they are 
left - pretty much - to themselves. A complete system - of minis- 
terial education - must - of necessity - include - some attention -to 
elocution, - and - which should commence - as soon - as a student - 
enters - college ; so that - by the time - he is put - upon the 


preaching list, - he maj have - some aptitude - for the manage- 
ment - of his voice, - and not have - his thoughts - diverted - 
then ' from his matter - and his object - to his manner. He should 

- bj that time - have acquired - a habit - of good speaking, - so as 
to be able - to practise it - with facility - and without study. The 
great objection - to lectures - on Elocution-is, - that thej are apt 

- to produce - a pompous, - stiff, * and affected manner ; but- 
this - is an abuse - of the art, - the object - of which > should 
be - to cure - the vices - of a bad, - and to supply - the wants - of 
a defective enunciation^ - and - to form - an easy, - natural, - and 
impressive delivery. — Eev, J, A, James, 

Every evil - to which - we do not succumb - is a benefactor. As 
the Sandwich Islander - believes - that the strength - and valour 

- of the enemy - he kills - passes - into himself, - so - we gain - the 
strength - of the temptation - we resist. 

The man - who has seen - the rising moon - break - out of the 
clouds - at midnight, - has been present - like an archangel - at 
the creation - of light - and of the world. 

The sun - hath - almost - reached - his journey's close, - 

The ray - he sheds - is gentle, - softly bright, - 

Pure - as the pensive light - from woman's eyes - 

When - kindled up - by retrospective thoughts, - 

Wandering - to former scenes - of love - and joy. 

But yet - there is a melancholy tinge - 

In that rich radiance : - and - a passing thought - 

Of things departed^ - and of days gone by. - 

At such an hour - insensibly - will weave 

Itself - into the texture - of the scene. - 

Nothing - departs - alone : - the dying day - 

fiears - with it - many • to the last repose. - 

The setting sun, - so gorgeously - arrayed - 

In beams - of light, - and - curtained - round about - 

With clouds - steeped - in the rainbow's richest dyes, - 

So fair, - so full - of light - and living glory, - 

That - with the ancient Persian, - one might deem 

Him - God - of all - he looks upon - below — 

His setting - ushers in - a night - to some - 

Which -morning - shall not breaL — AUx. Beihune. 

X, tJnemphatic adverbs of time, place, interrogation, manner, &c., and gene- 
rally nnemphatic adverbs qualifying verbs, and also simple adverbial phrases, may 

248 RHYTHM. 

be grouped with the word or clause before or after them, or with both, aoooidin; 
to the degree of oorrektioD, to form the next stage of claunng. *^ He - who waOt'- 
eth up"r%ghtly - walk'eth au"rely." ** Some" peo'ple - wili nev'er kam" an'$- 
thing, - for this' rea^son, - because' - theyun'derstand" ev'eiything too' soon'"." 
*' It often hap"pens^ - that those' - are' the best" peo'ple - whoee' char"acten 
- have' been mast' %n"jured - by slan'der ; as', - we u'guaUyfind' that" - to be' 
the swee'test fruit" - which' - the bwds' - have' been peck"ing at.'* " / 
afterwards - learned' - the whole' 8to"ry - of the deceased"." 

" Stretched' - on' the ground" awhile' - entranced' he lay'." 
'^ r and my friends" - afterwards discov"ered - that' we had been' deceived^'.'' 
** Spark' - of that' flame" perchance - of heav"enly birth', - 
Which' gleams", - but' warms" no mor'e - its cher'ished earth"." 
Evil, - be thou'" my' good" J by thee', - at least' 
Divi"ded Em'pire, - with Heav'en's King" - I hold'. 
The adverb may frequently have the primary accent ; though, here, as m the 
cases before noticed, the quali^ring word is only accented when some special 
reference to the qualifying circumstance renders it emphatic. 

Examples op the Tenth Stage. 
True eloquence - does not wait - for cool approbation. Like 
irresistible beauty, - it transports, - it ravishes, - it commands - 
the admiration - of all - who are within its reach. If it allows - 
time - to criticise, - it is not genuine. It ought - to hurry us-out 
of ourselves, - to engage, - and swallow up - our whole attention ; 
to drive everything - out of our minds, - besides the subject - it 
would hold forth, - and the point - it wants - to carry. The 
hearer - finds himself - as unable - to resist it - as to blow out - a 
conflagration - with the breath - of his mouth, - or - to stop - the 
stream - of a river - with his hand. His passions - are no longer 
his own. The orator - has taken - possession - of them ; and - 
with superior power - works them - to whatever he pleases. 
There is no earthly object - capable - of making - such various - 
and such forcible impressions - upon the human mind - as a con- 
summate speaker. In the artificial creations, - which flow - from 
the pencil - of a Raphael, - the critical eye - is indeed delighted - 
to a high pitch ; - but the ear - remains wholly unengaged - and 
unentertained. In the raptures - of Corelli, - Geminiani, - and 
Handel, - the flood - of pleasure - which pours - upon the ear - is 
almost too much - for human nature ; - but here - the eye - has 
not - its gratification. For the opera, - in which - action - is joined 

- with music, - in order - to entertain - the eye - at the same time 

- with the ear, - I must beg leave, - with all due submission - to 
the taste - of the great, - to consider it - a forced conjunction - of 


two things, - which - nature - does not allow - to go together. It 
never will be other than unnatural - to see - heroes - fighting, - 
commanding, - threatening, - lamenting, - and making love - in 
the warblings - of an Italian song. It is onlj the elegant speaker 
-who can at once- regale -the eje-with the view -of its most 
amiable object, - the human form - in all its glorj ; - the ear - with 
the original - of all music, - the understanding - with its proper - and 
natural food, - the knowledge - of important truths ; - and the ima- 
gination - with all - that - in nature - or in art - is beautiful, - 
sublime, - or wonderful. For - the orator's field - is the universe, - 
and - his subjects - are - all that is known - of God, - and his 
works ; - of superior natures - good - and evil, - and their works ; 
and - of terrestials, - and theirs. Whoever is proof - against such 
a display, - must have - neither eye, - nor ear, - nor passion, - nor 
imagination, - nor taste, - nor understanding. 

Friend, - thou must trust - in Him - who trod before - 

The desolate path - of life : - 

Must bear - in meekness, - as He meekly bore - 

Sorrow, - and pain, - and strife. 

Think - how the Son - of God - 

These thorny paths - hath trod ; - 

Think - how He longed - to go, - 

Yet tarried out - for thee, - the appointed woe. 

Think - of his weariness - in places dim, - 

Where no man - comforted, - or cared - for Him. - 

Think -of the blood-like sweat - 

With which - his brow - was wet, - 

Yet - how He prayed, - unaided - and alone, - 

In that great agony — " Thy will -be done I'* 

Friend ! - do not thou despair, - 

Christ - from his heaven - of heavens • will hear - thy prayer. 

XI. The word or simple clause constitnting the object of an active or transitive 
verb, as — " To love wr<w«," — ** to esteem an honourable man ;" and the word 
or clause forming the complement of an intransitive verb ; as — " To lie in- 
terred, — to go home, — to grow disproportioned, — to become near-sighted,^^ 
4fO., may generally be united to the verb in the same oratorical word. 

In these cases, the verb usually takes the secondary accent ; as in the sen- 
tence—" To instruct' the ig"noranty — relieve' the fiee"dy9—and com' fort 
the afflict" ed^ are duties that fall in our way every day of our lives." But if this 
arrangement were altered, and the object or complemental word or clause made 

1 1 

tSQ rhythic-4;boupoig. 

to yreoBdetht Tcrfo, the bncr would take die priaanr aeoeDt ; aa — ^^Tkeiff' 
norami to' iu*trmet"^tk€ need§ f ntue^'^At ^glieted tm eom"ftH^ S^. 
The wr>ni§ of each group sbouU be wdl weigbed, ami the aixfnu giren ai 
the jodgcmcnt mar decide. 

Examples of the Elevutu Stack. 
There are instances enough - of natural defects - snrmoimted, • 
and eminent speakers - formed - bj inde&tigable diligence, - in 
spite - of them. Demosthenes - coold not, - when he began to 
stodj rhetoric, - pronounce the first letter - of the name - of his 
art, - and - Cicero - was long-necked - and narrow-chested. But • 
diligent - and £euthfiil labour - in what - one is in earnest about, - 
surmounts all difficulties. Tet-we are commonlj enough dis- 
gusted - bj public speakers - lisping - and stammering, - and • 
speaking - through the nose, - and - pronouncing the letter B * 
with the throat, - instead of the tongue, - and the letter S - like 
Th, - and screaming above, - or croaking below - all natural pitch - 
of human voice ; - some - mumbling, - as if - thej were conjuring 
up spirits, - others - bawling - as loud - as the rociferons Tenders • 
of provisions - in London streets ; -some - tumbling out the words- 
so precipitately, - that no ear - can catch them ; - others - dragging 
them out - so slowlv, - that - it is as tedious - to listen - to them - as- 
to count a great clock ; - some - have got a habit - of shrugging np 
their shoulders ; - others - of see-sawing - with their bodies, - some- 
backward and forward, - others - from side to side ; - some - raise 
their eyebrows - at every third word ; - some - open their mouths 
frightfully ; - others - keep their teeth - so close together - that one 
would think - their jaws - were set ; - some - shrivel all their features 
together - into the middle - of their faces ; - some - push out their 
lips, - as if - they were mocking the audience ; - others - hem - at 
every pause ; - and others - smack - with their lips, - and roll their 
tongues about - in their mouths, - as if - they laboured - under a 
continual thirst. All which bad habits - they ought - to have been 
cured of - in early youth, - or - put - into ways - of life - in which - 
they would have, - at least, - offended fewer persons. 
'Tis liberty alone - that gives - the flower - 
Of fleeting life - its lustre - and perfume ; - 
And - we are weeds - without it. All constraint - 
Except - what wisdom - lays - on evil men - 
Is evil : - hurts the faculties, - impedes 
Their progress - in the road - to science ; blinds 
The eyesight - of discovery ; and begets - 
In those - that suffer it - a sordid mind, - 


Bestial, - a meagre intellect, - unfit - 
To be the tenant - of man's noble form. 

The bird - let loose - in eastern skies, - 

When hastening fondlj - home, - 
Ne'er stoops - to earth - her wing, - or flies, - 

Where idle wanderers - roam ; - 
But - high she shoots - through air - and Ught, - 

Above all low delaj, - 
Where nothing earthly - bounds her flight, - 

Or shadow - dims her way. 
So - grant me, - God, - from every stain- 

Of sinful passion - free, - 
Aloft - through virtue's purer air, - 

To steer my course - to Thee ! - 
No sin - to cloud, - no lure - to stay 

My soul - as - home - she springs ; - 
Thy sunshine - on" her joyful way, - 

Thy freedom - on her wings. 

XII. Simple Relative and Restrictive dauses, — ^those ebiefly which are intro- 
duced by Relative Pronouns or Prepositions, — ^may be added to the oratorical 
word, when they seem necessary to complete a portion of the sense ; as^ — 
" Amu'sement - W the ha,p"pmesa'Of those' that can'not think", ^^ 

In this stage, the nominative and verb may be united when they occur in 
secondary clauses^ or when they have been previously either expressed or im- 
plied in the sentence ; and also when the verb precedes its nominative ; as— 
" Complaint' - is the lar'gest trib'"ute heav'en receives/' - and' the since*" rest 
part' of our devo"tion.^^ " Canman conceive"- beyond' what God' can do"?^^ 

Examples of the Twelfth Stage. 
After the death of Mr M'Cheyne, - there was found - upon his 
desk - an unopened note - from one who had heard his last sermon, - 
to this effect : — " Pardon a stranger - for addressing to you a few 
lines. I heard you preach - last Sabbath evening, - and - it pleased 
God - to bless that sermon to my soul. It was not so much - what 
you said, - as your manner of saying it, - that struck me. I saw in 
you - a beauty of holiness - I never saw before." This - is only 
one instance - out of ten thousand, - in which - the earnestness of 
a preacher's manner - has secured that attention to his matter - 
which would not otherwise have been paid to it. The power 
of oratory - has its foundations - in the principles of our nature. 
It is vain to pretend - that matter - is, - or ought to be, - every- 


thing, - and manner, - nothing. Manner - is, - so to speak, - the 
harbinger - and herald of matter, - sonmioning the faculties of 
the soul - to give audience to the truth to be communicated, - 
and - holding the mind - in a state of abstraction from all other 
subjects - that would divert the thoughts, - and preyent impression. 
True wit - is Nature to advantage dressed, — 
What oft was thought, - but - ne'er so well expressed ; — 
Something - whose truth, - convinced at sight, - we find. 
That gives us back - the image of our mind. - 
As shades - more sweetlj recommend the light, - 
So - modest plainness - sets off sprightly wit. 
For - works - may have more wit than does them good. 
As bodies - perish through excess of blood. 

Some - dream - that thej can silence when thej will- 
The storm of passion, - and say, - " Peace, - be still ! " 
But, - " Thus far, - and no farther !" - when addressed 
To the wild wave, or - wilder human breast, - 
Implies authority - that never can, - 
And never ought to be, - the lot of man. 

'Tis but a night, - a long - and moonless night : - 
We make the grave our bed, - and then - are gone. 
Thus - at the shut of even, - the weary bird - 
Leaves the wide air, - and - in some lonely brake - 
Cowers down, - and dozes till the dawn of day, - 
Then - claps his well-fledged wings, - and soars away. 


Child of the sun ! - pursue thy rapturous flight, - 
Mingling with her thou lov'st - in fields of light, - 
And - where the flowers of paradise unfold, - 
Quaff fragrant nectar - from tlieir cups of gold : - 
There - shall thy wings, - rich as an evening sky, - 
Expand and shut - with silent ecstasy. 
Yet, - wert thou once a worm, — a thing - that crept 
On the bare earth, - then - wrought a tomb - and slept. 
And - such - is man ! - soon - from his cell - of clay- 
To burst, - a seraph, - in the blaze of day. — Rogers. 

We have now ascended from the simplest combinations of words 
to their highest rhythmical arrangements in clauses : in doing so, 
we have laid open a series of exercises of the highest utilitv to 
students of Elocution. The various stages of the Art of Reading 


embrace every principle of Rhetorical Punctuation ; so that the 
study of any other system of pausing is by these grouping exer- 
cises rendered imnecessary.* 

Our scheme of Reading- Exercises should be useful, not only to 
the student of Elocution, but to the ordinary English learner, as an 
advanced lesson, and a revisal of grammatical principles, which 
may thus be j&xed more practically upon the memory than by the 
ordinary exercises of the grammar class. 

With reference to the articulation of the various groups, it may 
be weU to caution the reader, that the words in each group are 
not to be uttered in such an unbroken and dovetailed connexion 
as to admit of no separatioi^ of the organs from beginning to end ; 
but every principle of distinctness must be attended to. Initial 
vowels must have a clear commencement, independently of the 
word before them ; final vowels must be kept clear of the word 
after them ; and double articulations, or unfluent combinations, 
must be distinctly articulated without loss of any of their elements. 

Besides this verbal articulative nicety, there may be such a 
farther distinctiveness of utterance as to denote the lesser groups 
within the greater ones. This need not amoimt to a pause ; the 
slightest break of vocal continuity will serve the purpose. At 
the end of each group there should be a decided pause, with such 
a progression of voice as to indicate clearly whether what is to be 
next said modifies, or is in any way connected with, what has been 
uttered ; — and in what degree : or, whether what has been said 
is complete in itself, and independent on what succeeds. 

In case of Emphasis, words which are here the most closely con- 
nected are often separated : a break in the flow of grammatical 
articulation, being one of the most common and powerful means 
of expressing emphasis. 

We subjoin a few passages in illustration of the influence of 
Emphasis on grouping. They embrace instances of the disjunc- 
tion of almost every class of words which in the foregoing stages 
of clausing are united. The figures refer to the different stages. 

Emphatic Disjunctions. 
Pleads he in earnest ? Look upon his face : 
His eyes do drop no tears ; — ^his prayers are jest ; 
His words come from his mouth ; ours from our breast ; 

^ The Student is referred to the chapter on Modulation for an important 
and most effective principle of clansular arrangement, which may be considered 
as a further, and the final stage of Grouping^ 


Hg* - praja bat faint];, and wonLd be denied i 
We* - praj with heart and aonl, and all beside. 

There are e. eort of men whose nsagea. 
Do cream and mantle like a Handing ymd ; 
And do a wilAd edllnesa enterloin. 
With pnipoee to be dressed in on o[Mnion 
Of wisdom, gravity, profound oonoeit. 
As who ahould oaj, I' - am* - Sir Oracle, 
And when 1* - ope mj tips, let no dog baik' 
0, Sir, ycmi* • booest; is remarkable, 
Hear him, mj lord ; he's* - wondnxu OOadeBoeudiajf. 
Hark the' - bumility of* - shepherd Norral. 
Here, under leave of Bmtus and tiie rest, — 
For Brntna ia an' - honourable man— 
So are thej all, aU honooiable men, — 
Come I to speak in Ciesar's iimeral. 
He* - laised a mortal to the skiea, 
8he*_- drew an angel down. 
This ooimptible moBt put on" - incorrapliou, and thia mortal, i 

If a Jew wrong a Cbrisdan, what is hia' — homilitj ? Berenge. 

tjan wrong a Jew, what should hie' . sufferance be, b;* - Cfaristiut' 

Why, revenge 1 

Still it cried, " Sleep no more I" to all the hoiue, 

" Glamia bath murdered sleep, and therefore Cawdor 

Shall* - sleep" - no* - more." 

And Nathan said unto David, Thou* - art the man. 
b there no placQ 
Left for repmlance ? None for pardon left ? ^ 

None left but by* - submisiiort ; and that word 
Ksdain forbids me. 

'Twere well, if here will end 
The misery ; I deserved it, and would bear 
Hy own deservings ; but this will not serve : — 
All that I eat, or drink, or ahaU beget, 
h*^^yiagaled curse I 
Iiet me tell you, CaBeina, you yourself 
Are much condemued to have" — an' itching palm 1 
Shall I Iwnd low, and, in a bondman's key, 
With bat«d breadi and whispering hnmUeneas, 
Say this— 


^^ Fair Sir I jouf - ^it on me, on Wednesday last ; 
Yon flpnmed me, sooh a day ; another time 
You called me" - dog ; and for these^ - courtesies^ 
I'll lend you thus much monies. 

" Well, how's the patient ?" Bolus said. 

John sho(^ his head. 
" Indeed ! hum I^^ha I that's veiy odd I 

He took the draught?" i(Am gave a nod. 
" Well ! how! what then? — speak out, you dunce." 
" Why, then," says John, "We* - shook him «» - once." 

Not to detain you from a thing so strange, 

A gentleman who lives not far from 'Change, 

This week, in short, as all the alley knows, 

Taking a puke, has thrown up - ^^ three Black Crows. . 

Did you, sir, throw up — " a black' - crow ? " Not I," 

" At the last I did' - throw up, and told my neighbour so, 
Something that was' - as black, sir,'as a crow." 

No man could better ^d a pill, 

Or^ make a bill. 
Or* mix a draught, or* bleed, or' blister ; 
Or draw a tooth out of your head. 
Or chatter scandal by your bed, 

Oi' spread a plaster. 

Emphasis is commonly considered to be merely an increased 
stress of voice or articulation ; but there is an Emphasis of Timey 
produced by a slower or quicker rate of utterance ; an Emphasis 
of Modulation^ by a change, as it were, of the key-note to a higher 
or lower pitch ; an Emphasis of Inflexion, by a sweep of the voice 
upwards or downwards ; an Emphasis of Monotone, by a solemn, 
little-varying movement of the voice ; an Emphasis of Aspiration^ 
by a sighing, husky, or choking expression of the voice; an 
Emphasis of Whisper even ; and, combined with nearly all these 
modes of giving prominence to words, the Emphasis of Pause, as 
we have seen — ^besides the Emphasis of Force or Stress, which is 
vulgarly considered the type of all Emphasis. 

The reason of the peculiarly emphatic power of Pauses, as ex- 
emplified in the passages above cited, is, that the mind naturally 
looks for the immediate sequence of those words which are neces- 
sary to give it a distinct and perfect impression ; and if a pause 
be made when the sense is so incomplete as not naturally to ad- 
mit of one, the attention will be roused, and expectation, and even 

266 0R0UPIN6_EM:PHAj91S. 

curiositj, excited— on the watch for the consuxmnation of the sai 
In proportion to the degree of hiatus made, and the change 
modulation, force, time, &c., assumed on the emphatic uttenuK 
will he the degree of the emphasis, and the satisfactory fiilfihn6i 
of the expectation raised. 

When the preparation for important emphasis is thus made 
hefore words which are too insignificant to be so di^ified, we 
feel a vexatious disappointment on their utterance. This prin- 
ciple is therefore one of the most effective in giving point to anj- 
thing comic or ludicrous. The hearer is tricked into expectatioii ; 
and, when a moimtain seems in lahour, lo ! there comes forth a 
mouse ! 

Thus in the following little piece, if all but the last two lines 
are feelingly read, we shall he inclined to buffet the reader when 
at last he comes to the climax. But indeed the reader himself 
maj he more ludicrously deceived by this than the hearer. For 
this purpose the effect will be best secured by writing the lines so 
as to render a turn-over necessary for the denouement. 


There^s somewhat on my breast, Father, My kin are leal and true, Father, 

There^s somewhat on my breast ! They mourn to see my grief; 

The livelong day I sigh, Father ; But, oh ! *tis not a kinsman^s hand 

At night I cannot rest. Can give my heart relief. 

I cannot take my rest, Father, Tis not my love is false, Fath^, 

Though I would fain do so ; *Tis not that she^s unkind ; 

A weary weight oppresseth me. Though busy flatterers swarm around, 

The weary weight of woe ! I know her constant mind : 

*Tis not the lack of gold. Father, ^Tis not her coldness, Father, 

The lack of worldly gear ; That pains my labouring bi^ast ; 

My lands are broad, and fair to see, *Tis — that confounded encumber 

My friends are kind and dear ; I ate, and can^t digest. 

In concluding this part of our subject, we have only farther to 
remark, that the close of a period should be generally indicated 
in reading, by a closer rhythm, — a more frequent recurrence of 
accent — and less connectedness of grouping, than throughout the 
rest of the period. This enables the reader to impress the last 
words more strongly and with more point than could be generallT 
maintained throughout a sentence ; secures his ease ; and prevents 
the awkwardness of a panting, breathless, *' coming in ;" and be- 
sides, imparts a manifest dignity to the conclusion. 



The tones of the voice in Speech, have a characteristic formation 
which distinguishes them from the tones of the voice in song. 
The latter are contintmtions of given length on even musical sounds, 
— ^monotones ; and the former are inflexions of greater or less ex- 
tent, upwards or downwards from the tone on which they begin. 
The progression of the scale in singing is by a bound or leap over 
the interval from note to note, so^ that no intermediate sound 
is formed between those which are the object of effort ; and the 
progression of speaking-tones is by a sweep of the voice over all 
the intervals, so that every intermediate sound is touched in the 
progress of the inflexion. 

Sometimes an inflected formation of voice is used in singing ; 
and it is, especially in plaintive passages, productive of flne effect ; 
and sometimes a degree of the monotonous formation is employed 
in speech ; but rarely, — and then chiefly for the expression of 
solemn or plaintive sentiments. But a perfect monotone has no 
place in speech, and an ordinary speaking-inflexion is never found 
in song. The similar sounds which we have stated to be occa- 
sionally employed, may be properly called Inflected.Monotones : 
they are prolongations of a commencing tone, finished by inflexion. 
The three modes of vocal progression may be analogically repre- 
sented thus. 

Monotone — Song. Inflected Monotone. Inflexion — Speech. 

All spoken sounds, however abrupt, have, correctly, the in- 
flected formation ; though an ear unaccustomed to very accurate 
observation might not readily detect it in the little tittles of sound 
heard in many of our syllables, — it^ at, ate, up, &c. But sufli- 
ciently close attention will discover inflexion in the shortest, as 
well as in the longest of our sounds. Those prolonged monotones 
which are heard in what is called a sing-song delivery, are, there- 



fore, barbarisms ; they belong neither to B])eech nor song : they 
are a sort of recitative, passionless, senseless, and unnatural, to 
which, nevertheless, good sentiments are often chanted and 
drawled by worthy men. 

Animated conversation is the most inflected kind of speech, and 
the language of solemn warning or of prayer, the least inflected. 
Reading, and speaking from memory, are generally much less 
inflected, and therefore less natural, agreeable, and impressive, 
than conversation and extemporaneous delivery ; and that reading 
must be considered the best which approaches most nearlj in its 
tones to conversational and extemporal variety. 

Even the most effective speakers, — ^those who are perfectly free 
from any drawling, tune, or sing-song, — can seldom giye utteranoe 
to a studied address with the same spontaneity of tone and man- 
ner which characterizes a perfectly extemporary delivery ; jet such 
might easily do so, or at least make a very close approximation to 
this, by a little art, and by art of such a nature that none need 
hesitate to practise it ; for it would infaUibly tend to " hide itself/* 
and so fulfil the conditions of artistic perfection : — " the Art iUelf 
18 Nature,'* 

But our observations on this the highest attainment in delivery 
would be premature in this place, and perhaps, in some degree, 
unintelligible, without the necessary explanations and illustrations 
of the mechanism and application of inflexions, which we shall, 
therefore, in the first place offer. 

The subject of Inflexion has been more fully treated by most 
authors than any other department of Elocution ; and the mass 
of Rules, Observations, and Examples which they have accumu- 
lated, have so overloaded the simple natural principles that lie at 
the bottom of all genuine rules, that not one student in fifty can 
discover them. The consequence too often is, that Elocutiimaiy 
students either throw up the study, in disgust at the stiff unna- 
tural mannerism it seeks to impart ; or, less fortunately, per- 
haps, imbibing something of its principles, awkwardly endea- 
vour their adoption, in ignorance of a better directory ; or else, 
judging ^^ Elocution" to be, what it too often really seems, a thing 
of no fixed principles, but, regulated only by taste or ci^nioe, 
form systems of their own, founded on some favourite model, or 
on a combination of incongruous models ; and thus gradually swell 
the ranks of tuneful ranters, and level drawlers. 


Elocution, according to the great majority of system-makers, 
appears to be nothing else than the management of Inflexion. 
Ask them " what is the chief point in Delivery ?** Repeat, and 
reiterate the question. The answer is still the same, " Inflexion i" 
The ancients, who better understood the subject, thought other- 
wise ; ind their oft-cited foreman Demosthenes, the most honour- 
able example of excellence attained by persevering effort, and in 
spite, too, of habitual and physical drawbacks, said otherwise, and 
acted on a very different principle. When he determined to 
qualify himself for oratory, he wisely and rationally began with 
his articulation. This is recorded for our example I and when 
we imitate it, we, like him, shall find a certain and direct way to 
natural eloquence, whatever may be the sphere in which it is to 
be exerted. 

Oratory was of old a very comprehensive subject, and its study 
was the labour of a life. It included the arts of Logic, Rhetoric, 
and almost every department of general knowledge, and mental 
and moral discipline, as well as Pronunciation, or what we now 
call Elocution or Delivery. Hoary hairs were considered indis- 
pensable to the consummate orator, whose laborious preparations 
were supposed to require the length and vigour of the youth and 
prime of life. Consistently with this. Oratory was emblematized 
under the figure of an Old Man ; threads of amber issuing from 
his lips, and winding into the ears of gaping auditors. Our orators 
expect to jump into the rostrum, and oratorical ability, at once ; 
and without preparation even for the first and most indispensable 
requisite of public speaking, — Articulation. Our learned men 
affect to despise the very name of oratory. May not the reason 
be, — they are not orators ? They feel not, nor know the power 
of Eloquence. They can prepare the beautiful anatomy of a 
discourse, or declamation, but to animate it with the voice, the 
look, the action of natural utterance, is beyond their skill ; it falls 
lifeless from their hands : or, if it struggle into breath, its life is 
that of the crawling insect, spumily trailing along beneath us» 
and not that of the bold soaring eagle, elevating the eye into 
dazzling regions, and towering among scenes of grandeur and 

Demosthenes, in the zenith of his oratorical greatness, declared 
the most important part of a speaker's study to lie in Delivery. 
Matter was practically confessed to be much, but manner he, from 


uif. HmtM0*.^t if- im itPtr. 

VMM. ip^lu^ justi'niM' * itmifttsnr* «£ 
^.10^^^^ lit- ti^ Mffruft ti? niiMtiurluf innnri» uE 

itiofx^ itSfp'i- rtUst, -iuiej mwoL istmt vassxraat -u 

iMi$ M' Mfeiei&tt^ yupi vm. jadH -u ssoamaie bus Jtfffc 

Ik IkdP^ lUiMi 9^ fftwMdM 'ti^ laK: rracoB if Mr 

^)MiM fcMT^i; Im«i iflKmu&dl titniMir ^hfapiei f» 
4^4«7 i^mkim. UUtttf %^ Mate vat ^ thsat 

^ Iw4;mm, ttt thif Earn orini^ West, dbe Xotk «r Ite SotA 
^ Kftl^fcMd, «M lutt! One; fYftcm of WalkA ml a&Lwtdii^ to Us 
nik% tbfM^ not ^cvm; <^ tbem maj agree vith anotiier in ic^aid 
Uf Om iuUsfwsA €^ tlie extent of the inflezkn ; and idnk^ in &ct» 
tbejr ate tnereljT tes^lmg their cnm mann^ to the pi^iL" 

AUmnfU hare been made to reduce the inflexions of tiio peak- 
ing roiee to accurate momcal measurement^ and to €ana a ajBtem 
of notation to enable one to read the tones, as well as the woids 
of an author, as is done in sbging ; but no success has hitherto 
attended the«e »y»tem«, nor do we think it erer can. Twenty 
good readers may each differ from the others in their deliyery of 
a Belectod pa»»age, in regard to the extent, and often, even, the 
direction of the inflexioiiB ; and jet all bring out the full expressive- 


ness of the words. There must be points in which all coincide ; but 
such a latitude of inflexion may there be, and so much of habit 
and idiocrasj is there in the wavings of the yoice, that, even were 
it possible to note the evanescent sounds with sufficient accuracy, 
no good speaker could be fettered to the precise tones of another, 
perhaps of opposite temperament, without losing the higher guid- 
ance of his own mind. His thought and utterance are so asso- 
ciated, that, if he think, he cannot attend to a close uniformity of 
tones ; and if he follow a minute directory for his voice, he will 
be unable to think. We do not, therefore, propose to enter into 
a minutely musical analysis of inflexions, but to speak of their 
mechanism, extent, and application, on proportional and very 
general principles, and with reference, chiefly, to their association 
with particular states of mind and feeling. 


The tones of the speaking voice are, we have said, always in 
acute or grave progression : they do not dwell monotonously on 
any note. There are but two modes of vocal progression, — namely, 
upwards and downwards in the musical scale, — and, consequently, 
there are but two simple inflexions. Each inflexion has an opening 
force and fulness, from which it tapers softly to its acute or grave 
termination. The beginning of the inflexion is therefore the em- 
phatic part, — that which strikes the ear most forcibly : and, as 
the inflexions are named " rising" or " falling," from their pro- 
gression upwards or downwards, without reference to the pitch of 
their commencing note, some confusion often arises at first between 
the name and the sound, from their apparent opposition, in abrupt 
and emphatic inflexions. For, the more emphatic an inflexion is, 
the lower it begins when it is called rising, and the higher it begins 
when it is named falling. 

To illustrate this, let us assume a scale of 7 points from which 
inflexions may be pitched. A cultivated voice will be capable of 
a much greater variety, but these will be sufficient for our illus- 
trations. Let us represent these 7 radical points by a notation 
in the spaces of a staff of 8 lines. Thus, — 

Rising, FdOing 

\7^ :::::: \ ^ 

16 ^ .•;;:: 1 -^ •- 

1 & • • • • 1 ^^^ 

A • • • 1 ^^ •• • • 

1 H . . 1 ^s . • . • 
1 V ^^ 1 • • • • 

12 ^ ; 1 -^ •.-.•. •. •. 

11 ^ 1 -^ ........ .. 



No. 1, reprcsenU the lowest tone from which a rise can be made : 
No. 7, the highest from which afiidl can be commenced ; and No. 
i, the middle tone of the Toice. 

To make an extended rui$kg inflexion, as in the indignant 
utterance of the pronoon I, — '^/ — on ticking paUnr^ the icko 
must begin considerablj below the middie <one, to prevent its 
squeaking and cracking beyond manageable limits as the inflexioQ 
rises ; and to form an emphatic falling inflexion, as in the sbron^j 
assertive, boastful utterance of the same word, — ^-^Be buried qidek 
tnih her, and to will //' — ^the inflexion most begin considerablj 
above the middle tone, or it will not have space to descend without 
croaking hoarselj beyond vocalizing limits. 

In proportion, then, to the emphasis of an inflexion, will be the 
distance of its radical point above or below the middle tone of the 
vocal register. An ordinary and unimpassioned inflexion maybe 
carried to as high or low a vanishing-point as the most emphatic 
and passionate ; but the actual length of inflexion will generallj 
be greater according to its passionate force ; the increase braig 
produced by elevation or depression of the intensive part,-4he 
beginning of the inflexion. 

This principle is of much importance to public speakers^ whtfe 
general ignorance of it, evidenced by Uieir strained voices screaming 
up an inflexion to the cracking point, or falling into voicelessnesi 
or whisper, is, doubtless, in great part, owing to the almost uni- 
versal silence of Elocutionary books upon the subject. 

In very «Aor^ syllables, the terms *' Rising" and " Falling*' seem 
at first sight to be completely misapplied ; for, as the otion^i 
cannot be increased to accommodate the inflexions, the voice is 
strongly depressed, with a barely perceptible succeeding elevation, 
when the inflexion is emphatically rising ; and it is abruptly eU- 
vated, without material on which to descend, when it forms an 
emphatic falling inflexion. 

Our notation of the Inflexions is founded on this principle :-* 
The Rising Mark ( •^ ) we place hehw the accented vowel ; which 
indicates to the eye that the inflexion is conunenced below the 
middle tone : and the Falling Mark ( ev ) we place above the 
accented vowel, to denote that the inflexion is commenced abore 
the middle tone : 

Thus, envy, pronounced -^ ^^^^J' pronounced <?5__ 


In some cases the inflexions do not range from below above, or 
from above below the middle tone ; but are confined in their 
whole extent above or below it. The falling inflexion must veiy 
frequently be thus performed below the middle tone, to give per- 
fect completeness and conclusiveness to an utterance that is not 

emphatic. The notation of these inflexions is envj, enmity, &c., 
envy, enmity, &c., pronounced, — 

y tf 

V mi 
en «n 
Middle Tone. ^ ^ 

«n ea 

V mi 

7 ty 

When a speaker's inflexions are habitually confined below the 
middle tone, we say his voice is " low set;'* wlien above the middle 
tone, we say he has a high voice. An effective reader or speaker 
should be able to take a varied range both above and below the 
middle tone. 

Let the student exercise his voice in forming the simple in- 
flexions with as much variety as possible. Let him produce at 
least three or four degrees of pitch, above and below the middle 
tone, and carry each inflexion to different degrees of acuteness 
or gravity. The long vowels and diphthongs 

1 S-l '4 7 7-1 718 8 9-8 10 10-1 ll-B 12-13 18 

e, a, eh, ah, i, ou, ir, ur, aw, oi, ore, oh, oo. 

and syllables compounded of any of the vowels with the liquids L, 
M, N, ng, will furnish the best inflective material for this exercise. 

The student will be assisted in acquiring a natural flexibility 
of voice by noting that the rising turns are expressive of uncer- 
tainty, interrogation, surprise, or plaintive exclamation : and that 
those of the falling formation are of a positive, dogmatical, man- 
datory nature. If therefore habit, or a defective ear, render the 
mechanism of the inflexions difficult, let the student throw passion 
into them, and nature will help him out with the strong inflexions, 
which he has only to soften and reduce, in order to make all the 
lesser degrees. 

The tables of syllabic quantities (pages 67 to 69 ) should now 
be practised with these two inflexions, beginning with the longest 
syllables, and taking the shortest last, because their abruptness 


renders their inflection difficult of execution as well as obseryati 
By reading each syllable with both inflexions in contrast—/! 
rising first — full command over them will soon be attained. 

The table of words at pages 70-72 should next be inBectiveljprac 
tised. Being all accented on the first syllable, thej are of tk 
easiest class. The practice of them for a short time abouli 
render the ear and organs sufficieatlj accustomed to the pnndjk 
of simple inflexion, to enable the student to take his next eieick 
on words of various accentuation. 

In order to acquire the great charm of a melodioos variety rf 
inflexion, let the following principles be carefuUj attended to. 

The emphatic part of each inflexion must be thrown on the 
accented syllable of the word : and in order to give it the mow 
obvious elevation or depression, as well as for the sake of a mdo- 
dious intonation, any unaccented syllable before the accent most 
be pronounced with a preparatory opposition of inflexioa Mate- 
rial for practice will be found in the columns of yerbs at page 223. 
To give these words the rising inflexion, begin the unaccented 
syllable on or above the middle tone ; and to give them the fell- 
ing inflexion, pronounce the unaccented syllable below the middle 
tone : the accented syllable being then struck- forcibly in the 
opposite direction, — to the point from which it is to proceed up- 
wards or downwards— the words will have their highest inflectiTe 
effect Thus : — 


F' de V? 

com *• , ' 

JUid dl0 o y aa n d? * 

ToM~~ be g " i^ ■ — 

^* 81 a .^ 

'•^ po « 


Marked obey, assign ; compound, derisively. 


•s CO ^ 

Middle wa r m • . 

Time, a y d ~ ~ ~~— 

de ' 

Marked B,w&j, accord; extremes, decidedly. 
The words containing two or more accents, tabled from page 224 
to 226, should now be practised on the same principle. When the 


secondary accent is on the first syllable, let the preparatory rise 
or fall be well marked on it, but distinguish the primary accent 
by a distinctly greater force of inflexion. Thus: — 

Biting, Failing, 

su ^.^ stand 

per dant di« ly 

Middle in o ni 

Tone. ent der ri 

un ing 

ten di •^ ae oaa 

•^ be ^ 


Marked superiutondant, disobediently, understanding, acrimonious. 

••^ -.•^ 

When the word begins with an unaccented syllable, the voice 
marks on it a preparatory opposition of inflexion, as in the dis- 
syllables before noticed. Words of this syllabication, then, have 
three vocal turns : — the leading inflexion on the accent, is pre- 
pared for by the secondary, which is itself introduced by a pre- 
paratory turn on the antecedent syllable. Thus : 

••^^f. Marked 

^^ cation, 

peuetra . . i 'i*. 

Middle dig imponetrabiuty, 

Tone* im ••^ 

qnalifi .^.^ 

j^.j.^ , ^ disqualification. 

When the word has two secondary accents, the one before the 

primary will take the preparatory opposition of inflexion, and the 

first secondary will, similarly, take a preparatory inflexion for the 

other. Thus : 

•f^^ Marked 

navi •^ Circumnavigation, 

Middle inoontro **^ 

— . 

Tone, circnm 

gation? verti incontrovertibility. 

Or, another perfectly admissible mode of inflecting such words, 
is, to give the first secondary accent the preparatory rise or fall for 
the primary, and the intermediate secondary a more limited in- 
flexion in the same direction as the first ; beginning either on the 
same note on which the first inflexion terminated, or thrown back 
a little. Thus : — 

i5i?*„ Marked 


Middle pesti ^ 

Tone, munica 

lential incom 





UttlhfUftfn, tffti4(^ i^fK;iiftUitr^miikt InM, that die 

'f^ UfftiffltHi fHfl4f4 uptfti i)t49m mhj repreteai the seren 

cf tiie 



iutervals ot the second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, and 
octave. Bat since these intervals are not all composed of whole 
tones, an altei*ation of the staff would be necessary to represent 
them with proportional accuracy. 

The musical student of speech maj easily measure the inter- 
vals of his inflexions with the help of an instrument, by sounding 
the extreme notes of each interval, and sweeping his voice from 
one to the other ; and he will find our symbols applfcable for a 
strictly correct notation, if he think the subject worthy of so 
minute attention. We have contented ourselves with such an ar- 
rangement as speaks to the eye, without carefully consulting 
accuracy to the ear. 

The following staff shows the musical succession of intervals in 
the octavo. The broad spaces represent fuU tones, and the 
narrow spaces semitones. The notation shows a rise and a fall 
through each of the intervals. 


.* : 



J • 


• - • 


• • 
• • 




• • • 

* * * 
• • • 



4di •*- 


• - • 
• • • 


Srd #K •* * • 


• • * 


2ud ^. . • .• 

• . • •' . 





This is the major mode of the diatonic scale. The intervals 
of the minor mode differ only in the extent of the first third, which 
consists of but one tone and a half, or three semitones, instead of 
two tones, or four semitones, as above. The interval of the minor 
third has a plaintively querulous effect ; and the interval of the 
semitone is the universal expression of all ordinary plaintive sen- 
timents. The student should practise inflexions on these latter 
intervals in order to acquire a naturally effective modulation of 
plaintive passages. 

To the unmusical student it wiU be necessary to say something 
for his direction in the formation of chromatic or plaintive in- 
flexions. Let him take as a key-sound the cry of "J'lre," which, 
as has been observed by Dr Rush, is universally uttered on the 
interval of a semitone. 

Throw natural feeling into this word, and then, alternately with 
it, pronounce, with the same inflexion, the vowels, or any words of 


fear or sadness, and the ear will soon learn to recognise, and the 
Toice to produce, the semi-tonic interval. 

^ fire 


Jiiddi0 Kira 


ah ! {^as ! well a day ! 
• ah me ! farewell ! adieu ! 

The ordinary inflection of unemphatic words is through the in* 
terval of a second — a full tone— or if plaintiye, of a semitone. The 
interval of a third is the conunon extent of a suspensiye or con- 
clusive turn ; or, if emphatic, the interval of a fifth. The interval 
of the minor third is that of plaintive exclamation and interro- 
gation ; and the language of strong passion is generally uttered on 
the interval of the octave. 

When, at the conclusion of a sentence, the voice flEdls only one 
tone, or through the interval of a second, the eflSdct upon the 
hearer is satisfactory enough with respect to the completion of 
sense ; but it is at the same time unsatisfactory, as leading him 
to expect the addition of something more, by way of illustration 
or enforcement. The inflexion is inconclusive and continuaiioe; 
and, if nothing more be added, the hearer will feel disappointed, 
and unconvinced, however strong and convincing may have been 
the speaker's language. The tone is inconfident, — expressive of 
uncertainty and indecision, and therefore cannot carry conviction 
to a hearer. An utterance that is meant to be conclusive^ cannot 
fall less than through the interval of a third ; and in proportion 
to its emphasis, positiveness, and passion, it will range from that 
to a fifth or an octave. 

When, at the end of a clause or sentence, the voice rises through 
one tone only, or the interval of a second the inflexion is fullj 
expressive of incompleteness of sense, but it does not lead the 
hearer to anticipate the immediate consummation of the sense * the 
tone is progressive, not preparatory. A rise which is intended to 
excite the hearer's attention to the conclusive utterance to be next 
spoken, cannot be less than through the interval of a third * and 
in proportion to its emphasis of suspension — its quemlousness and 
passion, it will range from that to the extent of a fifth or octave. 

Our notation of the simple inflexions may be understood to 
represent these musical intervals. Thus, ^£?' ?^» _ ath, sui, 


We do not profess, however, to be able by these marks to denote 
the inflexions with strict musical accuracy. We have no means 
of showing the infinite variety of radical points from which the 
well-proportioned inflexions of an effective speaker will be pitched. 
We only aim at representing degrees of inflexion which are 
relatively greater or less, and the radical points of which are 
above or below an assumed middle tone of voice. 

Compound Inflexions.— Circumflexes or Waves. 

The two modes of vocal progression united on one syllabic 
utterance, or pn the syllables of one accentual utterance, form 
those expressive compound inflexions, called circumflexes, or more 
accurately, as Dr Rush has named them, waves. These vocal 
waves are very common in all natural speaking. They are 
capable of much variety by the different proportion of their parts, 
A strong rise (of course beginning low) may be united to a fall 
of a semitone or an octave, or of any extent ; and a full downward 
sweep may be blended with an equal variety of rising intervals. 

The following notation analytically illustrates the mechanism of 
the Wave, and the use of the typographic character by which we 
represent this vocal turn. — 

Ruing Wow. FaXting Wave. 

Middle ar ry hon ty oe d. 

lone. n es ia e 


^ quia in 

lib ly ex ite de d 

Marked arbitrary, honesty, indeed ; liberally, exquisite, indeed. 

The mark for the Rising Wave is placed ab(yce the accented 
syllable, because the inflexion begins and ends high: and the 
mark for the Falling Wave is placed hehw the accent, because 
the inflexion begins and ends low. These compound inflexions, 
like the simple ones, sjways commence on the accented syllable, 
and the same principles of preparatory infleodon which we have 
exemplified in treating of the simple inflexions, apply to the ut- 
terance of words or passages bontaining these compound turns. 
(See pages 264 and 265). 

As we directed the student to practise the simple inflexions in 
their most extensive ranges at first, and by the association with 
them of the feelings which they naturally express, so, also, we 
recommend him to practise the mechanism of these compound 
inflexions in their most emphatic forms at first, and with the 
association of those sentiments which they naturally express. 

The circumflexed or waved inflexions generally give to language 



an allusive or referential expresiiveness, or add to it a meaning 
which the words do not literallj convej. Thus, the Ridng Yfvn 
is used for Suggestive Emphasis — ^it is the appropriate intonatkn 
of inuendo ; — and the Falling waye for Positive Smphasii^with 
an allasiTo or referential effect This vocal progression is the 
intonation of derision and irony. The Riaiiig Wave is used 
suggestiyoly, when Brutus says to Cassias — 

'* For I can raise no money by vile means :" 
it insinuates and hints at, rather than openlj expresses, an accu- 
sation. The Falling Wave positively and unmistakeably points 
an accusation, as when 

*' Nathan said unto David, ' Thau art the man !* " 


As a general principle, it may be affirmed that words intended 
to be imderstood literally, should be inflected with simple tonu— 
which are the invariable intonations of candonr, sincerity, snd 
artlessness : — while words to be accepted in some peculiar, figu- 
rative,— or with some added — sense, require the comipoundtoins, 
which are the natural intonation of artifice. Figurative laogoage 
of every kind abounds with circumflexes. 

In the following sentence, the Rising and Falling Waves an 
brought naturally in contrast : — 

*' Oh ! indeed I if you said so — ^then I meant so." 

If we supply the words referentially impUed by these eircumflexee^ 
we may bring into contrast the simple and compound inflenons of 
each class. Thus : — 


*' Oh ! indeed ! if you said so, and not so, then I meant so, and 

not so." 

The student should practise this waving formation of voice on 
vowels, on syllables, on words, and on sentences, until he is able 
to produce several varieties of each kind from the same commen- 
cing note, with different degrees of force and expressiveness,— 
plaintively and otherwise. In his practice, let him bear in mind 
that the circumflexes are merely combinations of the simple in- 
flexions. The first or emphatic part of a Rising Wave is Sk falling 
tarn : — this conveys a positive effect : — and the concluding part 
is a rise, which qualifies the positivoness of the first turn by its 
doubtful and querulous expressiveness. Thus : — 


" ! sir, your honesty is remarkable !'* 
The first or emphatic part of a Falling Waye is a rising turn, 
the effect of which is appellatory, or interrogative ; and the sub- 
sequent fall which finishes the inflexion adds to this an expression 
of positiveness and conviction. Thus :— 

'' So, then, vqu are the author of this conspiracy against me ? 
It is to you I am indebted for all the mischief that has befallenme.*' 



Governing the application of the vocal inflexions to sentences, 
we find principles equally simple with those which we have shown 
to regulate their mechanism, and their arrangements on syllables. 
As all inflexions may be resolved into two kinds, — upward and 
downward, — so all rules for their application may be resolved 
into two corresponding, general, 


The rising progression connects what has been said 
with what is to be uttered, or with what the speaker 
wishes to be implied or supplied by the hearer ; and 
this, with more or less closeness^ qiterulousness, and 
passion^ in proportion to the force and extent of the rise. 
The falling progression disconnects what has been said 
from whatever may follow ; and this with more or less 
completeness, exclasiveness, and passion, in proportion 
to the force and extent of the fall. 

The rising inflexion is, thus, 
invariably associated with what 
is incomplete in sense ; or, if ap- 
parently complete, dependent on, 
or modified by what follows ; with 
whatever is relative to something 
expressed, or to be implied ; and 
with what is doubtful, interroga- 
tive, or supplicatory. 

The rising inflexion is thus, also, the natural intonation of all 
attractive sentiments — ^love, admiration, pity, &c. ; and the falling, 
of all repulsive sentiments — anger, hatred, reproach, contempt, &c. 

The falling inflexion is, thus, 
invariably associated with what 
is complete and independent in 
sense, or intended to be received 
as such ; with whatever is positive 
and exclusive ; and with what is 
confidently assertive, dogmatical^ 
or mandatory. 


The degree in which any sentence either necessarily conveys 
these sentiments, or is intended to express or insinuate them, 
corresponds to the degree in which the inflexions move upwards 
or downwards ; the intensity of the feeling to be expressed being 
denoted by the force and distance from the middle tone of the 
commencement, or emphatic part of the inflexion. 

The shorter ranges of inflexion, or sometimes extensire degree^ 
— but feeble, and, consequently, unemphatic, — ^are employed as 
preparatory to the principal inflexions of a sentence. The melodj 
of speech requires that eyery emphatic inflexion should be pre-^ 
ceded by an inflexion in the opposite mode — a rise before a Mi 
a fall before a rise. The mechanism of the inflexions explains the 
reason of this : the rise before the fall carries the voice up towards 
the eleyated pitch from which the fall begins ; and the fall Wom 
the rise takes the yoice, without the gracelessness of a jerk, 
downwards towards the low point from which the rise is to be 

The inflexions are thus always in contrast ; the sense or feeling 
dictating the direction of the principal inflexions, and these regn- 
lating that of the subordinate ones : but not their extent; for this 
is under the sole guidance of the reader's taste and judgment 
The extent of the inflexions remains the test of his refinement of 
ear, and cultiyation of yoice, as well as of his power of discrimi- 
nating the nicer shades of sense and sentiment. 

We shall now examine the yarious kinds of sentences and 
members of sentences which Elocutionists have ranged under 
rules multitudinous, and endeayour to show in all of them 
the working of the two general inflectiye principles which we hare 
stated. If we can discoyer that these are the fundamental prin- 
ciples of all the rules — that eyery natural direction is but an 
application of one of them ; then, the simplest and easiest way 
to learn to apply the sentential rules of Elocutionists, will be to 
study alone these our rulers of rules. We shall take first those 
sentences or clauses which terminate with a rising inflexion. 
These are, according to Mr Walker and his followers, the Jir«t 
part of a compact sentence ; tlie penultimate member of a sentence; 
negative sentences ; concessive sentences ; the first part of an an- 
tithesis ; qmstions commencing with a verb ; words repeated or 


Rising Inflexions. 

The First Part of a Compact Sentence. — Compact sentences are those 
wb|ch do not admit of division into portions in themselves complete, and ex- 
pressive of perfect sense. Mr Walker divides compact sentences into direct and 
inverted periods ; and while he dictates the same inflexion at the end of the first 
part of each, manages to make for them four Rules^ and one Exceptive Rule, 
The first class of direct periods consists of those whose two principal construc- 
tive parts begin with correspondent conjunctions. 

Example: — '•^ As we cannot discern the shadow moving along the dial-plate, 
80 the advances we make in knowledge are only perceived by the distance 
gone over." 

Here, at the end of the first part, the sense is obviously incomplete, and our 
fundamental principle is itself the rule. The second class are those periods whose 
first part only commences with a conjunction ; but in all the examples given^ 
— ^^ Asin my speculations^^ Sfc. ; ** If impudence prevailed as much,''^ f^, ; 
" If I have any geniuSy*^ Sfc, ; " If after surveying the whole earth atonce^^ 
SfC, the correspondent conjunctions, " so," or " therefore^^^ '* ^en," &c. are 
plainly to be understood ; and this rule, founded merely on a common ellipsis, 
is but a repetition of the first. 

The third dass includes those sentences which commence with a partidple — 
of the present or past tense ; to which Mr Ewing adds, under a separate Bule, 
sentences depending on adjectives ; but in these also our fimdamental prindple 
furnishes the rule, as the sense must be incomplete at the end of the participial 
or adjective clause. 

Examples : — *^ Having existed fi'om all eternity — God, through all eternity must 
continue to exist." 

^* Destitute of the favour of Gk>d, — ^you are in no better situation, with all 
your supposed abilities, than orplians left to wander in a trackless desert." 

To his third rule Mr Walker states the following exception : — ^* When t)ie last 

word of the first part of these sentences requires the strong emphasis^ the falling 

inflexion must be used mstead of the rising." The very modified fall which we 

have denominated continuative,* is the only falling inflexion that would not 

be altogether inadmissible here. Notwithstanding the numerous book-followers 

of the theory, we have no hesitation in saying that this rule is a mistake. It 

would have been correct^ had it stated that the clause required the falling as 

well as^ but not instead of, the rising inflexion ; that is, a rising circumflex : 

but it is then no exception to the general rule. The connexion in sense demands 

a rising, connective inflexion ; and by means of the wave, the strong emphasis 

may also be expressed without interfering with the final progression. 

Example : — ^' Hannibal, being fi*equently destitute of money and provisions, 

with no recruits of strength in case of ill -fortune, and no encouragement 

even when successful ; it is not to be wondered at that his aflairs began at 

length to decline." 

Page 268. 

M m 



The Dezt aiid la« ki»l of ooai|ittet MBltBoe ■ whM Mr Wafter ciflb tbe '' !■- 
vcftai pcriudr tl^ i>> a toitcnoe, «*tfaefinipaii4Sr 
bf iladf, bat » modiiiad or deccnnined in \u 
The hKkmiDg, imoag other len t gnc e i of i 

ExampUs : — *'*' Gradsn tctt often 

yerftoioa of an aeoooipfiihed miB.** — *• 
be pleiied — at the Mine time ther are 
la tbete examplei, the fint paits aiigbt 
wiitBicea ; but nioe tber do not, m this cowmxmm, /b 
the fkiiig inflezioo is reqidred bj the fiimJiif nla l fiiMJiiV^ 
In the sceond inatanee, the word pleaaed bem^ 
with inforwted, is in the tame prediaBneal aa die wind wmeceagfidm 
the Meood ■entence p rece din g ; and to give it emph a iaB witlMMit loaa of^ 
tiOB^itaniitbeprooo uu cedeitherwithaco arttaol tWrybllyOrwMia 

Ths PKKULTiMA'nE MEMBCTt, — ^A lianginfleiioB ia ^ fi iw uiwl bj Mr Wak 
to be alwajs given to ^* the member of a aaitence imniediatidj fawj c dui g tk 
UhL** This principle is the subject of two Eoles and aevenl ^^^ifftStmrn. Of 
what yabe can the rules be when such a se nt mee as tbe foflowinp liai to be 
noted as an exception ? 

*^ I most therefore desire the reader to remember, that bj tbe fill awn <ii of the 
imagination, I meant only soch pkasores as arise ongiiialiy fivaa sight; 
and that I divide these pkasores into two kands.** 

This sentence can be no exception to an v natnral rale. The peiinlll i iito 
member can only take tbe rising inflexion when its conneTion vntfa ftheidliByrte 
member reqinres the vocal link. Mr Walker's rale seems but an awkward waf 
of stating the [vincqde of preparatory inflexions. The doee of a aen te nee is 
generally marked by an extensive preparatoiy inflexion, — a liae befixe a fidi, 
a &U before a rise, — to apprise the ear of the coming ooodosioo, and to gire 
extent and energy to tbe final tone ; but this penultimate inflexion does not 
require to be thrown bade to the penultimate member of the «¥*ttfifK?e ; thst 
must be inflected according to the sense, and the reader of taste will be at no 
loss to find means of giving preparatoiy variety to his conduaioa, though he 
have but a syllable on which to effect it. 

The rising inflexion is productive of anticipation ; it leads the hearer to expect 
what follows, and his ear would feel dieated if the expectation were not realized. 
But it is often of importance to the effective reader to make a sentence seem 
finished before it reaUy is so ; of course the sense must be complete, or the sem- 
blance of a conclusion would not pass on the thinking hearer. Thns, in the 
exdamation, '^ Why am I subject to his cruelty and scorn f^ in the following 
linei : — 
** If Fm designed your lordling's slave, If not, why am I subject te 

By Nature^s law dengned ; His cruelty and soom ? 

Why was an independent wish Or, why has man the will and power 

E'er planted in my mind ? To make his fellow mourn ?" 


The adoption of the rising^tum on the word " cruelty," according to the Pe- 
nultimate Bule, would prepare the hearer to expect and wait for the stronger 
word that follows ; but if the voice fall on ^* cruelty^" as if that finished the 
sentence, with what spontaneity and natural emphasis will the additional words 
be then delivered I 

" Why am I subject to his cruelty ?" (nay, more ; and harder still to bear) 

" and scorn ?" 
Negative Sentences. — Negative sentences, and members of sentences, 
have been incUscriminately directed to be read with a rising inflexion at the end ; 
but there is an important dilSerence between them which this rule quite over- 
looks. Negative sentences and clauses are naturally divisible into two classes, 
Ist^ Those in which the negation assumes a positive form ; and, 2nd, Those in 
which doubt or contmgency is implied, or in which the negative member is 
antithetic to some affirmatory member either expressed or understood. All ne- 
gative sentences of the first class must have an exclusive falling inflexion, in 
accordance with the fundamental prindple. 

Examples: — "Thou shalt do no murder." 

** Thou shalt not steal." 

** He shall not touch a hair of Catiline." 

And those of the second class,— equally in accordance with the fundamental 
principle^--demand a connective or suggestive, rising inflexion. 

Nothing can better show the natural force of the mflexions than the effect of 
a rising tone on a negative sentence. It so plainly carries an appeal to our 
judgment, and duvets our thoughts to the antithetic affirmation, that, if that be 
not expressed, our minds immediately surest it ; or, if it is not sufficiently ob- 
vious, we shall not rest satisfied, or be able to withdraw our attention, until the 
speaker has explained it. 

Examples. — ** It is not with stones or bricks that I have fortified the dty. 

It is not fix)m works like these that I derive my reputation." 

" Hark how Fll bribe thee. 

Not with fond shekels of the tested gold : — 

Or stones, — whose rate is either rich or poor, 

As fancy values them : — but with true prayers, 

That shall be up at heaven, and enter there, 

Ere the sun rise." 

Concessive Sentences. Concessive sentences, like those of the preceding 

dass, have been indiscriminately stated to require the rising inflexion ; but the 

fundamental principle forbids a rise, exoept when connexion is to be shown. 

Concesdve sentences are naturally divisible into two classes — ^those whioh are 


oonditional, and those which are absolute and unconditional. The former re- 
quire a rising, and the latter as decidedly require a falling inflexion. Thus : 

** Precepts may perfect the judgment, but help little the performing power : 

make critics, not speakers.^' 


In this sentence the antithetic emphasis on judgment^ with performing power^ 
and critics^ with speakers, must be marked by the voice at the same time that 
the connexion is maintained with the subsequent dauses. This is aooomplishad 
by the rising wave, the first part of which being a &11, serves to denote the 
emphasb, while the last part links the oonditional, concessive danse with the 
qualifying conclusion. Remove the qualifying parts, and let the conoessioiis 
stand alone : then if the rising inflexion be employed, it will suggest the con- 
clusion ; but if this is not the object of the speaker, he most use the falling 

inflexion, and the concession will then be unconditional.-^^^ Precepts may 

perfect the judgment :— precepts may make critics." 

The First Part of an Antithesis. This forms the sabjeot of a role 
among all Elocutionists. The principle of inflexion is thus stated by Mr Walker 
-.** The first part of every antithesis might form a perfect sentence by itself; 
but the mutual relation between the former and latter parts forms as necessary 
a connexion between them, as if the former part formed no sense by itself^ but 
was modified and restrained by the latter.'* 

Example. — ^^ We are always complaining that our days are few, and actmg 

as though there would be no end of them." 

The vocal function is well exhibited in sentences of this class : the tone of 
utterance supplies the reference from the former to the latter part of the sentenoe, 
which the writer intended should be made, but which the words do not contain. 

The fundamental rule includes the special one in this case also, so that the 
latter is unnecessaiy. 

Questions commencino with a Verb. — ^All Elocutionists and Nature 
agree in requiring a rising termination to sentences of this olaas. We have 
stated that tlie eflect of the rising inflexion is primarily to connect, or appeaL 
It is on this principle that these questions take the rising turn. The interrogative 
rise appellatorily suspends the sense untfl it is perfected by the affirmatoiy or 
negative response : it estaUishes and maintains the most intimate connexion 
between the question and answer, as mutually necessary to the expression of 
sense. All questions asked by verbs are capable of being answered by a simple 
^* ye«" or *^ no,^'* The question states a proposition— sometimes in interrogative 
idiom, as— •^^ Are you quite well ?" and sometimes in declarative idiom, as — 
*^ You are quite well ?" and the rising tone of utterance asks the hearer's cor- 
roboration or denial of it. We have seen, in negative sentences, the appdllatory 
effect of a rising inflexion : the interrogation is merely an ]^)peal. It pnts 
before the hearer a statement or hypothesis, and appeals to him as to its cor- 


rectnesd or idcorreotness. The customary transposition of the verb from its 
ordinary place in a declarative sentence generally gives the interrogation a 
distmctive form to the eye; but the declarative construction may be used 
interrogatively, and the interro^rtive construction may be employed dedaratively, 
and that without the least confiision when the sentences are spoken ; so that it 
is in the rising progression of voice that the interrogation really consists. 

So greatly does the intent of interrogation alter the utterance of a sentence 
thron^out, and with so little certainty does the grammatical construction of a 
sentence indicate its interrogative nature, that it would be well if— as is not 
unusual in Continental printing...the mark of interrogation (?) were placed at 
the beginning, as well as at the end of the interrogative sentence. The general 
adoption of this principle in printing, especially when the interrogation is long, 
would be a service to the Art of Reading, seeing that tJie interrogation consists 
less in the form of words than in the expression of the voice, 

A peculiarity that has been often noticed with reference to verb-questions, is, 
that in repetition they lose the interrogative tone. If we ask a question which 
has not been distinctiy heard or understood, and we, in oonsequelice, have to 
repeat it, we immediately change the vocal progression, and pronounce the 
words with a &lling inflexion. And this is in perfect accordance with nature, 
and with our ftmdamental rule ; for what was in its first utterance interrogative, 
becomes, in its repetition, part of a declarative sentence. We now simply tdl 
what we had asked ; and whether we use the form of words or no, the utter- 
ance is equivalent to, ** I said, or I asked, so and so.^^ 

Repetition, or Echo. — ^Elocutionists lay down as a rule^ that words 
'^ repeated ^' or *^ echoed " should have the riang inflexion. In the examples by 
which they support and illustrate the rule^ the rising progression is certainly 
appropriate : but why ? Not because the rule with which they agree is expres- 
sive of a natural prindple^ but because in all the instances the sense is pro- 
gressive, and therefore^ by the fundamental law, demands a progressive inton- 
ation. The rule, as generally stated, dictates a rise as necessary to the repeated 
utterance, without limitation. It would therefore require us to read such 
^repetitions as the following, with rimng inflexions : — 

" Happy, happy, happy pair 1" 
'' Fallen I faUen I Men ! faUen I 
Fallen from his high estate." 
But who could follow the rule into such absurdity? Had some such instances 
as these crossed the rule-maker^s mind, we should probably have found them 
noted under the separate head of ^* Exceptions." 

In this, as in all the other forms of construction which we have yet examined, 
the fundamental principle — the rule of sense— is strictiy applicable, without 

Elocutionists have generallj proceeded hitherto on the principle, 
that Bules for the Voice should be founded on Sentences : hence 
the errors, inconsistencies, confusion, and complexity of their 


rules. We adopt the very opposite principle ; and maintain, 
as more simple, and as perfectly consistent and natural, that 
Rules for Sertences must be founded on the Voice. The voice 
has a certain, definite, vuxtural expressiveness; and this may applj 
to any construction of language, according as the intent of the 
speaker requires the yocal effects. 

We shall now examine those kinds of sentences for which a &11- 
iug inflexion has heen generally prescribed. They are Loose Seth 
tences; Questions asked by Adverbs and Pronouns; Final Pause, 

Falling Inflexions. 

Loose Sentences. — A Loose Sentence is one which oontains a member or 
members formmg perfect sense, and not restnuned or qualified by the member 
or members that follow in the same period. The rule given for reading such 
independent members is natural and correct, — ^namely, to detach them fiom 
those that follow by a pause and a falling inflexion. A member of this kind, 
as Mr Walker well observes, ^^ must be pronounced in such a manner as to show 
its independence on the succeeding member, and its dependence on the period, 
as forming but a part of it.** Here is another instance of the expressive power 
of the voice. A falling inflexion^ however emphatic, — ^that is, beginning how- 
ever high^ and with whatever force, — may be made, and yet the exdosive effect 
of disjunction be avoided. The fall does not descend so low as to satisfy the 
ear with a perfect rest. Its effect is at the same time completive and oontina- 
ative. It stops at or above the middle tone, — expressively checked in its 
downward progress. The student who has practised our exercises on the 
** Mechanism of the Inflexions " should be familiar with this range of voice, 
and able to execute it at will. It is common^ not only on members of Loose 
Sentences, but in conversation, dialogue, or argument, at the condnsionofany 
assertion which is spoken— not as at all doubtful, neither with the tone of 
absolute certainty, but, — so as to convey to the hearer a statement or opimon, 
which he is afforded an opportunity to answa: or refute. Mr Knowies says, 
that ** Mr Walker*s rule of the loose sentence is altogether superflaons ;*' and 
the reason given is a plain statement of the natural principle of inflexion ; 
namely, ** the inflexion is governed by the completeness of the sense ; and that 
is all we have to take into consideration." Mr Knowies has gready simplified 
Mr Walker's system by the recognition of this governing principle ; but he has 
not allowed it absolute authority, as his rules for the Serirs testify. We 
would less object to this rule of the Loose Sentence as superfluous, than to'manj 
others which Mr Walker has accumulated ; for though our fundamental princi- 
ple includes this rule, it is not without its utility as marking the difference 
between a conclusive and a continuative &lling inflexion. 

Questions askbd bt Pronouns or Adverbs. — Mr Walker's rule 
states, that ** when an interrogative sentence commences with any of the 

• Blementf of Bloeation, p. 83. 


interrogative pronouns or adverbs, with respect to inflexion, elevation, or 
depression of voice, it is pronounced exactly like a declarative sentence." The 
reason of this he does not tell us, but we shall discover the principle from a 
consideration of the nature of these sentences. We have seen that those inter- 
rogations which commence with verbs require no more than a simple affirmative 
or negative to answer them ; the question itself contains the terms of the 
answer, which we have only to accept or reject : but questions asked by 
interrogative pronouns or adverbs demand a new sentence in response. We ask 
wheuy how, why, where, or by whom a thing was or will be done, — and the 
answer states the time, manner, reason, place, or agent of the action in 
question. The point of our inquuy is not whether the thing actually was 
done ; we entertain no doubt about that part of the sentence depending on the 
verb, but take for granted that it expresses a fact ; and our only doubt relates 
to the drcumstances attending the act, — the how, when, why, &c. 

In questioning the reality of a fact, or the truth or correctness of an assertion, 
we naturally elevate the voice ; but to ask the drcumstances of it, unless when 
associated with plaintive or tender sentiments, we generally depress the voice. 
In the former case, we seek assurance from a state of doubt and uncertainty ; 
in the latter, we seek m/ormation. Sentences of the latter dass are imperative 
in their nature. They convey our request— or command it may be — accom- 
panied with any shade of feeling from imploring anxiety to angry mandate. In 
proportion as they are more or less peremptory will the force and extent of the 
downward inflexion vary. 

Example. — *^ Why sinks that caldron? and what noise is this?" 

But when there is in them anything of tenderness, sadness, or kindred feelings, 
the voice will take a more or less extended range in the opposite direction. 

Example. — " How is it with you, lady ?" 

To say that all questions asked by interrogative pronouns or adverbs require a 
£Edling inflexion, as most of our Elocutionists do asdert, is a mistake. Let any 
one with a correct ear, and whose habits of observation render him competent 
to judge, watch the movements of the conversational voice, — a very fidr test, — 
and he will find that questions of this kind are very often pronounced with a 
rising inflexion, most frequently with that modified rise or fall which we have 
denominated Gontmuative ; and, if we mistake not, he will also discover that 
the prindple which we have stated — ^m other words, the frmdamental rule — ^is 
that which governs the adaption of their mflexions. 

The continuative rise or fall may frequently be used indifferently on a ques- 
tion of this kind, which is not marked by emotional emphasis. 

Example. — " How do you do ?" % r " How do you do ?" 

^ ^ > or < ^ ^ 

" What is it o'dock ?" ) I " What is it o'clock ?" 

The rising inflexion is, however, more deferential than the falling, and is that 


which would generally bo used in addressing a superior, while the latter is that 
which the superior would probably himself employ. 

It is to be observed also, that when a question of this kind, uttered with a 
fiilling inflexion, has not been distinctly apprehended, or, from any cause, is 
echoed by the person to whom it was addressed, it receives, in this repetition, 
the rising inflexion. 

Example, — ** Whence arise these forebodings, but from the oonsdoosness of 

^^ Whence arise these forebodings ?'\ 

*^ From the consciousness of ^utZ^r") j j 

This is generally the case also when we have not heard or onderstood with cer- 
tainty the answer returned to our question, and consequently repeat the mter- 
rogative word. 

Example, — " When were you there last ?" 

AjSBWKR,.,.,..(m disHnciljf^ifprehefuM) 

But when the feeling of the questioner is not of the apologetic kind, he may throw 
petulance and authority mto the repeated question, and use the fklling inflexion. 
Thus a brow-beating barrister to an equivocating witness. 

** TfJenf — implying — ** Answer durectly and distinctly, afar, without evasion." 

In all these illustrations we may trace the working of the two simple funda- 
mental prindples of inflexion, — which, among many varieties of applicatton, 
require no category of Exceptions. 

In the following sentence, the elliptical questions, *'^for whom f" and ^''/or 
thee ?" illustrate the two classes of interrogations^ — the former being equivalent 
to ^^for whom shall v;e break it ?" and the latter to the verb question " shall 
we do so for thee .*" 

" All this dread order break,— for whom ? — ^for thee ? 

Vile worm 1 madness ! Pride ! Impiety I" 

Final Pause or Period. — Here, as the sense is generally complete, a 
falling inflexion is naturally prescribed by all Elocutionists. The degree in which 
the sense is completed exclusively of what follows, corresponds to the lu^iroach 
the voice makes to a perfect rest. As the members of a Loose Sentence are sever- 
ally complete, yet have a mutual dependence, as parts of the same period ; so 
a succession of periods^ each containing perfect sense, and grammatically com- 
plete, may have a mutual dependence as parts of one thought or chain of ideas: 
and the reader of taste and discernment will show this dependence or relationship, 
by reserving Uie perfectly conclusive inflexion for the termination of the periodic 
series, and giving its members such a modified fall as may indicate continuative- 
ness as well as completeness. Sometimes a directly connective, or ri^ng in- 
flexion, may be demanded at the period ; but it will only be when suggestiye 


foroe is Te^fnired, or when sufih a degree of ooimexiQii inth the next sedtenoe 
must be shown, as might have been appropriately indicated hy a Iom daQimo- 
tive form of pmictiiation. 

Some additional clafisesof sentences require to be noticed, in order 
to complete our illustration of the applicabiUtj of the two funda- 
mental rules to every kind of composition, and their sufficiency 
for the goyemment of inflexion. 

Parenthesis. — Parenthetical matter introdaoed into the body of a sentence 
most be so pconoonoed as not to interfere with the current of the inflexions in 
that sentence. Thus, whether the parenthesis is mserted at a point where the 
rising or &lling inflexion takes place, the parenthesis mnSt teiminate yiiih the 
same kind of inflexion, to mamtain the same connectedness or disjmiction be- 
tween the parenthesis and what follows, as exists between the latter and the 
ehmse before the parenthesis: bat the final parenthetical inflexion most be 
pitdied lower« and the whde parenthesis most be more feebly and (generally) 
more quickly uttered^ to show its subordination to the sentence it dividee. 
Sometimes, fi^m peculiar emphasis, the parenthesis requires to be made more 
prominent than the rest of the sentence* In this case it will be raised to a 
higher level, instead of being sunk to a lower ; but the direction of its final in- 
flexion will still be regulated by the same principle. When a parentbeas, intro- 
duced where a sentence is incomplete, terminates with what is so positively em- 
phatic as to require a falling inflexion, it must of course have one ; but ^tber 
of the continuative, iH»*exclusive kind, or dse followed by a rise — forming a 
rising wave — ^that the neeessary connectedness of the subsequent with the ante- 
cedent clause may not be lost sight o£ We may, then, bri^y state as the rule, 
that a different pitchy — generally lower, but it may be higher, and a different 
rate of utterance, — geaerally quicker, but it may be slower — ^are required to dis- 
tinguish the parenthesis : while the direction of its ultimate inflexion must be 
correspondent to that of the cUiuse preceding it. 

The usual marks of parenthesLs () are often omitted, and scxnetimes a break 
or dadi (— ) befwe and after the parenthetic dause is substituted ; but, however 
the typographic sign may be dispensed with, the vocal sign can never be omitted. 
Words or phrases in Apposition^ and nearly all explanatory or relative danses 
are of the nature of parentheses, and require to be similarly delivered. 

EixiFTiOAL MsBiBEB. — ^fhssa a complemental word or dause is equally 
related to two contrasted governing w(»:ds, as, ^' an estate by gaming," in the 
following sentence^ it is called the dliptical member : — *' A good man will love 
himself too wcU to lose an estate by gaming^ and his ndghbour too well to 
win oaie." The elliptical member may be i^aoed after either of the antithetic 
words, but it must not interfere with the order of their inflexions. Thus, the 
preceding sentence might be written as follows : — " A good man will love him- 

self too well to lose, (or lose,) and his neighbour too wdl to win an estate by 

gaming.'''' In tlie first case, the complemental dause is pronounced with a 

N n 


rising tone, and in the latter, with a falling : it rnnst follow the direetion of th^ 
geveming emphatio word which it immediatelj sacoeeds. 

Verb Questions of Two Parts Connected by Or. — ^To prove the 
neoeamty of invariably reoorring to the rule of xnse for the mode of inflecting 
SDj sentence, we need only instance qaestions of this elaae. Bj varying the 
tones with which we pronounce the same words, we ask, by theoi^ two totally 
different questions. Thus :— ^^ Are you going to liverpool or Mancheste ?** — 
if the voice rise at the end of this sentence, it is a question as to the ^oct of 
ffoing^ referring equally to either place, and may be answered by yes or no ; 
bemg equivalent to *^ Are you going to either of these places ?** Bat if the viHoe 
fall at the end of the sentence, it then becomes no question as to the fiict of 
going, but refers only to the place, being equivalent to *^ To which cHheBe 
I^aoes are you going ?^' — assuming that you are going to one or olJier, 
Questions of this kind, of which the verb is the subject, may always be resdved 
into '^ Is it either f '— can be answered by yes or no, and must have the 
rising inflexion ; and those of which the verb is not the subject^ may sdways be 
resolved into *^ which is it f " — cannot be answered by yes or no, and leqoire 
the falling inflexion at the end. 

Series. — ^The ordinary rules for the inflexion of '* sentences oontahnng two 
or more perfectly similar portions in succession,"—- a series,— «how to what extent 
the habit of framing rules to fit every construction of sentence, instead of refer^ 
ring all sentences to general governing principles, may be carried. Yet, extra- 
ordinary as the rules for the series are, they have been copied and recqMed^ 
without question, by almost every successive Elocutionary book-maker. 
^^ Nothing," says Mr Walker, ** can be more various than the pronnndation of 
a series : almost every different number of particulars requires a different method 
of varying them ; and even those of precisely the same number of particulars 
admit of a different mode of pronunciation, as the series is either commendng 
or concluding, simple or compound, single or double, or treble, with many other 
varieties, too complex to be easily determined." If this theory were correct, 
no sentence containing a series could be appropriately delivered, till we 
had first counted the number of particulars in the enumeration : reading at 
sight would, thus, be impracticable. How far from right — how^ fyr fit>m 
Nature is tins prindple, — ^and how accurately the rule of sense enables any peraon 
of judgment to read at sight, we hope to be able dearly to demonstrate. 

A series is said to be simple when it is an enumeration of single words, and 
to be compound when its members consist of more than a single word. Why 
a difference should be necessary in the mode of inflecting these serieses is cer- 
tiunly far from obvious ; yet all the Walker school of Elocutionists have their 
separate tables of the simple and of the compound series &ithfi]Ily copied from 
the original arrangements of then* great leader. 

The series is called *' commencing" when it begins, but does not end the 
sentence, and " concluding" when it ends the sentence, whether it begins it or 
not. The fundamental principle of inflexion would, therefore, demand a rising 
inflexion at the end of the commencing series, and a falling inflexion at the 


end of the concluding series : and so far, Nature and all Elocutiomsts agree* 
But with the sing-song, ups and downs, prescribed for the other members^ 
especially of a long series ; and, fundamentally, with the principle of having to 
count the number of members before being able to pronounce the series, Nature 
is most deddedly at variance. The natural series is, midoobtedlj, one of 
numbers ; and in the mode in which numbers are universally counted, we mus^ 
look for the natural utterance of all enumerations, whether of single words or 
of sentences. 

In the '* Practical Elocutionist,^ a well-known dass-foook, the first edition of 
which appeared in 1S36, the principle of serial inflexion is thus stated : and all 
experience and observation corroborate its truth. 

*^ To give a practical example that must be onderstood by the dullest com- 
prehension. — ^I am to give a person three, four, or five sovereigns. Say, I am 
4o give him five sovereigns. In counting, I must pronounce the numbers xsp 
to the fourth with the rising inflexion — ^that is, the inflexion denoting incom- 

One', two', three', four', 
and the fourth number with a greater degree of the same inflexion, to denote 
4hat the next number closes the enumeration ; 

One', two', three', four", five". 
*^ Ha%, then,^* the author* adds^ '* is hitting at once the bull^s-eye in the Elocu- 
donaiy target, which has been shot at with various success by all Elocutionists 
and Guides to Elocution." 

Let this be tested in any language, as it has already been in several, and 
experiment will satisfactorily establish the principle, and demonstrate that this 
is the natural order of numeral, and consequently of serial inflexions. 
. The double and treble measures to which the series was originally set by Mr 
Walker, and to which it has been chanted with but little variation by succeed- 
ing Elocutionists, are entirely artificial ; coinciding in some few simple instances 
with the natural arrangements, but fuudamentally at variance with the natnral 

The following Table of Numbers from one to ten exemplifies the order of numeral 
inflexion : with this all serial infle^don must coincide, whether the series is long 
or short, and whethw its members are simple or compound, or a mixture of both. 


One, Two. 

One, Two, Three. 

One, Two, Three, Four. 
^ •^ ,^ 

One, Two, Three, Four, Five. 

* Mr Bell, Senior, (London.) 


One, Two, Three, Four, Five, fib. 

One, Two, Three, Four, Five, Six, Sevan. 

•^ w^ ^^ ♦^ ^^ »•' 

One, Two, Three, F6iir, Five, 8U, Seven, Eiglit. 

One, Two, Three, Four, Five, Six, Seven, ISglit, Mine. 

•^ ^ •/ •. •^ •^ •^ ^i .«^ ^^ 

One, Two, Three, Four, Five, Six, Seven, Eight, Nine, Teo. 

Oover down the eondiKHng nmnben in this Table, and the notatioii ehatn 
the Inflexion of a eommmcwg series t tlie TaUe aa it standa ahowa the oi^ 
dinary inflexion of a concluding eeriee. 

In the eonclndfaig aeriee, the reader has a degree of latiliido, and an 
eptoi of inflexion, wliksh, in a eommenoing aeriee, he eamot have. The efltot 
of a rifling inflexion is ocmneotive and preparatoiy, and itv adoptioii on. the 
membera of a oondading eeriee oarriee on the attention of the hearer to the 
members that follow, ao ae moet foroibly to exhibit them in their concatenaAon; 
but if the felling inflexion is adopted,— as it may be, with per&ot oofreotnees, 
the eense bebg formed at the end of eadi member,— then the aggregate of 
members — the series — ^wHl in some degree loee foroe and oompactneaa, baft the 
individual members will gain in emphaajs and separate effect. 

We have only to add, that as the principle of melody reqmrea an opposite 
preparatory inflexion before eveiy principal one, the nwnber previoua to tiie 
last should generally take a modified inflexion upwards or dowuwanla, to in* 
troduoe the cimdosion of the series. But this, like all other roles, ia aobjeot to 
the rule of sense. It would, we conceive, be bad reading, to saorifioe the atrong^ 
emphatic efl'eot of the foiling inflexion on the penultimate member of the follow* 
ing sentence, for the sake of rendering it preparatory,— 4M it ia marked m 
Mr Ewing's Eloeation,— 4o the eomparativdy weak member that oondudea. 
'* Watch ye, stand fiist in the foith, quit yon like men, be strong.** 

In this and similar sentences, the radical point of the inflexions gradnaOy 
rises as the secies proceeds, and the effisct of a climax is produced. Thus,— 

*«K the liko Ml. 

Middle Wftteb In be 

Tone. feet you .^^^ 

ye, qnU etroDff. 

The habit of reading with other than natural tones, with limited 
inflexions, and with monotonous repetitions of the same radical 
or pitch-notes, which is so very common, will be most readily 
broken bj the practice of strong and varied inflexions on single 
words, either from vocabular arrangements, or as thej occur in 
ordinary composition. The latter will at first afibrd the easier 

INFW5XI0N. 285 

and the safer exercise ; for, in reading tables of unconnected 
words, the voice most natnrallj inclines to a sameness of tone, 
which it requires a constant effort to counteract. Nevertheless 
the reader who cannot, at wiU, pronounce unconnected w(»rds in 
anj manner, or with any degree of inflexion, has not acquired 
sufficient control over the fundamental movements of the voice. 
The four inflexions should, therefore, be practised — ^with different 
intervals, imtil a perfect mastery ovor them has been attained. 
After a little practice, if not at onpe, in reading word by word 
any familiar language, the voice will expressively adapt itself to 
the connectedness or disconneotedness of the words, and the 
feeling which they convey. This, therefore, is the best kind of 
exercise for the acquirement of vocal flexibility. 

The custom of inflectively anticipating the next word, phrase, or 
sentence, because it is before the eye, is one of the most cmnmon 
causes of ineffective reading, especially of that kind which consists 
in too frequent elevations of the voice. Few readers err in the oppo* 
site way by the misplacement of conclu^ve turns ; this constant 
linking-on of sentences may be said to be the most prevailing form 
of defective expression in reading. The worst reader generally lets 
slip a natural note, when he has to turn over a page to conclude 
a sentence. If the utterance is querulous, doubtful, or progres* 
sive, or if the sense is undeveloped, his voice mil rise into na- 
turally suspensive elevation ; and if the xMerajioe is positive, or if 
the sense is formedj however incomplete the sentence may be, his 
voice will fall here: and this because he does not see in adoanee of his 
utterance.* Let the reader reflect that his hearers are in precisdy 
the same predicament at every word — they do not see the next ; 
and their ears as naturally expect, as his voice naturally makes, a 
suspensive or conclusive turn, correspondent to the mental efSact 
of the utterance. If he concludes a sentence with a rising turn, 
because he sees another sentence after it, they are led to consider 
what has been said as incomplete, and dependent on, or impor- 
tantly qualified by, what is to follow ; and they feel disappointed 
and annoyed, when the expected utterance comes out, and con* 
tains no reference to what preceded. Not only so, but that which 

* It is not to be inferred that good readers do not look in advance of their 
utterance ; on the contraxy, the best readers exercise the longest prevision. Bat 
they look onward in order to catch the relations of clauses and sentenoes, and 
to regalate their utterance accordingly. The anticipatoiy effect which we con- 
demn, has no connexion with regulated expressiveness : it is indiscriminating, 
and is governed, not by ideas^ but by words. 


in composition was meant to be conclusive and conyincing, leayes on 
the minds of the hearers an unsatisfactory and indecisiye impres- 
sion — ^the natural effect of the reader's inappropriate intonation. 

We, therefore, recommend the student who is desirous of ac- 
quiring the use of his own natural speakioig voice in reading, to 
practise the inflexions on single wards, until the vocal movements 
are perfectlj mastered, and to proceed through all the stages of 
grammatical grouping which we have arranged and exemplified, 
with a full and varied sweep of the voice, pitched from eveij 
accent in every group,— -directed on the principles of inflexion 
which we have laid down ; — and, we are sure, he will soon find 
the old, tuneful^ hum-drum spell that held his voice with the force 
of a second nature, broken ; and will be enabled to give his 
reading — ^if not a perfectly spontaneous effect, — a gradually in- 
creasing degree of natural variety, which, without some such 
thoroughly searching, habit-eradicating mode of practice, he could 
never hope to attain. 

This kind of exercise, if useful for the correction of habitoallj 
faulty tones, must be much more effective for the prevention of 
unnatural habits of delivery, and the cultivation of vocal flexibi- 
lity and expressiveness in those who have only to learn, and hare 
not to undergo the harder labour of unlearning. 

The way in which school exercises are generally allowed to be 
rattled and gabbled over, is productive of much mischief, both to 
articidation and vocal expression. Habits of speech are formed 
at public schools which cannot be thrown off in after-life without 
more labour and watchfulness than nine out of ten persons could 
either encounter or afford to bestow. Stammering, even, is often 
traced to the uncontrolled emulation of a class ; and all impedi- 
ments and defects of speech are, from the same cause, almost 
invariably aggravated at public schools. Quickness of utterance 
being the quality most prized by mistaken schoolmasters, the 
thoughtful boy, who is often shy, and who is generally of better 
parts than the pert, guessing lads, that are always first with their 
answers, has no chance ; and in his efforts to expedite his thoughts, 
he confuses them, or they come faster than his tongue can utter 
them, so that jumbling rapidity, inarticulate hurry, stuttering, 
or convulsive impediment, is very naturally created. 

Expressive inflexion prevents hurry, and favours distinctness 
of articulation : it may, besides, be made an index of mental ad- 


TJEmcement ; and used with much advantage to taste, as an in- 
strnment of mental cultiyation. 

Let, then, every teacher of youth take this ftmdamental axiom 
of speaking tones into ordinary class application — none questions 
its truth, though many violate it — that *' all words, whether pro- 
nounced in a high or low, loud or soft tone ; whether uttered 
swiftly or slowly, forcibly or feebly, with passion or without it, 
must necessarily be pronounced with inflexion, that is, sliding 
either upwards or downwards,^* If words are enunciated with- 
out inflexion, they must be in monotone, and sung. 

Let this one principle be systematically enforced in every school^ 
and the monotony, drawling, and screaming, and other forms of 
unnatural utterance so common and so life-lasting, will be at once 
banished from the Class-room, — and, through it, from the Pulpits, 
the Courts, and from every arena of hona-fide oratory : from all 
but, perhaps, the mimic stage ; which might shake the sides of 
the next-risen generation, by imitating the grave chanting of a 
bygone age. 


In treating of the Mechanism and Extent of the Inflexions, we 
have shown that the radical or pitch-note of the inflexions varies 
to an almost infinite extent. Our inflective notation is calculated 
to show the extent of the inflexions, — the intervals through which 
they range, and — very generally — the position of their pitch-note 
with relation to an assumed middle tone of voice. Modulation 
has reference to the prevailing pitch of the inflexions in a sentence, 
and the key-notes, as it were, of periods or clauses. Thus a pas*- 
sage may be modulated in a high or low key, without at all affect- 
ing the direction or extent of its inflexions. 

In arranging a notation for Modulation, we can take notice only 
of the greater and more manifest varieties. Minuteness we can- 
not aim at. It may be sufficient to fix on five points, a middle key, 
and two above and two below this. The middle key corresponds 
to the natural or Conversational Pitch, and will be denoted by 
No. 3, — the middle number between 1 and 6. The key above 
this (4,) is indefinitely Higher; and, when used with somewhat 
more than conversational Force, may be called the Declamatory 
Key. The key below the conversational — (No. 2,) — ^is indefinitely 
Lower; and when used with slower than conversational Time, 
may be called the Solemn Key, No. 5, — the High Key, — ^is, with 


strong force, the kej of Poinan. Na 1, — ^the Low Key^^^ia^ vitb 
slow time, the key of Awe, The following notation ezemplifies 
these varieties of Modulation : — 


4 Higher. 

S — — Lowr. 

1^ ■ Low. 

^^ *0n the one hand are the Divine approbation and inunortal honoor ; on 
the other, ('remember, and * beware !) ^ are the stings of conadenoe, and end- 
less infiunj.** 

*( *The old adage of ' Too many irons in the fire,* conveys an abominable 
felsehood. *Toa cannot have too many : poker, tongs, and all, — *keep them 
an going." 

To indicate a progressive eleyation or depression of pitch, the 
mark F or [ will be placed before the modulatire number. Thus 
[3 signifies a gradual ascent of pitch above the conversational key ; 
and [2, a gradual descent from the pitch indicated bj No. 2. 

A change of modulation is always necessary to distinguish In- 
terrogations or Appeals from Responses ; Assertions from Proofs 
or Illustrations ; General Statements from Inferences or Corol- 
laries ; to introduce Quotations ; to denote the conmaencement of 
a new subject, or new division of a subject, or of any marked 
change in the style of composition — as from Narration to Descrip- 
tion, or from Literal to Figurative Language, and vice versa ; to 
express feeling and changes of sentiment; to distinguish what has 
been previously expressed or implied, or what is merely expletiye, 
from what is new and emphatic to the sense ; to detach from the 
main body of the sentence words or clauses which are ezplanatoiy 
or parenthetic ; and to distinguish generally those parts of a sen- 
tence which are necessary to its construction from those that are 
subordinate and dispensable. 

The degree in which the Modulation is changed, and even the 
direction of the change, — whether to a higher or lower key, — most 
depend on the reader's judgment, taste, temperament, &c. To 
assist him in the cultivation of the first two qualities, and, mainly, 
in forming the habit of making modulative changes at those places 
where all good readers must agree in applying the principle of 
change, however widely they may differ in the degree and direc- 
tion in which they apply it, is the object which we aim at accom- 
plishing by our modulative notation. 

No Exercise will be found more improving to the style of read- 


itig than the distinguishing, — by changes of Modulation, — ^the 
principal from the subordinate words in a sentence, — the subjec- 
tive and the predicative clauses from the mass oi inferior sen- 
tences and clauses in which they are often found embedded. 
These necessary component members of every sentence should be 
so delivered as to strike upon the hearer's mind with unencum- 
bered distinctness among the most multitudinous assemblage of 
particulars. The Subject and Predicate are generally the most 
emphatic parts of a sentence : they are so always, indeed, except 
when either of them has been previously*expressed or implied ; or 
when some opposition or contrast of particulars or subordinate 
clauses requires the elevation of such inferior words. 

Let the Student exercise himself in the Modulation and Rela- 
tive Emphasis of principal and subordinate clauses in the fol- 
lowing manner : — Underline the principal Subjects and principal 
Predicates, and the connectives of principal subjects and pre- 
dicates in some passages of varied styles of composition ; and 
separate, by an appropriate mark, all subordinate, complemental, 
or qualifying clauses and sentences, from the principals, and from 
each other. Read the composition with a modulative change at 
every mark, and observe whether the principal subject and pre- 
dicate bear the leading emphasis, and if they do not, why not ? 
and whether any of the syntactically subordinate words require 
the leading emphasis on them, and if so, why so ? 

The following is an Example of this kind of Modulative and 
Emphatic Parsing. The principal syntactical words are italicised. 

" Generally speaking, | those \ who have the most grace, and the 
greatest gifts, | and are of the greatest usefulness, ( are the most 
humble, \ and think the most meanly of themselves. So, \ those 
boughs I and branches of trees | which are most richly laden with 
fruit, I bend downwards, | and hang lowest." 

" Generally speaking^'' qualifies the principal sentence, " ^kose «re," ^c, 
and is therefore a first-class subordinate clause : " those''' — the subject ; although 
a pronoun, it is emphatic, because not immediately followed by the predicate, and 
because it is the antecedent to a relative: *' who have the most grace,'''' a re- 
lative sentence limitmg the subject, and therefore a first-class subordinate: 
" and the greatest gifts ^^'' — another relative sentence in the same predicament : 
" awd{who) are (therefore) of the greatest usefulness,^^ — a deduction from the 
two preceding relative sentences, and therefore a second-class subordinate : 
** are the most humble,^^ — the predicate : " and think the most meanly of them- 
selvesy^ another predicate to the subject " those;'''' the leading emphasis falls on 
the word *' meanly, ^^ because if it were on " think,^'' it would convey a false 
meaning, by suggesting an antithesis evidently not intended, and because " of 

o o 


thenuicU'cs'^ U implied in the former predicate, ^* the most humble r" the second 
predicate is sabordinate to the first, as being merdj a repetitiou of the same 
idea in different words. The next sentence is sabordinate to the preceding, be- 
caose the (act it states is advanced in illnstratioD of what was said in the former 
sentence. ^^ Soy^ — a connectiTe adverb ; very emphatic, because nuirking the 
correspondence or analogy between the facts of the two sentences : ^* those 
bougfuy^ — the snbject : ^* and branches of trees,^^ another subject to the pre- 
dicate *^ bend;"" the leading cUuisnlar accent fiUls on the word ** trees,^^ becaose 
if it were on *^ branches, it would imply antitheas between that word and 
'* bangk»t^ but the leading subjective emphasis is on ^* boughs,''^ because that 
word implies " of trees .•" " which are most richlif laden wiih/niU,''^ — ^a rela- 
tive sentence limiting the subject^ and therefore a first-dass subordinate : ** bend 
downwards,^ — the predicate ; the leading accent on *^ bend^^^ because that word, 
referring to richly laden boughs, implies ** downwards ;** '^ and hang lowest," 
— another predicate to the subject *' boughs;^* tlie leading accent on ^^ lowest^" 
because all boughs *^ richly laden with fruif^'' must ^^ hang^ 

We use the following marks to denote the comparatiye eleva- 
tion or depression of sabordinate clauses : — Elevate, f Depress, |_. 
This mark ( | ) shows the end of the modulated clause ; it is 
used also to separate unconnected clauses. The full modulatiTe 
and accentual notation of the above sentence would then be the 
following : — 

6en"erallj speak'ing, | Hhose \ who have'^ the most' grace" | 
and' the great'est gift6/'[ and are' of the great'est use^fiilness, | 
*are' the most' hum"ble, | and think' the most mean'ly of them- 
selves'. * 80 I those boughs" \ and bran'ches of trees" | which' 
are most rich'ly la'deu with fruit," | bend" down'wards, | and 
hang' low "est. 

In the two following Extracts, the Subjects and Predicates are 
printed in italics : in the subsequent illustrations, the clausolar 
divisions and the relative modulations are also marked. In reading 
these Exercises, note, — 

Ist, — ^When the Subject and Predicate stand together, they must (unless when 
they are without emphasis) be uttered with that deliberation and intervening 
pause which denote what is most weighty and worthy of attention. 2nd, When 
they are separated by any clause or clauses, these subordinate parts mnst 
be so pronounced as not to interfere with the inflexion and modulation of the 
principal members ; they must be removed from the main level of the sentence 
— changed to a different key-note ; but whether nused to a higher, or depressed 
to a lower, their syntactical subordination must be d&tinctly shown, in their 
more limited inflexions, feebler force, and (generally) quicker time. 8rd, When 
subordinate clauses precede the subject, though they may be inflected down- 
wards, they cannot terminate with a completive fall ; their inflexion must be 
^ther of that modified kind which we call Continuative, or else its more em- 
phatic descent must be finished by a slightly rising connecting link. 4th, The 
Subject must be uttered with such a progression of voice, as plainly to denote 


the closeness of connexion that exists between it and the Predicate as members 
which are mutually necessary to the expression pf sense ; and the voice must be kept 
up, or at least kept from making a completive fall at the end of any clause that may 
intervene between it and the predicate : — ^if there are several intervening clauses, 
the last must be pronounced with such an elevation of voice as may premonstrate 
the coming conclusion. 5th, When subordinate clauses follow the predicate, 
though they form part of the same period, they must not be allowed to deprive 
the utterance of the predicate of its completive effect : unless when connexion 
is purposely maintsuned by a rise, — as when the subordinate clauses are intended 
to limit the acceptation of the predicate,— the latter must have a perfect fall, 
however far from the end of the sentence it may occur. 6th, When Principal 
Connectives are not immediately followed by the words which they unite in 
sense, but by some subordinate clause, they must be kept apart in utterance, by 
a pause and modulative change after them. 7th, The Clausular Accentuations 
and Relative Emphasis (and, consequently, the arrangement of the Inflexions) 
must be regulated by the judgement. 

uamlet's soliloquy on death.* 

To he f or not to bef that is the qiiestion : fj 

Whether Uis nobler, \ in the mmd, | to suffer 

The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, 

Or to take arms against a siege of troubles, 

And, I by opposing, | end themf — To diet — to sleep — 

No more i^-mand, | by a sleep, | to say we end 

The heart-ache, and the thousand natural shocks 

That flesh is heir Ui^ tis a consummation 

Devoutly to be unsh*d! To die — to sleep ; 

To sleep f^-^perchance to dream /—ay, there's the rub ! 

For, I in that sleep of death, | what dreams may come, 

[When we have shuffled off this mortal coil, | 

Must give iw pause I There's the respect, 

That makes calamity of so long life ! 

For, who would bear the whips and scorns of time, | 

The oppressor's wrong, | the proud man^s contumely, | 

The pangs of despised love, | the law's delay, | 

The inso1enc<i of office, | and the spurns 

That patient merit of the unworthy takes-— | 

When he himself, might his quietus make, 

With a bare bodkin ? Who would fardels bear, — 

To groan and sweat under a weary life, | 

* The italics in this and the following similarly printed passages, do not indicate 
emphasis, but, as stated on the preceding page, denote the principal constructive 
words in the several sentences. These, whctlier emphatic or subordinate to the 
sense, should always be distinctively uttered. The effect and object of the 
notation will be best seen by first reading the italicised words alone. 


But that the dread of something after Deith 
I^That undieooTer^d ooimtiT, [^from whose boom 
No traveller retains ! | ^.^uzdes the will ; 
And makes us rather hear those ills we have, 
Thanjly to others that we know not of. 
Thus Conscience does make cowards of ns all : 
And thuSy the native hue of Resolution 
Is sicklied oW with the pale east of Thought ; 
And enterprises of great pith and moment, — 
[With this regard, | their currents turn awry^ 
And lose the name of action ! 


Whatever action^ \ either good or bad, | ?ias been done onoe, is done a 
second time with more ease, and with a better liking ; and a frequent repetition 
heightens the ease and pleasure of the performance | without limit. By virtue 
of this property of the mind^ having done any thing once becomes a motive to 
doing it again ; having done it twice is a double motive ; and [so many 
times the act is repeated, fso many times | the motive to doing it onoe more, 
is multiplied. To this principle, habit owes its wonderful foree, [of which it 
is usual to hear men complain, — fas of something external that enslaves the 
will. But the complaint \m. this instance, Tas in every other in which man 
presumes to arraign the ways of Providence, | is rash and unreasonable. 
The fault is in man himself, if a principle, implanted in him for his good> 
becomes, | by negligence and mismanagement, | the instrument of his ruin. 
It is oiving to this principle | that every faculty of the understanding, and 
every sentiment of the heart, is capable of being improved fby exercise. It is 
the leading principle | in the whole system of the human constitution ; [mo- 
difying both the physical qualities of the body, and the moral and inteDectual 
endowments of the mind. 


*And now | behold him [up the hill ascending, | 
[Memory | and hope, [like evening stars, [ attending ; 
Sustained, \ excited, [till hia course is run, | 
TBy deeds of virtue | done, | or to be done. 
•When [on his couch The sinks | at length | to rest. 
Those I by his counsel saved, | his power redressed, | 
Those I by the world shunned ever [as unblest, | 
[At whom the rich man's dog growls from the gate, 
FBut whom he sought out, [sitting desolate, | 
^Comd and stand round! \ the widow with Tier child, | 
[As when she first forgot her tears | and smiled! 
» They \ who watch by liim | see not ; \ but he sees, 
^Sees I and exults ! \ — were ever dreams like these f 


*They \ who watch by him | hear not; \ hut he hears! 
And earth recedes^ \ *and heaven itself appears, 
^^Tis past! I "that hand we grasped, [alas ! j^in vain ! 
Nor shall we look into his face again I 
*But I to his closing eyes, (for all were there J 
Nothing was wanting ; \ and, Lthrough many a year, 
We shall remember \ with a fond delight | 
The words | so predons | which we heard to-night ; 
THis parting ; | ' though \ awhile | our sorrow flows, 
fLike setting suns, | or music at the close ! 

» Theri \ was the drama ended, \ Not till then, 
l^So full of chance and change the lives of men, | 
Could we pronounce him happy. Then | secure 
From pain, | from grief, Hand all that we endure, | 
He slept I in peace, | ^say rather soared to heaven, ( 
Upborne from earth | by Him, [to whom 'tis given, 
In his right hand to hold the golden key 
That opes the portals of eternity. 
When I by a good man's grave | I muse | alone, | 
Methinks \ an angel sits upon the stone : 
[Like those of old, [on that thrice-hallowed night, 
rWho sat and watched | in raiment heavenly bright ; 
And [with a voice inspiring joy, fnot fear, 
Says, I pointing upwards, | that he is not here. 
That he is risen ! 

It is almost as difficult to make a man unlearnhxs errors | as his knowledge. 
Mal-in formation is more hopeless than non-information ; | *f or, error is always 
more busy than ignorance. 'Ignorance is a blank sheet, Ton which we may 
write ; | hut error is a scribbled one, [from which we must first erase. 
'Ignorance is contented to stand still ] with her back to the truth ; but error 
is more presumptuous, \ * and proceeds in the backward direction. * Ignorance 
has no light, hut error follows a false one : 'the consequence is, | that error 
[when she retraces her footsteps, | has farther to go [before she can arrive at 
the truth fthau ignorance. 

*Time moveth not! ^our being His [that moves ; 
*And we, [swifl gliding down life's rapid stream, | 
Dream of swifl ages, | and revolving years, | 
Ordained to chronicle our passing days : | 
'So I the young sailor, [in the gallant bark | 
Scudding before the wind, | beholds the coast 
Receding from his eyes, | 'and thinks [the while, 
rStruck with amaze [ that he is motionless. 
And that the land is sailing. 


^MarCs uncertain life 
Is Wee a rain-drop [hanging on the bough 
f Amongst ten thousand of its sparkling kindred, 
[The remnants of some passing thnnder shower, 
fWhich have their moments [dropping one by one, 
[And [which shall soonest lose its periloos hold, 
We eannoi guess, 

*The actions of each day are^ [for the most part, | links [which follow each other 
in the chain of costom. Hence \ *the great effort of practical wisdom, 
is to imbue the mind with right tastes, | affections, | and habits ; [the ele- 
ments of character | and masters of actions. 

«0A, ^twas a gladdening, glorious thing, 

To see the sun [in pity ffluig 

[On the poor weeping trees fhis ray, 

[To wipe then: falling tears away. 

*And the r^oidng leaves \ the while, | 

[lit by the sun-beam, | seemed to smOe | 

f A thousand times, [in our rapt eye, 

fMore lovely than they were when dry. 

*Say I what impels, (^amidst surrounding snow 

Congealed, f the crocus* flaming bud to glow ? 

Say I what retards, famidst the summer^s blaie 

[The autumnal bulb, | till pale declining days ? 

• The God of Seasons, [whose pervading power 

Controls the sun, | or sheds the fleecy shower ; 

He bids each flower his quickening word obey | 

Or I to each lingering bloom | enjoins delay. 
If thou desire happiness, | desire not to be rich : *he is rich, foot who pos- 
sesses much, [but he that covets no more ; 'and he is poor, [not that 
enjoys little, fbut he that wants too much : the contented mind wants 
nothing that it hath not, | *the covetous mind wants [not only what it 
hath not, fbut likewise what it hath. 

Proud minion of a little hour^ 

[Receptacle of passing power | 

The page of history scan : 

f Although the mighty million fling 

A name upon theei | -—call thee king | 
Yet I art thou stUl a man. 

See I how [beneath the moonbeam^s smile> | 

Yon little billow heaves its breast, | 
And foams \ and sparkles | for a while, | 

And [murmuring, | then | subsides to rest t 
*Thus I man, fthe sport of bliss and care, | 

Rises I on Timers eventful sea ; | 


And^ l^having swelled a moment there, | 
Thus melts [into eternity. 

* The passionst [like heavy bodies down steep hills, fonce in motion | move 

themselves^ 'and know no ground bnt the bottom. 

* Every man \ who speaks and reasons | is a grammarian and a logician, 

falthoagh miacquainted with the rules of art, [as exhibited in books and 

*Alas! how light a cause may move 

Dissension between hearts that love I 

Hearts, [that the world in vain had tried, 

TAnd sorrow bnt more dosely tied ; 

nhat stood the storm, [when waves were rongh, 

fTet in a sonny hour &11 off,— 

[like ships that have gone down at sea 

When heaven is all tranquillity 1 

\*A something light as air.»~. \ a look \ 

A word I unkind-— or wrongly taken ; 
>0h I love, f that tempests never shook, | 

A breathy a touch like this, hath shaken. 

Again (he hardy Britons rushed [like lions [to the fight. 

The Assyrian came down [like the wolf on the fold. 

Murder^ therefore, is (he most atrocious of all crimes [which affect individuals 
only, [in the sight both of mankind, and of the person who has com> 
mitted it. 
While (^beholding this vast expanse, fl learn my own extreme meanness, 1 
would also discover tlie abject littleness of all ten-estrial things. 

""To die f^*to sleep ; 
•7b deep f .^perchance ^to dream! ^Ay^ there'' s the rub\ 

*He tooJb^— f to hear his sentries shriek 

" *To armsf^-Uhey come t'^* the Greek! — tJie Greek P* 

He woke-^^to die. 

•5b knelt she [in her woe ; 
*A weeper [^alone with the tearless dead ! 
'OA, they reck not of tears o^er then* quiet shed, 
^Or (he dust had stirred below ! 

*His children ^But here my heart began to bleed, 'and I was forced to 

go on with another part of the portrait. 

^He started t t^mid the battlers yell, 
*He saw the Persian rushing on ; 
He saw fthe flames around him swell,— 
* Thou Wt ashes ! King of Babylon ! 

296 FORCE, TIME, &c. 


The same principle which dictates variety of Modulation requires 
also a corresponding variety in the Force and Time of utterance. 
No unvarying uniformity of manner, in any particulsu* of delivery, 
can be effective ; for it is unnatural. 

We do not enlarge upon the rationale of Force atid Time, as 
the reasons for modifications of these qualities must lie chiefly in 
the reader's sympathetic appreciation of sentiment, situation, &c. 
We shall content ourselves with furnishing a simple notation for 
the greater changes of Force and Time, and illustrating their 
application in a few marked passages. 

We assume as middle points those degrees of Force and of Time 
which are used in unimpassioned conversation ; which we call 
moderate, and mark m. Two degrees of slower and of quicker 
Time, and of stronger and feebler Force, we call slow and ada- 
gio, quick and rapid, energetic and vehement, feehle and piano ; 
and mark e, v. f. p ; s, a, q. r. 

In addition to these, which may be employed as accidental 
marks, it will be useful to have a more general notation for a 
gradual or climactic increase or diminution of Force, and acceler- 
ation or retardation of Time. For this purpose, we adopt the 
marks cres, dim, ac, ret. 

There are other varieties of Expression which, as they funda- 
mentally affect the quality of the voice, or the mode of utterance, 
must be noticed and included in our notation. These are Whisper, 
marked CTTA.^ Hoarseness, (H.) Falsetto,(Fals,) Orotund, (Or.) 
Plaintiveness, (PI J Tremor, ( Tr. ) Prolongation, ( Pr, ) Effect 
of Distance, (Dist,) Effect of Strong Effort, or Straining, (Str.) 
Staccato, (St) Sostenuto, (Sst) Sympathetic, ( Sym.) Imita- 
tive, (Im.) Sudden Break, (- - -) Eocpresssive Pause, (O) 

The Whisper is used to express secrecy and cunning ; it denotes also ap- 
prehension of evil, or fearful suspense in presence of danger. Hoarseness, 
or an aspirated vocality, is employed to express horror, loathing, agony, and 
despair. The Falsetto voice is expressive of puerility or senility ; it denotes 
also acute anguish, or an overpowermgly mui;hful feeling. The Orotund, a 
deep,;mellow quality of voice, is, appropriate for expressions of pomp, sublimity, 
and vastness — also for those of bombast and self importance. Plaintiveness 
is produced by employment of the semitonic interval of inflexion, (see page 267.) 


It is expressive of sufferiDg — but not without hope ; of sympathy in suftering, 
of fond desire, of supplication, and earnest entreaty, and also of mild reproach. 
Tremor, or an unsteady, tremulous formation of voice, is expressive of anxiety, 
alarm, eagerness, and intense emotion. When the intervals of the tremulous 
movement are not chromatic or plaintive, but diatonic, the tremor is expressive 
of self-gratulation, exultation, boasting, triumph : — it is then, in other words, 
chuckling^ by which term we designate this vocal effect in its strongly joyful ap- 
plications. Prolongation of voice, or of articulative effort, is often most ex- 
pressive, but so variously that its precise effect cannot be briefly denoted — ^it is fre- 
quently employed in scorn, dei*ision, malignity, &c., but it is also bj^ien used to 
convey the very opposite sentiments — ^it is an intensive effect, applicable to many 
passions. The Effect of Distance differs from low modulation and feeble 
force — ^it is a " ventriloquial" effect, but one within the compass of any voice. 
The Effect of Strong Effort differs from any of the qualities of Force and Modu- 
lation, being a sort of subdued Straining, chiefly on the articulations — :which 
are thus rendered more explosive than usual ; it is not loud, though expressive 
of loudness. The Staccato movement consists in a strongly pointed, abrupt, 
aud frequent accentuation, and is expressive of recrimination, reproach, and 
all acrimonious sentiments ; and also of any marked sentential emphasis. The 
Sostenuto movement consists in a smooth, flowing, equable accentuation, 
and is expressive of admiration, tenderness, love, and pleasing sentiments 
generally. The occasions for a strictly Imitative tone must always be obvious, 
and the effects of the imitation will, of course, be as various as its objects : — 
but there is a certain sympathetic suiting of the sound to the sense employed by 
the effective reader in almost every paragraph of descriptive language, which, 
though not strictly imitative, may yet be called analogously so. Thus, in describ- 
ing cheerful or gay objects, the voice wiQ leap from pitdi to pitch in its inflexions 
with a buoyancy of effect that aptly analogizes the bounding pulse and buoyant 
spirits of cheerfulness ; in depictmg gloomy, solemn, or sad objects, the mflexions 
will be low and limited, and the march of accentuation slow and equable. In 
speakmg of the roaring or the whistling wind, the booming shot, the crashing 
and rolling thunder, the sweep of the hurricane, the heaving and splashing of 
waters, the glowing, crackling fire, &c., the articulation of the words may be 
made highly iUustrative of the objects by this sort of imitative effect. Indeed, 
the articulative consjiruction of the most expressive words is often strikingly 
imitative of the objects they denote, so that the words bear well, and seem to 
require this illustrative effect by the voice. We shall use the notation Sym, 
(Sympathetic^ where mental emotion is to be expressed, and Im, (^Imitative,) 
where physical properties, — sound, motion, &c. are concerned. The Sudden 
Break in utterance may be demanded by a rhetorical break occurring in the 
composition, or it may be simulatively introduced by the reader for some purpose 
of effect. The Expressive Pause is reflective or monitory, conveying the 
effect of meditation, deliberation, &c.-, or of preparation for important emphasis ; 
it also denotes listening, and is highly effective in representations of terror, of 
anxious watchfulness, &c. 


299 £XPR£i>S10N. 

Without attempting to include in our notation the Passions 
generally, — for their yarietj of shading and admixture would 
render an accurate notation of them far too complex to be of 
service, — there are a few other qualities of Expression, which, as 
thej have peculiar functional manifestations, we must add to our 
system of Expressive notation. These are Laughter^ C^') ^^^ 
Weeping^ (W.) and their more subdued forms. Chuckling, (Ch,) 
and Sobbing, (Sob.) to which we may add Jby, (Joy,) and 
Sadnessy (Sad,) Panting BespiroHon, (Besp,) Audible Inspira- 
tion, (Insp.) Audible Bappiration, (Ejb, and Exp,) 

Open Laughter and Wbsping come seldom or never within the scope of 
reading, tboogfa acting and gestictdated recitation must occasionally employ 
them : we need not point ont the sitoadons in which they would be appro- 
priate. A Chuckukg effect is expressive of vulgar self-satb&ction, and 
boasting : in a modified degree, it may be generally used in the utterance of 
an triumphal or gratnlatory sentiments ; for these we shall use the notation 
Joy, This sort of effect, with waving tones, is used in sneer, ridicule, and 
sarcasm. A Sobbing effsct may be quite admissible in expressive reading : 
the degree in which it is employed^ and the occasions for its employment, will 
greatly depend upon the temperament of the reader. The notation Sad. (Sadness) 
will express the more modified degrees of grief. Ordinary respiration should 
be sUent, equable, and almost imperceptible : pertuibation and mental suffering, 
nervous excitement, flurry, exhaustion, &c., may be expressed by convulsed, 
heaving, or Panting Respiration. An Audible, gasping, or s^ni-vocal 
Inspiration is wildly expressive of despair, and generally of mental or bodfly 
agony. Audible Expirations also may be occasionally used for emotional 
expressiveness ; if slowly accompanying the utterance (noted Ex,^ they produce 
the effect of sighing, and ^^ suit the action to the word'' of sadness ; if sud- 
denly gushing out with the accented syllable or word, (noted Exp,) they have 
the effect of denoting intensity of the feeling in the passage, whether of joy 
or sorrow.* 

* The functions of Laughter and Crying'-'-JSA the ingenious and deeply- 
observaoit author of the ^^ Philosophy of the Human Yoioe^" remarks — are 
organically the same : their different effects arising fix>m the chromatic inter- 
vsds of the aspirations of sorrow, and the diatonic intervals of those of joy. 
This accounts for the tears of laughter^ and for the common and notable 
phenomenon of children crying and laughing '^ in the same breath. *' 



Inflbxiont— - 

Refer to tiagea 
26$ m^ 269. 



r~ — 
Middle ^ .^ 

Tone. •^ ••^ 






«-/n .*./-* 

288 and 290. 

-Hi^ Key. 
—Low Key. 

this mark ([) before the Modulative 
number: Thus— f3, r2, \4, Ac. 

Progressive depression is denoted by 
this mark ([) before the Modulative 


number : T^oa— 1^» L^t L^> ^• 

Elevate Subordinate clause or sentence marked f 





[^Mark of Separation between clauses. 


Refer to page 


Refer to page 

Progressive Increase of Force, 
marked Ores. (Crescendo) or ^ 

Progressive Diminution of Force, 
marked Dim. (Diminuendo) or » 

f V. — vehement. 
e. — energetic, 
m. — ^moderate. 
/. — feeble. 
p. — piano. 

r. — ^rapid. Progressive Acceleration of Time^ 

q, — quick. marked Ac. 

m. — ^moderate. Progressive Retardation of Time, 

s. — ^slow. marked Ret. 

a. — adagio. 



Refer to pages 
296"- 29ol 

f W^.-Whisper. 
H, — Hoarseness. 
Or. — Orotund. 
PL — Plaintive. 
TV.— Tremor. 
— " Pr. — ^Prolongation. 

Sudden Break - - 
L. — Laughter. 
C%.— Chucklhig. 
J. — Joy. 
W. — ^Weeping. 

Dist. — ^Effect of Distance. 
Str. — Straining, or Effect 

of Strong Effort. 
St. — Staccato. 
Sst. — Sostenuto. 
5ym. — Sympathetic. 
Im. — Imitative. 

Expressive Pause ^ 
Sad. — Sadness. 
Resp. — Panting Respiration. 
Insp. — Audible Inspiration. 
Ex. \ Sighing CAudible. 
JSxpS Sudden (Expiration. 


In the following passages, a very minute notation is attempted, 
to assist the student in cultivating a varied and effective delivery. 
The difficulty of working with types has, however, been fully felt. 
In the first few pages the notation is chiefly confined to Inflexion 
and Modulation : in the subsequent passages the other Expressive 
marks are more generally introduced. Our space forbids 
lengthened illustrations, or very copious examples. 


These Exercises will show the ineffective reader something of 
the yarietj that is demanded by expressive delivery ; and they 
will, we trast, encourage him to apply broadly and confidently, 
in his ordinary practice, the principles which their notation ex- 
emplifies. They are far from being overloaded with notation : 
we can safely afl&rm that the voice must, in doing justice to the 
delivery of such passages, make more than double the number of 
changes — ^inflective, modulative, and expressive, — that are here 

Industiy is the demand of natare, of reason, and of God. 

Among the various blessings which we derive from art, are wealth, commerce, 

•^^ ^p^ ^p^ 

honour, liberty, content. 
GompUusance renders a snpenor amiable, an eqoal agreeable^ and an inferior 

The astonishing mnltiplicity of created beings, the wonderfiil laws of natare, 

the beantiM arrangement of the heavenly bodies, the elegance of the 

vegetable world, the operations of animal life, and the amazing harmony 

of the whole creation, loudly proclaim the wisdom of the Deity. 

8»s -^ ^%^ ^ ^ •s ••^ 

Poverty wants some, luxury many, 'avarice all things. 

Vapours are formed into clouds, dew, mist, rain^ snow, hail^ and other 

The colours in the rainbow are violet, indigo, blue, green^ yellow, orange^ red. 

The earth is adorned with a beautiful vanety of mountains, hiUs, valUes, 
plains, seas, lakes, rivers, trees, flowers, plants, and animals. 

Human society requires distinctions of property^ diversity of conditions, sub- 
ordinations of rank, and a multiplicity of occupations, [in order to advance the 
general good. 

No station is so high^ no power so great, no character so unblemished, as to 
exempt men from the attacks of rashness, malice, and envy. 

In the least insect there are muscles, nerves, joints, veins, arteries, and blood. 

A moment^s thinking is an hour in words. 


* •s •s 

The cloud capp'd towers, the gorgeous palaces, 
The solemn temples, ^the great globe itself, 


Yea, all which it inherit, — shafl dissolve ; 
And [like this unsubstantial pa^ant faded, | 
Leave not a rack behind. 

Nothing stiftes knowledge more than covering every thing with a doctor^s 
robe ; and the men who would be for ever teaching are great hindrances^ 
to learning. 

A felicitous image presented to the fancy, a gentle dealing with angry passions, 
an avoidance of collisions with rooted prejudice, may, [without the 
slightest violation of truth or moral rectitude^ | open the mind of an 
assembly or a nation to receive fwith honest conviction | a system of 
knowledge, [religions^ ethical^ or political^ which philosophic reasoning, or 
nncompromising dogmatism, might have striven for ages to force upon 
them, fand striven in vam. 
The emotions pervade every operation of the mind, as the Hfe-blood circulates 

through the body : within us and without, in the corporeal world and in the 

_ %^^^ 

spiritual, in the past, the present, and the future, there is no object of thought 
which they do not touch ; there are few, | very few | which they do not colour 
and transmute. 
Learning teaches youth temperance ; affords comfort to old age; gives nckes 

to the poor ; and is an ornament to the rich. 
While [beholding this vast expanse, | I learn my own extreme meanness, I 

would also discover the abject littleness of all terrestrial things. 
Error is generally sweetened with truth fto make men swallow it more readily. 
For all the several gems in Virtue, Yice has counterfeit stones, [with which she 

gulls the ignorant. 

We sail the sea of Life— -a c^m one finds. 
And one a tempest — and, [the voyage o V, | 
Death is the quiet haven of us afl. 

The passions are the gales of life ; and it b rehgion only that can prevent them 
from rising into a tempest. 

How mean that snuff of glory fortune lights 
And death puts out ! 



A kind no \a often more agreeable than a rou^h yes. 
The man who does not know how to meuiodize his thoughts, has always 
[to borrow a phrase from the dispensary | a barren superfloity of words. 

Above the earth, | around the sky | 
There*s not a form, I or deep, or high, | 

Where the Creator hath not trod, 

[And left tiie foot-prints of a God. 

4 ^ 

What a pieoe of work is man I how noble in reason ! how infinite iu facnlties ! 

in form and moving how express and admuable ! in action^ ^how hke 

-r: 8 Or •- .^ -V '^ 

an angel I in apprehension, how like a God I 

Eveiy passion has its proper pmse. 

What eagles are we still 

In matters that belong to other men ! 

2 Or .^ 

— ^What beedes in our own ! 

[Of Hi the causes which conspire to blind 

Man's erring judgement, and misguide the mind, | 

4 ••^ gv^ '^^ 

What the weak head with strongest bias rules, 
Is Pride. 

High on a throne of royal statCy fwhich rar 
Outshone the wealth of Ormus or of Ind, 
Or where the gorgeous East [with richest hand, 
rShow'rs on her kmgs barbaric, pearl and gold, 
Satan exalted sat. 

* Ex PI 8 

How doth the dty sit solitary fthat was full of people 1 how is she become a 
widow I 

4 ^ 

What sudden turns, 
What strange vicisatudes in the first leaf 
Of man's sad history ! to-day, most happy ; 
And, [ere tomorrow's sun has set, I most abject ! 
How scant the space between these vast extremes ( 


Sure the last end 
Of the good man is peace. How calm his exit ! 
Night-dews &11 not more gently to the gromid, 
Nor weary worn-out winds expire so son. 

He that would pass the latter part of his life with honour and decency, must, 

[when he is young, | consider that he shall one day be da, and remember 

[when he is old, | that he has once been young. 
Sloth, riike rust, | consumes faster than nature wears. IMligence, i^like the 

philosopher's stone, 1 turns every thmg to gdd. 
[To a lover | the figures, the motions, the words of the beloved object, are not 

[like other images | written in water, but [as Plutarch said | '^ enamelled 

in £e," and made the study of midnight. 

The sunniest things throw sternest shade^ 
And there is even a happiness 
That makes the heart afraid. 


The world of a child's imagination is the creation of a far holler spell than 

hath been ever wrought [by the pride of learning, or the inspiration of poetic 

iancy. Innocence that tliinketh no evil; ignorance that apprehendeth none; 

hope that hath experienced no blight ; love that suspecteth no guile : these are 

its nunisterin^ angels ! these wield a wand of power, making this earth a para- 

dise ! — ^Time, hard, rigid teacher ! — Reality, rough, stem reality I — World, cold, 

Ex j^ ^ ^'* a? 

heartless world I that ever your sad experience, your sombre truths, your killing 

2 ^ •s 

cold, your withering success, could scare those gentle i^irits fix>m their holy 

temple ! And wherewith do ye replace them ? With caution, [that repulses 

confidence, | with doubt, [that repdleth love ^ | with reason, that dispelleth delu- 

•^ -r •^ •^ 8 ^ 

sion ; with fear, fthat poisoneth enjoyment ; in a word, with knowledge, — that 

fatal fruit, the tasting whereof, [at the first onset, I cost us paradise. 

We are prone to look at our troubles Fthrough a magnifying glass, | and at our 

mercies [through a diminishing one. Hence we are so miserable under 

present distress, and so imgratefnl for past favours. 


Though faith be above reatsoo, yet is there a reason to be given of our faith. 
He 18 a fool that believes he neither knows what nor why. 

There is ever a certain languor attending the fulness of prosperity. When 
the heart has no more to wish, it yawns over its possesnons, and the energy of 

the soul goes out, |_like a flame that has no more to devour. 

' *^ *^ '•^ •^ 

An inevitable dualism bisects nature^ so that each thing is a half, and suggests 

*^ . , ^ ^ ,T ^ ^^ 

another thing to make it whole ; as spirit, matter ; man, woman ; sub- 
jective, objective ; in, out ; upper, under ; motion, rest ; yea, nay. 

Beneath the foulest mother*s curse 

No living thing can thrive ; 
A mother is a mother still, — 
The holiest thing alive. 

3 m •^ 

Since trifles make the sum of human things, 
[And half our misery from our foibles springs ; 
rSince lifers best joys consist in peace and ease. 
And [though but few can serve, yet all may please, 
let the ungentle spuit learn from hence, 
A small unkindness is a great onence ; 


[To spread large bounties, fthough we wish m vair 
Yet all may shun the guilt of giving pain. 

It glads the eye it warms the soul 

To gaze upon the rugged knoll, 
[Where tangled brushwood twines across 
The struggling brake, and sedgy moss. 
Oh ! who would have the grain spring up 
Where now we find the daisy's cup— 
[Where clumps of dark red heather gleam 
With beauty in the summer beam. 
And yellow furze-bloom laughs to scorn 
Your ripen'd hopes and bursting corn ? 
God speed the plough ; but let us trace 


Sometliing of nature^s infant face ; 

Let us behold some spot fwhere man 

Has not yet set his '^ bar and ban," | 

Leave us some green wastes, [fresh and wild, | 

For poor man^s beast, and poor man^s child. 

Let it be the struggle of the rich man that he may possess his goods — ^not they 

Busmess sweetens pleasure^ as labour sweetens rest. 
We are most sure in those points we have most doubted in. 
A wise man knows his own ignorance : a fool thinks he knows everything. 
Better suffer a great evil than do a small one. 

The difference between a maaman and a fool is, that the former reasons justly 
from false data, and the latter erroneously from just data. 

Tis with our judgements as our watches ; — ^none 
Go just alike^ yet each believes his own. 

Mourn rather for the Living Dead, 

Than for the seeming dead — fwho Live ! 

These need no tears [our grief can shed, | 

•^ St Tr 

But those O far more than we can give I 

Men will wrangle for religion, write for it, fight for it, die for it — Lanything but 
live for it. 
Ministers should preach to their congregations, and not merely before them. 

Knowledge and wisdom, [far from being one, | 
Have ofl'tiraes no connexion. Knowledge dwells 
In heads replete with thoughts of other men ; 
Wisdom, in minds attentive to their own. 
Knowledge — [a rude unprofitable mass 
FThe mere materials with wliich wisdom builds, 
[Till smoothed, and squared, and fitted to its place, | 
Does but encumber whom it seems to enrich. 



Knowledge is proud [that he hat learned so much ; 
Wisdom is hnmble that he knows no more. 

^ "^ ^-^ #s ••s €^ »K 

The friend Tthat ligbtlj flatters | is an enemy ; the enemy [that justly re- 
proves is a friend. 
When people are determined to quarrel, a straw will furnish the occasion. 

Of 8ir» your O honesty is remarkable. 

Most courteous tyrants ! Romans ! rare patterns of humanity. 

Pr *^ '.•^ Exp •^ 

Courageous i^vdi\ the first C^ in flight from pain ! 

There is a flower, a little flower^ 

[With silver crest and golden eye, 
TThat welcomes every changing hour, 

And weathers every sky. 
On waste and woodland^ frock and plain^ 

Its humble buds unheeded rise ; 
The rose has but a summer s reign, 
The daisy '^ never dies. 


of our common nature rise in rebellion against it. 

Tell me not of rights — talk not of the property of the planter in his slaves :- 
I deny the right, I acknowledge not the property. The principles, the feelin 

They are wise and O honourable, 

And will, fno doubt, | with reason answer you ! 

The hypocrite shows the excellence of virtue by the necessity he thinks himself 

under of seeming to be virtuous. 
The weather was so intensely hot that we saw only [what was to be admired — 

we could not admire. 
The marble peach feels cold and heavy^ and children only put it to their 


3m 9S, .^^ 

Thou wast not bom for death, immortal bird ! 

No hungry generations tread thee down ; 

£X£RCIS£S. 307 


The voice I hear | thu passing night, | was heard 
In ancient days, Fby emperor and down : 

^S.Bet •^ 

Perhaps the self-same song^ [that found a path 

Sym •^ ^^ 

Through the sad heart of Ruth, | when, fsick for homc^ | 

She stood in tears amid the alien corn ; 
The same | that oft-times hath 
CharmM magic casements, | opening on the foam 

Of perilous seas, in fairy lands forlorn. 

4 Pr 2/ •^ ^ •^ 

*' Forlorn !" — ^The very soimd is like a bell 
••^ Ex •^ 

FTo toll me back fix)m thee to my sole self ! 
Adieu ! — The fancy cannot cheat so well 
As she is fam^d to do, i deceiving elf. 

l2 •^ \}f ^ 

Adieu ! adieu ! '^ Thy plaintive anthem fades ^ — 

[2 Im ^ 

Past the near meadows, ^ over the still stream, ^ 

Up the hill-side ; '^ and now, '^ 'tis buried deep 

In the next valley's glades : — 
3 ^^ 

Was it a vision, or a waking dream ? 
- - - Fled is that music ! — ^Do I wake or sleep ? 

From their foundations loos'niug too and fro, 
They plucked the seated hills — fwith all their load, 


Rocks, waters, woods ; and Lby the shaggy tops 
Uplifting, I bore them in their hands. 

4 .^^ ^^ 3 /m 

That strain again ; — it had a dying fall ; 

! it came o'er my ear ^ like the sweet south. 

That breathes upon a bank of violets. 
Stealing, and giving odour ! 

2 ^ 

The bright sun was extinguished ; and the stars 
Did wander | darkling [in the eternal space, ' 

Raylcss and Pathless ; and the icy earth 
Swung blind and blackening, in the moonless air. 


'' Base as thou art folse''— '' No!" 

" Art thou not"— 4«* ^hat ?''— " a traitor V" 

Think yon a little din can daunt mine ears? 

Have I not in my time heard lions roar ? 

Uave I not heard the sea, [^puffed up with winds, 
# Pr a 

Rage l^like an angry boar? 

Have I not heard great ordnance [in the field, 

•••s Pr 

And heavens' artillery thonder [in the skies ? 

Have I not, Tin a pitched battle | heard 

Loud 'laroms, neighing steeds, and trumpets* clang ? 


And do you tell me of a woman's tongue — 
TThat gives not half so great a blow to the ear, 
As will a chesnut in a farmer's fire ? 

See yonder hallowed fane ! the pious work 
Of names once famed, now dubious | or forgot^ 
And buried midst the wreck of things which were ; — 
There lie interred the more illustrious dead. 

2S Im 1/. 

The wind is up : O hark ! how it howls ! Methiuks 

Till now I never heard a sound so dreary ; 

Doors creak, and windows dap, and night's foul bird. 

Rooked in the spire, screams loud ; ^^ the gloomy aisles 

[Black plastered, and hung round with shreds of scutcheons 

And tattered coats of arms, | send back the sound, 

Laden with lieavier airs, from the low vaults, 

The mansions of the dead. 

Again ! the screech-owl shrieks : [ungracious sound ! 

4 ^ ITrSt ^ •^ 

rU hear no more ; it makes one's blood run chUl. 

Ye living flowers fthat skirt the eternal frost ! 

Ye wild goats fsporting round the eagle's nest ! 

^ ^ Or 
Ye eagles, [playmates of the mountain stoiin ! 
r4 ^ 
Ye lightnings, [the dread arrows of the clouds ! 


Ye signs and wonders of the elements ! 

Utter forth o God ! and fill the WUs with praise ! 

SeSad Pr Tr. 

I tell thee Culloden^s dread echoes shall ring 

With the blood-hounds that bark for thy fugitive king ! 


Lo ! [anointed by heaven with vials of wrath | 


Behold where he flies on his desolate path ! 

Now, I in darkness and billows | he sweeps from my sight : 

Rise ! rise ! ye wild tempests and cover his flight ! 

1 2 Pr 

'^ Tis finished. Their thunders are hu^^ed on the moors : 


Culloden is lost and my country deplores ! 

3 tn 

But where is the iron-bound prisoner ?/^ where ? 

For the red-eye of battle is shut [in despair. 

Say mounts he the ocean wave, banished^ forlorn^ 

(Like a limb | from his country | cast | bleeding and torn ? 

in 9 

Ah no ! for a darker departure is near ; 

12 S 

The war-drum is muffled | and black is the bier ; 

fFh A a PI "^ 

His death-bell is tolling ! on mercy ! dispel 

Tr Ex 

Yon sight [that it freezes my spirit to tell ! 

There were no mock mourners [in the trappings of affected woe, — but there 
was one real mourner | who feebly tottered after the corpse. It was ^ the 

aged mother of the deceased. 

4m 9 

Up with my tent ! Here will I lie to-night ; 

1 * 3/. Ex ^ 
But where to-morrow ? Well, no matter where. 

2 Tr 4 Dist 

Methought I heard a voice cry, *' Sleep no more ! 
Macbeth does murder sleep — the innocent sleep — 

TO ^^ 

Sleep, rthat knits up the ravellM sleave of care — 
FThe death of each day's life — fsore labour's bath — 
TBalm of hurt minds— fgreat nature's second course — 
rChief nourisher in life's feast" 

2 » Dist 

Still it cried — " Sleep no more !" [to all the house ; 

310 liJL£RCIS£S. 

*"" GUmmu (tMih monkr^d sleep, aud therefore Cawilor 

5. St./ Tr 

Shall deep no moie — ^Macbeth shall sleep no more." 

J B. Tr 

Etemitj ! thoa pleasing, dreadfid thought ! 

When the poor victmis were bavonetted, [cfinging round the knees of the 
soldierB ! | would mj friend bat I cannot pursue the strain of interro- 

gation ! 

y PL S. UTr. 

** 1 have sorely wept for thee — ay ! William, when there was none near me — 
15 < hup > 2 

even as David wept (or Absalom — for thee, my son ! my son !'* — A long, deep 

groan was the only reply. 

Oh, banish me, my lord, but kill me not ? 

I prythee, daughter, du not make me mad ! 

3 »p. Tr •^ 

I will not trouble thee ! my child, farewell ! 

We^ no more meet, no more see one another ! 

Esp ^ ^ 

But yet thou art my flesh, my blood, my daughter, 

4 Q.e. .^^ 

Or, rather, a disease that^s in my flesh — 

Which I must, ncNids, call mine I thou art O a boil — 

A plague-sore — an embossed carbuncle, 

l^ln my oonrupted blood But Til not chide thee ; 

Let shame oome when it will, I do not call it ; 

Or St 

I do not bid the thunder-bearer strike, 

Nor tell tales of thee to high-judging Jove : 

Meud, when thou canst ; be better — [at thy leisure ! 

What man dare, I dare. 

Approach thou like the rugged Russian bear. 

The arm'd rhinocerous, or the Hyrcan tiger ; 

4 .^ ^ is Or •^ 

Take any 8ha]>c | but that, and my firm nerves 

Shall never tremble ; or be alive again, 


And dare me to the desert with thy sword ; 


If trembling I inhibit thee, protest mc 

5 STr 

The baby of a girl ! Hence I horrible shadow ! 

[4 5 

Unreal I mockery ! hence I hence ! 


I live with bread like you ; feel want, taste grief, 
TV ^ •^ •^ •^ 

Need friends : i subjected thus, I 
How can yon say to me I am a king ? 

ril call thee, Hamlet ! 

King I Father ! Royal Dane ! oh I answer me ! 

Yon see me here, ye Gods, a poor||old man, 
As full of grief as age, wretched in both I 
You think I'll weep ; no, Til not weep : — 

2 e Exp 4 e 

I have full cause of weeping ; but this heart 

Shall burst into a hundred thousand flaws, 
. .^ Fob 2 Exj^ 

Or ere I'll weep — Gods, I shall go mad ! 

3 Sad 

I had a piece of rich sweet pudding on my fork, when Miss Lousia Friendly 

Tr g 

begged to trouble me for part of a pigeon that stood near me. In my haste 

4 r ^sp 

[scarce knowing what I did, | I whipped the pudding into my mouth — ^hot as a 
burning coal I it was impossible to conceal my agony ; my eyes were starting 

2 5 Tr Exp 

from then* sockets I at last, fin spite of shame and resolution, | I was obliged 

Exp Ex 

to ^ drop ^ the cause of my torment on my plate. 


The Author receiveB Pnpils and Boarders for the Erai>ication of 
Stammering and all Impediments of Speech ; and gives Private 
Instructions in Articulation and Delivery, adapted to all departments 
of Pablic Speaking. 

Prospectuses, Cards of Terms, &c. maj be obtained on application at 
13 Hope Street, Charlotte Square, Edinburgh. 

The following Establishments for Elocution and for the Removal of Impediments 
of Speech, are conducted by the Author^s Father and Brother : — 

In London — ^30 Old Bond Street — hj Mr Bell, Sen. 
" Dublin— 33 Lower Abbey Street— by Mr D. C. Bell.